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Male fertility

Carola Becker, Gerhard Scholtz
Female reproductive systems are important characters for understanding the evolution of Brachyura and resolving its phylogenetic relationships. We herein investigate a podotreme brachyuran reproductive system comprehensively for the first time studying spermathecae and gonopores of Homoloidea with histological methods, micro-computer tomography and scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that spermathecal apertures are species-specific and their shape corresponds closely to that of male copulatory organs...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Morphology
Rafeeque R Alyethodi, Rajib Deb, Rani Alex, Sushil Kumar, Umesh Singh, Shrikant Tyagi, D K Mandal, T V Raja, A K Das, Sheetal Sharma, Gyanendra S Sengar, Rani Singh, B Prakash
Cryopreservation is one of the most important aspects of frozen semen technology and livestock breeding. Uses of candidate molecular markers in selection strategies for male fertility are well recognized. The present investigation targeted two microsatellite markers (BM1500 and UMN 2008) for association with semen quality variables and freezing capacity in Frieswal (HF×Sahiwal) crossbred bulls of Indian origin. Of the different alleles at the polymorphic locus BM1500, the 136bp allele was associated with greater (P<0...
October 11, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Ryan Dean Fortune, Raymond J Grill, Christine Beeton, Mark Tanner, Redwan Huq, David S Loose
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in devastating changes to almost all aspects of a patient's life. In addition to a permanent loss of sensory and motor function, males will also frequently exhibit a profound loss of fertility through poorly understood mechanisms. We demonstrate that SCI causes measureable pathology in the testis both acutely (24 hours) and chronically, up to 1.5 years post injury, leading to loss in sperm motility and viability. SCI has been shown in humans and rats to induce leukocytospermia, with the presence of inflammatory cytokines, anti-sperm antibodies, and reactive oxygen species found within the ejaculate...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Anne-Sophie Voisin, Alexandre Fellous, Ryan L Earley, Frédéric Silvestre
17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is one of the most potent endocrine disrupting compounds found in the aquatic environments, and is known to strongly alter fish reproduction and fitness. While the effects of direct exposure to EE2 are well studied in adults, there is an increasing need to assess the impacts of exposure during early life stages. Sensitivity to pollutants during this critical window can potentially affect the phenotype later in life or in subsequent generations. This study investigated phenotypic outcome of early-life exposure to 17-α-ethinylestradiol during development and in adults of the mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus...
October 4, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Leigh A M Demain, Gerard S Conway, William G Newman
Increasingly, mitochondria are being recognised as having an important role in fertility. Indeed in assisted reproductive technologies mitochondrial function is a key indicator of sperm and oocyte quality. Here, we review the literature regarding mitochondrial genetics and infertility. In many multisystem disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction death occurs prior to sexual maturity, or the clinical features are so severe that infertility may be under-reported. Interestingly, many of the genes linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and infertility have roles in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial translation...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Panagiota Tsounapi, Masashi Honda, Fotios Dimitriadis, Bunya Kawamoto, Katsuya Hikita, Kuniyasu Muraoka, Motoaki Saito, Nikolaos Sofikitis, Atsushi Takenaka
Diabetes mellitus significantly affects the male reproduction and sexual function. In the present study, we investigated the diabetes-induced dysfunction of seminal vesicles (SVs) in the diabetes-rat model and the role of antioxidants. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes after 4 weeks caused smaller size of the organs, hypercontractility, histological abnormalities, increased concentrations of malondialdehyde in the serum and tissue, overexpression of oxidative stress markers, and cleaved caspase-3 as identified by immunohistochemistry in the SVs...
October 14, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
C E Fedorka, K E Scoggin, E L Squires, B A Ball, M H T Troedsson
The seminal plasma protein, cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3), has been correlated with increased fertility and first-cycle conception rates, and has been suggested to be involved in the modulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and phagocytosis of spermatozoa during the inflammatory response to breeding in the horse. Previous research demonstrated that equine CRISP-3 is located in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. However, this was done with nonquantitative laboratory techniques...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Yumei Jiang, Dong Cui, Yuefeng Du, Jun Lu, Lin Yang, Jinmei Li, Jing Zhang, Xiaojing Bai
Chronic prostatitis is a risk factor for impaired male fertility potential, and anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs) cause the autoimmune disease immune infertility, which has a negative effect on semen parameters. Current studies have investigated the ASA-positive relationship between chronic prostatitis versus normal controls, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematic searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up to October 2015 for case-control studies that involved the ASA-positive relationship between chronic prostatitis patients versus normal controls...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Chun-Hong Wu, Qiong Zong, An-Li Du, Wei Zhang, Han-Chao Yao, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Yu-Feng Wang
Dynamitin (Dmn) is a major component of dynactin, a multiprotein complex playing important roles in a variety of intracellular motile events. We previously found that Wolbachia bacterial infection resulted in a reduction of Dmn protein. As Wolbachia may modify sperm in male hosts, we speculate that Dmn may have a function in male fertility. Here we used nosGal4 to drive Dmn knock down in testes of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the functions of Dmn in spermatogenesis. We found that knockdown of Dmn in testes dramatically decreased male fertility, overexpression of Dmn in Wolbachia-infected males significantly rescued male fertility, indicating an important role of Dmn in inducing male fertility defects following Wolbachia infection...
