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muscle development

Mary K McGahon, José A Fernández, Durga P Dash, Jon McKee, David A Simpson, Alex V Zholos, J Graham McGeown, Tim M Curtis
Purpose: Activation of the transient receptor potential channels, TRPC6, TRPM4, and TRPP1 (PKD2), has been shown to contribute to the myogenic constriction of cerebral arteries. In the present study we sought to determine the potential role of various mechanosensitive TRP channels to myogenic signaling in arterioles of the rat retina. Methods: Rat retinal arterioles were isolated for RT-PCR, Fura-2 Ca2+ microfluorimetry, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and pressure myography studies...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Peter Sandner, Peter Berger, Christoph Zenzmaier
Fibrotic diseases cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and their incidence increases with age. Despite intense research and development efforts, effective and well-tolerated antifibrotic treatments are scarce. Transforming growth factor-β signaling, which is widely considered the most important profibrotic factor, causes a pro-oxidant shift in redox homeostasis and a concomitant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell and organ function in whole-body hemostasis...
October 27, 2016: Gerontology
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Andrew S Powers, Jeffrey Grizzaffi, Richard Ribchester, Gregory A Lnenicka
Studies of synaptic homeostasis during muscle fiber (MF) growth in Drosophila larvae have focused on the regulation of the quantal content of transmitter release. However, early studies in crayfish and frog suggested that regulation of quantal current size may be an integral mechanism in synaptic homeostasis. To examine this further in Drosophila, we compared the electrical properties, miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (minEPSPs) and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (minEPSCs) in different-sized MFs in third-instar larvae and for a single MF during larval growth...
October 25, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
T Georgiev, A Tolekova, R Kalfin, P Hadzhibozheva
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Angiotensin II (AngII) and Arginin-Vasopressin (AVP) on contractility of non-pregnant uterus in diabetic Wistar rats and to explore whether one-week administration of Melatonin (MLT) or Ghrelin (GHR) will change the response of diabetic uterine muscle to AngII and AVP. Uterine horns, prepared by the method of isolated tissues were investigated as well as glycemic profile, blood pressure and body weight. The research of smooth muscle contractions was made by a new method of analysis, characterizing in detail the various phases of the myometrial activity...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
Chris Petucci, Andrew Zelenin, Jeffrey A Culver, Meghan Gabriel, Ken Kirkbride, Terri T Christison, Stephen J Gardell
Organic acids (OAs) serve as metabolites that play pivotal roles in a host of different metabolic and regulatory pathways. The polar nature of many OAs poses a challenge to their measurement using widely-practiced analytical methods. In this study, a targeted metabolomics method was developed using ion chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (IC/MS) to quantitate 28 polar OAs with limits of quantitation ranging from 0.25-50 µM. The inter-day assay precisions ranged from 1-19%, with accuracies ranging from 82 to 115%...
October 26, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Michael A Lee, Naveed Bakh, Gili Bisker, Emery N Brown, Michael S Strano
Cortisol is an important glucocorticoid hormone whose biochemistry influences numerous physiological and pathological processes. Moreover, it is a biomarker of interest for a number of conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder, Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and others. An implantable biosensor capable of real time monitoring of cortisol concentrations in adipose tissue may revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders, as well as provide an invaluable research tool. Toward this end, a mathematical model, informed by the physiological literature, is developed to predict dynamic cortisol concentrations in adipose, muscle, and brain tissues, where a significant number of important processes with cortisol occur...
October 26, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Cécile Mathieu, Jean-Marie Dupret, Fernando Rodrigues Lima
Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is the key enzyme that regulates glycogen mobilization in cells. GP is a complex allosteric enzyme that comprises a family of three isozymes: muscle GP (mGP), liver GP (lGP) and brain GP (bGP). Although the three isozymes display high similarity and catalyze the same reaction, they differ in their sensitivity to the allosteric activator AMP. Moreover, inactivating mutations in mGP and lGP have been known to be associated with glycogen storage diseases (McArdle and Hers disease, respectively)...
