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Yanhui Lu, Qi Bai, Xusong Zheng, Zhongxian Lu
Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organisms against oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of CAT from Chilo suppressalis (CsCAT) and examined the influence of environmental stresses on CsCAT expression and enzyme activity. The cDNA contains a 1659-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 553 amino acids most closely related (90.14%) to Papilio polytes catalases. The CsCAT was expressed in all developmental stages with the highest expression in the fat body, and the CsCAT enzyme activity closely mirrored its observed mRNA expression patterns...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ramesh Attinti, Kirk R Barrett, Rupali Datta, Dibyendu Sarkar
Phytoextraction is a green remediation technology for cleaning contaminated soils. Application of chelating agents increases metal solubility and enhances phytoextraction. Following a successful greenhouse experiment, a panel study under field weather elucidated the efficiency of the chelating agent ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) on phytoextraction of lead (Pb) by vetiver grass, a hyperaccumulator of Pb, and a nonaccumulator fescue grass from residential soils contaminated with Pb-based paint from Baltimore, MD and San Antonio, TX...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
B C L Athapattu, T W L R Thalgaspitiya, U L S Yasaratne, Meththika Vithanage
The objectives were to investigate the potential remedial measures for reverse osmosis (RO) rejected water through constructed wetlands (CWs) with low-cost materials in the media established in chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) prevalent area in Sri Lanka. A pilot-scale surface and subsurface water CWs were established at the Medawachchiya community-based RO water supply unit. Locally available soil, calicut tile and biochar were used in proportions of 81, 16.5 and 2.5% (w/w), respectively, as filter materials in the subsurface...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Negisa Darajeh, Azni Idris, Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi, Abolfazl Nourani, Paul Truong, Shahabaldin Rezania
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used to solve the problems because of their reliable, robust, and salient characteristics in capturing the nonlinear relationships between variables in complex systems. In this study, ANN was applied for modeling of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and biodegradable organic matter (BOD) removal from palm oil mill secondary effluent (POMSE) by vetiver system. The independent variable, including POMSE concentration, vetiver slips density, and removal time, has been considered as input parameters to optimize the network, while the removal percentage of COD and BOD were selected as output...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Henry B Wedler, T Newman, Dean J Tantillo
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to probe the validity of mechanistic proposals for the conversion of isozizanoic acid to 12-norisoziza-5-ene, a reaction that occurs during steam distillation of vetiver oil. While this conversion corresponds overall to a simple decarboxylation, a multistep mechanism involving carbocation intermediates is supported by the computational results.
September 22, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Tanapon Phenrat, Pimpawat Teeratitayangkul, Isarawut Prasertsung, Rattapoohm Parichatprecha, Peerapong Jitsangiam, Narong Chomchalow, Siriwan Wichai
This research evaluated the feasibility of using vetiver plantlets (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) on a floating platform with aeration to degrade phenol (500 mg/L) in illegally dumped industrial wastewater (IDIWW). The IDIWW sample was from the most infamous illegal dumping site at Nong Nae subdistrict, Phanom Sarakham district, Chachoengsao province, Thailand. Laboratory results suggested that phenol degradation by vetiver involves two phases: Phase I, phytopolymerization and phyto-oxidation assisted by root-produced peroxide (H2O2) and peroxidase (POD), followed by phase II, a combination of phase I with enhanced rhizomicrobial degradation...
September 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Aparupa Sengupta, Dibyendu Sarkar, Padmini Das, Saumik Panja, Chinmayi Parikh, Dilrukshi Ramanathan, Susan Bagley, Rupali Datta
Environmental contamination by antibiotics not only perturbs the ecological balance but also poses a risk to human health by promoting the development of multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study focuses on identifying the biochemical pathways associated with tetracycline (TC) transformation/degradation in vetiver grass that has the potential to be used as a biological remediation system in TC-contaminated water sources. A hydroponic experimental setup was used with four initial TC concentrations (0, 5, 35, 75 ppm), and TC uptake was monitored over a 30-day period...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Edenilson Meyer, Diana Marcela Morales Londoño, Rafael Dutra de Armas, Admir José Giachini, Márcio José Rossi, Shantau Camargo Gomes Stoffel, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares
Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) is a fast-growing, high biomass producing plant employed for environmental rehabilitation. The study evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and trace element phytoextracting capabilities of vetiver in a substrate containing coalmine wastes in Southern Brazil. AMF included Acaulospora colombiana, Acaulospora morrowiae, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita, and Rhizophagus clarus. Among those, A. colombiana, G...
February 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Theerawut Phusantisampan, Weeradej Meeinkuirt, Patompong Saengwilai, John Pichtel, Rattanawat Chaiyarat
Soil contamination by cadmium (Cd) poses a serious environmental and public health concern. Phytoremediation, i.e., the use of plants to remove contaminants from soil, has been proposed for treatment of Cd-contaminated ecosystems. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of Vetiveria zizanioides, commonly known as vetiver, to serve as an effective phytoremediation agent. Two ecotypes, i.e., India and Sri Lanka, were grown in greenhouse pots and in the field. Soils were amended with cow manure, pig manure, bat manure, and an organic fertilizer...