October 11, 2016: Developmental Biology
Olumide Abiodun, Kamil Alausa, Olanrewaju Olasehinde
BACKGROUND: An emerging pattern of increasing median age at first birth among women has been well documented in Western countries. A similar but less remarkable trend is being experienced in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a paucity of information in Sub-Saharan Africa about awareness of age-related fertility decline. The aim of this study was to assess the perception of fertility, childbirth intentions and parenting attitudes among university students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 231 female and 158 male students randomly selected university undergraduates in Nigeria using a self-reported questionnaire...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Yunhui Li, Minhui Zhang, Shaojun Li, Rongrong Lv, Pan Chen, Ran Liu, Geyu Liang, Lihong Yin
There is increasing evidence that epoxiconazole exposure can affect reproductive function, but few studies have investigated adverse effects on spermatogenesis. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used in our study to assess effects of epoxiconazole on spermatogenesis in male nematodes after 48 h of exposure to concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 μg/L. The results demonstrated that epoxiconazole exposure affected spermatogenesis, decreasing the number of total germ cells, mitotic cells, meiotic cells and spermatids, spermatid diameter, and cross-sectional area, and inducing mitotic germ cell proliferation arrest, premature entry into meiosis, and sperm activation inhibition; however, sperm transfer showed no abnormal changes...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xiaojie Yang, Yuanming Zhao, Deyi Xie, Yao Sun, Xunlu Zhu, Nardana Esmaeili, Zuoren Yang, Ye Wang, Guo Yin, Shuping Lv, Lihong Nie, Zhongjie Tang, Fu'an Zhao, Wu Li, Neelam Mishra, Li Sun, Wei Zhu, Weiping Fang
Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the young buds collected from the sporogenous cell formation to the meiosis stage of the male sterile line Yu98-8A and the near-isogenic line...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Robert M Nevels, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Bryman E Williams
Paroxetine, also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin and Brisdelle, was first marketed in the U.S. in 1992. Effective for major depression and various anxiety disorders, it quickly gained a sizable share of the antidepressant prescription market. By the late 1990s, paroxetine frequently was being associated with serious drug interactions and medication side effects. Most significantly, in a major Canadian epidemiological study examining the relationship between antidepressants and diseases, paroxetine was associated with a 620 percent increase in the rate of breast cancer in women who had taken it over a four-year period...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
F W Grimstad, Ajay K Nangia, B Luke, J E Stern, W Mak
STUDY QUESTION: Does ICSI improve outcomes in ART cycles without male factor, specifically in couples with a history of tubal ligation as their infertility diagnosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of ICSI showed no significant improvement in fertilization rate and resulted in lower pregnancy and live birth (LB) rates for women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation and no male factor. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Prior studies have suggested that ICSI use does not improve fertilization, pregnancy or LB rates in couples with non-male factor infertility...
October 13, 2016: Human Reproduction
Rachel Busuttil Leaver
It is estimated that 3.5 million people in the UK, that is one in every seven couples, have fertility problems. In the past, it was assumed that the cause always lay with the woman. However, developments in science brought a greater understanding of the process of sperm production and conception. It is now known that up to 30% of fertility problems may be because of the man alone and up to 90% of these are down to low sperm count or low sperm quality or both. This paper offers a review of the causes and potential factors that affect male fertility together with an overview of diagnosis, investigation and current treatment options for these men...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
F Lotti, G Corona, G Castellini, E Maseroli, M G Fino, M Cozzolino, M Maggi
STUDY QUESTION: Is sexual dysfunction associated with severity of semen quality impairment in men with couple infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: In males of infertile couples the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases as a function of semen quality impairment severity. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infertile men are at a higher risk for sexual dysfunction, psychopathological and general health disorders. However, it has never been systematically investigated if these problems are associated with severity of semen quality impairment...
October 12, 2016: Human Reproduction
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Takashi Umehara, Ikko Kawashima, Tomoko Kawai, Yumi Hoshino, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi, Yuichi Shima, Wenxian Zeng, JoAnne S Richards, Masayuki Shimada
Adult Leydig cells are derived from proliferating stem/progenitor Leydig cells in the infant testis and subsequent differentiation to steroidogenic cells in adult mice. Leydig cell proliferation in the infant testis occurs primarily in response to increased levels of LH that induce Leydig cell expression of neuregulin 1, NRG1. Depletion of NRG1 in Nrg1 mutant mice (Nrg1(flox;flox); Cyp19a1Cre mice) dramatically reduces Leydig cell proliferation in the infant testes leading to reduction of testis weight, epididymial weight and serum testosterone in the adult mutant mice...
October 12, 2016: Endocrinology
Marcio A Torsoni, Beatriz C Borges, Jessica L Cote, Susan J Allen, Erica Mahany, David Garcia-Galiano, Carol F Elias
A temporary and reversible inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is adaptive when energy reserves are diminished, allowing individual survival and energy accumulation for eventual reproduction. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) works as a cellular sensor of the AMP/ATP ratio and ultimately of energy availability. Activation of AMPK suppresses ATP-consuming processes and stimulates ATP-producing pathways. The AMPK α2 catalytic subunit is expressed in multiple hypothalamic nuclei including those associated with reproductive control, i...
October 12, 2016: Endocrinology
Yasir Ahmed-Braimah
Understanding the genetic basis of speciation is a central problem in evolutionary biology. Studies of reproductive isolation have provided several insights into the genetic causes of speciation, especially in taxa that lend themselves to detailed genetic scrutiny. Reproductive barriers have usually been divided into those that occur before zygote formation (prezygotic) and after (postzygotic), with the latter receiving a great deal of attention over several decades. Reproductive barriers that occur after mating but before zygote formation (postmating prezygotic) are especially understudied at the genetic level...
October 11, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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