October 26, 2016: FEBS Journal
Keir M Balla, Robert J Luallen, Malina A Bakowski, Emily R Troemel
The growth of pathogens is dictated by their interactions with the host environment(1). Obligate intracellular pathogens undergo several cellular decisions as they progress through their life cycles inside host cells(2). We have studied this process for microsporidian species in the genus Nematocida as they grew and developed inside their co-evolved animal host, Caenorhabditis elegans(3-5). We found that microsporidia can restructure multicellular host tissues into a single contiguous multinucleate cell. In particular, we found that all three Nematocida species we studied were able to spread across the cells of C...
August 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Donatella Paola Provvisiero, Claudia Pivonello, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Mariarosaria Negri, Cristina de Angelis, Chiara Simeoli, Rosario Pivonello, Annamaria Colao
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound employed to produce plastics and epoxy resins. It is used as a structural component in polycarbonate beverage bottles and as coating for metal surface in food containers and packaging. The adverse effects of BPA on human health are widely disputed. BPA has been recently associated with a wide variety of medical disorders and, in particular, it was identified as potential endocrine-disrupting compound with diabetogenic action. Most of the clinical observational studies in humans reveal a positive link between BPA exposure, evaluated by the measurement of urinary BPA levels, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
J Pingel, E M Bartels, J B Nielsen
Muscle contractures are common in patients with central motor lesions, but the mechanisms responsible for the development of contractures are still unclear. Increased or decreased neural activation, protracted placement of a joint with the muscle in a short position and muscle atrophy have been suggested to be involved, but none of these mechanisms are sufficient to explain the development of muscle contractures alone. Here we propose that changes in tissue homeostasis in the neuro-muscular-tendon-connective tissue complex is at the heart of the development of contractures, and that an integrated physiological understanding of the interaction between neural, mechanical and metabolic factors, as well as genetic and epigenetic factors, is necessary in order to unravel the mechanisms that result in muscle contractures...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Ying Jin, Huijin Chen, Xiaojian Xu, Yuntao Hu, Changguan Wang, Zhizhong Ma
PURPOSE: To determine the phases of traumatic proliferative vitreoretinopathy after open globe injury by assessing cellular components, extracellular matrix constituents of proliferative vitreoretinopathy membranes, and intraretinal changes over time. METHODS: Twenty-one epiretinal and/or subretinal membrane specimens were obtained from 21 patients with open globe injuries. The patients were divided into Groups A (≤28 days), B (29-120 days), and C (>120 days) according to the interval between injury and vitrectomy...
October 21, 2016: Retina
Edward Taylor, Ivan Yeung, Harald Keller, Bradley G Wouters, Michael Milosevic, David W Hedley, David A Jaffray
Compared to FDG, the signal of (18)F-labelled hypoxia-sensitive tracers in tumours is low. This means that in addition to the presence of hypoxic cells, transport properties contribute significantly to the uptake signal in static PET images. This sensitivity to transport must be minimized in order for static PET to provide a reliable standard for hypoxia quantification. A dynamic compartmental model based on a reaction-diffusion formalism was developed to interpret tracer pharmacokinetics and applied to static images of FAZA in twenty patients with pancreatic cancer...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
I Stefani, M A Asnaghi, J J Cooper-White, S Mantero
Cardiovascular diseases represent a major global health burden, with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Autologous grafts are commonly used to replace damaged or failing blood vessels, however such approaches are hampered by the scarcity of suitable graft tissue, donor site morbidity and poor long-term stability. Tissue engineering has been investigated as a means by which exogenous vessel grafts can be produced, with varying levels of success to date, a result of mismatched mechanical properties of these vessel substitutes and inadequate ex vivo vessel tissue genesis...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Gisela Reinfeldt Engberg, Clara Ibel Chamorro, Agneta Nordenskjöld, Magdalena Fossum
In order to develop autologous tissue engineering of the whole wall in the urinary excretory system, we studied the regenerative capacity of the muscular bladder wall. Smooth muscle cell expansion on minced detrusor muscle in vitro and in vivo with or without urothelial tissue was studied. Porcine minced detrusor muscle and urothelium were cultured in vitro under standard culture conditions for evaluation of the explant technique and in collagen for tissue sectioning and histology. Autografts of minced detrusor muscle with or without minced urothelium were expanded on 3D cylinder moulds by grafting into the subcutaneous fat of the pig abdominal wall...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jung Taek Kim, Hyung Jun Jeong, Soong Joon Lee, Hee Joong Kim, Jeong Joon Yoo
PURPOSE: Atypical femoral fracture (AFF), periprosthetic femoral fracture (PPFF) and femoral nonunion (FNU) are recalcitrant challenges for orthopedic surgeons. Teriparatide (TPTD) had been demonstrated to have anabolic effects on bone in various studies. We postulated that adjuvant TPTD after operation would enhance biologic stimulation for bone formation. We investigated (1) whether the adjuvant TPTD could achieve satisfactory union rate of surgically challenging cases such as displaced AFF, PPFF and FNU; (2) whether the adjuvant TPTD could promote development of abundant callus after surgical fixation; (3) whether the adjuvant TPTD had medically serious adverse effects...