October 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Negisa Darajeh, Azni Idris, Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi, Abolfazl Nourani, Paul Truong, Nor Asrina Sairi
While the oil palm industry has been recognized for its contribution towards economic growth and rapid development, it has also contributed to environmental pollution due to the production of huge quantities of by-products from the oil extraction process. A phytoremediation technique (floating Vetiver system) was used to treat Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent (POMSE). A batch study using 40 L treatment tanks was carried out under different conditions and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the treatment process...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Sangeeta Dhawan, Sarika Gunjan, Anirban Pal, Renu Tripathi
In malaria, development of resistance towards artemisinin derivatives has urged the need for new drugs or new drug combinations to tackle the drug resistant malaria. We studied the fresh root extract of Vetiver zizanioides (Linn.) Nash (VET) with a CDRI-CIMAP antimalarial α/β arteether (ART) together for their antimalarial potential. Our results showed additive to synergistic antimalarial activity of VET and ART with sum fractional inhibitory concentrations Σ FICs 1.02 ± 0.24 and 1.12 ± 0.32 for chloroquine sensitive (CQS) and chloroquine resistant (CQR) strain of Plasmodium falciparum (William H...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Shraddha Singh, D P Fulzele, C P Kaushik
Plants have demonstrated a great potential to remove toxic elements from soils and solutions and been successfully used for phytoremediation of important radionuclides. Uptake potential of vetiver plants (V. zizanoides) for the remediation of (239)Pu in hydroponic and soil conditions was studied in the present work. High efficiency of V. zizanoides for the removal of (239)Pu was recorded with 66.2% being removed from the hydroponic solution after 30 days. However, remediation of (239)Pu from soil was limited...
October 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jirod Nararak, Sunaiyana Sathantriphop, Kamal Chauhan, Siripun Tantakom, Amanda L Eiden, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap
Essential oils extracted from 4 different plant species--citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), and vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides)-were investigated for their irritant and repellent activities against Anopheles minimus, using an excito-repellency test system. Pure essential oils were used in absolute ethanol at the concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% (v/v) compared with deet. At the lowest concentration of 0.5%, hairy basil displayed the best irritant and repellent effects against An...
March 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Dania Cheaha, Acharaporn Issuriya, Rodiya Manor, Jackapun Kwangjai, Thitima Rujiralai, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
BACKGROUND: Essential oils (EOs) have been claimed to modulate mental functions though the most of data were obtained from subjective methods of assessment. Direct effects of EO on brain function remained largely to be confirmed with scientific proof. This study aimed to demonstrate quantifiable and reproducible effects of commercial vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) EO inhalation on sleep-waking and electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns in adult male Wistar rats. The experiments were conducted during November 2013 - February 2014...
January 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Carmen Vargas, Javier Pérez-Esteban, Consuelo Escolástico, Alberto Masaguer, Ana Moliner
Phytoremediation of contaminated mine soils requires the use of fast-growing, deep-rooted, high-biomass, and metal-tolerant plants with the application of soil amendments that promote metal uptake by plants. A pot experiment was performed to evaluate the combined use of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) and humic acid for phytoremediation of Cu and Zn in mine soils. Vetiver plants were grown in soil samples collected from two mine sites of Spain mixed with a commercial humic acid derived from leonardite at doses of 0, 2, 10, and 20 g kg(-1)...
July 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Reza Bakhshoodeh, Nadali Alavi, Amir Soltani Mohammadi, Hossein Ghanavati
Composting facility leachate usually contains high concentrations of pollutants including heavy metals that are seriously harmful to the environment and public health. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals removal from Isfahan composting facility (ICF) leachate by a horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFCWs) system. Two horizontal systems were constructed, one planted with vetiver and the other without plant as a control. They both operated at a flow rate of 24 L/day with a 5-day hydraulic retention time (HRT)...
June 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ofer Perl, Anat Arzi, Lee Sela, Lavi Secundo, Yael Holtzman, Perry Samnon, Arie Oksenberg, Noam Sobel, Ilana S Hairston
Most forms of suprathreshold sensory stimulation perturb sleep. In contrast, presentation of pure olfactory or mild trigeminal odorants does not lead to behavioral or physiological arousal. In fact, some odors promote objective and subjective measures of sleep quality in humans and rodents. The brain mechanisms underlying these sleep-protective properties of olfaction remain unclear. Slow oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) are a marker of deep sleep, and K complexes (KCs) are an EEG marker of cortical response to sensory interference...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Venkataramana R Pidatala, Kefeng Li, Dibyendu Sarkar, Wusirika Ramakrishna, Rupali Datta
Lead (Pb) is a major urban pollutant, due to deteriorating lead-based paint in houses built before 1978. Phytoremediation is an inexpensive and effective technique for remediation of Pb-contaminated homes. Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), a noninvasive, fast-growing grass with high biomass, can tolerate and accumulate large quantities of Pb in its tissues. Lead is known to induce phytochelatins and antioxidative enzymes in vetiver; however, the overall impact of Pb stress on metabolic pathways of vetiver is unknown...
March 1, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
S X Sun, Y M Li, Y Zheng, Y Hua, R Datta, Y M Dan, P Lv, D Sarkar
2,4-bis(Isopropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-triazine (prometryn) poses a risk to aquatic environments in several countries, including China, where its use is widespread, particularly due to its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) was tested for its potential for phytoremediation of prometryn. Vetiver grass was grown in hydroponic media in a greenhouse, in the presence of prometryn, with appropriate controls. Plant uptake and removal of prometryn from the media were monitored for a period of 67 days...
April 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mahboobeh Bahraminia, Mehdi Zarei, Abdolmajid Ronaghi, Reza Ghasemi-Fasaei
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in phytoremediation of lead (Pb)-contaminated soil by vetiver grass. Experiment was a factorial arranged in a completely randomized design. Factors included four Pb levels (50, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1)) as Pb (NO3)2, AM fungi at three levels (non mycorrhizal (NM) control, Rhizophagus intraradices, Glomus versiforme). Shoot and root dry weights (SDW and RDW) decreased as Pb levels increased. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased SDW and RDW compared to NM control...
2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
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