September 2016: Hip Pelvis
Adam M Passman, Jasmine Low, Roslyn London, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker, Atsushi Miyajima, Minoru Tanaka, Helene Strick-Marchand, Gretchen J Darlington, Megan Finch-Edmondson, Scott Ochsner, Cornelia Zhu, James Whelan, Bernard A Callus, George C T Yeoh
Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) can proliferate extensively, are able to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and contribute to liver regeneration. The presence of LPCs, however, often accompanies liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), indicating that they may be a cancer stem cell. Understanding LPC biology and establishing a sensitive, rapid, and reliable method to detect their presence in the liver will assist diagnosis and facilitate monitoring of treatment outcomes in patients with liver pathologies...
2016: Stem Cells International
Andrei C Sposito, José Rocha Faria Neto, Luiz Sergio F de Carvalho, Alberto Lorenzatti, Alberto Cafferata, Gerardo Elikir, Eduardo Esteban, Enrique C Morales Villegas, Luiz Carlos Bodanese, Rodrigo K Alonso, Alvaro J Ruiz Morales, Viviane Z Rocha, Andre A Faludi, Hermes T Xavier, Otávio Rizzi Coelho, Marcelo H Assad, Maria C Izar, Raul D Santos, Francisco A H Fonseca, Alberto Mello E Silva, Pedro Marques da Silva, Marcelo C Bertolami
In the last 2 decades, statin therapy has proved to be the most potent isolated therapy for attenuation of cardiovascular risk. Its frequent use has been appointed as one of the most important elements for the reduction of the cardiovascular mortality in developed countries. However, the recurrent incidence of muscle symptoms in statin users raised the possibility of causal association, leading to disease entity known as statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). Mechanistic studies and clinical trials, specifically designed for the study of SAMS allowed a deeper understanding of the natural history and the accurate incidence...
October 25, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Po-Hao Chen, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chieh-Hsin Lin
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is one of the most severe iatrogenic emergencies in clinical service. The symptoms including sudden consciousness change, critical temperature elevation and electrolytes imbalance followed by mutli-organ system failure were common in NMS. In addition to aggressive interventions with intravenous fluid resuscitation and antipyretics, several antidotes have been suggested to prevent further progression of the muscle damage. Dantrolene has been reported to be one of the most effective treatments for NMS...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Shi Gao, Guohao Wang, Zainen Qin, Xiangyu Wang, Guoqing Zhao, Qingjie Ma, Lei Zhu
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising tumor treatment modality that can convert oxygen into cytotoxic singlet oxygen (SO) via photosensitizer to ablate tumor growth. However, the uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation during tumor development and the oxygen consumption during PDT always result in an insufficient oxygen level in tumors, which can adversely affect the PDT efficiency in turn. We designed an oxygen-generating PDT nanocomplex by encapsulating a manganese dioxide nanoparticle (MnO2 NP) in an indocyanine green (ICG) modified hyaluronic acid nanoparticle (HANP) to overcome this limitation...
October 19, 2016: Biomaterials
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