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ileum biliary

Maryam Rezvani, Christine Menias, Kumaresan Sandrasegaran, Jeffrey D Olpin, Khaled M Elsayes, Akram M Shaaban
Heterotopic pancreas is a congenital anomaly in which pancreatic tissue is anatomically separate from the main gland. The most common locations of this displacement include the upper gastrointestinal tract-specifically, the stomach, duodenum, and proximal jejunum. Less common sites are the esophagus, ileum, Meckel diverticulum, biliary tree, mesentery, and spleen. Uncomplicated heterotopic pancreas is typically asymptomatic, with the lesion being discovered incidentally during an unrelated surgery, during an imaging examination, or at autopsy...
March 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Shihai Cheng, Min Zou, Qinhui Liu, Jiangying Kuang, Jing Shen, Shiyun Pu, Lei Chen, Hong Li, Tong Wu, Rui Li, Yanping Li, Wei Jiang, Zhiyong Zhang, Jinhan He
Cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. Lithogenic hepatic bile secretion precedes the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a member of nuclear family, plays an important role in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. To examine whether activation of CAR can prevent cholesterol gallstone formation, we treated C57BL6/J mice maintained on a lithogenic diet with CAR agonist 1,4-bis-[2-(3, 5-dichlorpyridyloxy)] benzene and performed bile duct cannulation to study the dynamics of biliary lipids...
April 2017: American Journal of Pathology
Vinod S Hegade, David E J Jones, Gideon M Hirschfield
Bile acids (BAs) have gained mainstream attention since the discovery of their key role as signalling molecules in health and disease. The apical sodium-dependent transporter (ASBT) protein located in the terminal ileum plays an important physiological role in the enterohepatic circulation of BAs and therefore essential for the BA homeostasis. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), the 2 most common cholestatic liver diseases are characterised by altered BA flow and BA composition, which contribute to disease progression and symptom (pruritus) development...
2017: Digestive Diseases
E Ray-Offor, S N Elenwo, P O Igwe, C Ngeribara
BACKGROUND: The cystic dilatation of the biliary tract is an uncommon anomaly. Choledochocele, a cystic dilatation of the distal common bile duct, rarely presents clinically as massive gastrointestinal bleeding. AIM: This is to report a very rare disease condition and highlight minimal access options in surgical care. CASE SUMMARY: A 13 year-old boy was referred with a day history of sudden onset of passage of bright red blood per rectum with a fainting episode...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Monika Rau, Bruno Stieger, Maria J Monte, Johannes Schmitt, Daniel Jahn, Isabelle Frey-Wagner, Tina Raselli, Jose J G Marin, Beat Müllhaupt, Gerhard Rogler, Andreas Geier
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15/19 is part of the gut-liver crosstalk accounting for bile acid (BA) metabolism regulation. Dysregulation of fibroblast growth factor 15/19 signaling is observed in different pathological conditions, for example, in gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To understand the molecular bases, we analyzed the enterohepatic regulation of Fgf15-mediated pathway in 2 different inflammatory bowel disease mouse models. METHODS: Target genes of the BA-farnesoid-X-receptor (Fxr)-Ffg15 axis were quantified by RT-PCR or western blotting in gut and liver of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated and IL10 mice...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
T Mahdy, A Al Wahedi, C Schou
INTRODUCTION: The single anastomosis sleeve ileal (SASI) bypass is a Novel Metabolic/Bariatric Surgery operation based on mini gastric bypass operation and Santoro's operation in which a sleeve gastrectomy is followed by a side to side gastro-ileal anastomosis. The purpose of this Study is to report the clinical results of the outcomes of SASI bypass as a therapeutic option for obese T2DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of type 2 diabetic obese patients who underwent SASI bypass at one hospital from March 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014...
October 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Gina Borges, Justin J J van der Hooft, Alan Crozier
Following ingestion of [2-(14)C](-)-epicatechin by rats, radioactivity in urine, feces, body fluids and tissues collected over a 72h period, was measured and (14)C-metabolites were analyzed by HPLC-MS(2) with a radioactivity monitor. In total 78% of the ingested radioactivity was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and then rapidly eliminated from the circulatory system via renal excretion. A peak plasma concentration occurred 1h after intake corresponding to ~0.7% of intake. Low amounts of radioactivity, <2% of intake, appeared transiently in body tissues...
August 3, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Vinod S Hegade, Stuart F W Kendrick, Robert L Dobbins, Sam R Miller, Duncan Richards, James Storey, George Dukes, Kim Gilchrist, Susan Vallow, Graeme J Alexander, Margaret Corrigan, Gideon M Hirschfield, David E J Jones
BACKGROUND: Pruritus (itch) is a symptom commonly experienced by patients with cholestatic liver diseases such as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC, previously referred to as primary biliary cirrhosis). Bile acids (BAs) have been proposed as potential pruritogens in PBC. The ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) protein expressed in the distal ileum plays a key role in the enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Pharmacological inhibition of IBAT with GSK2330672 may reduce BA levels in the systemic circulation and improve pruritus...
July 19, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Olivier Chazouillères
BACKGROUND: There is a great need for risk stratification in patients with chronic cholestatic diseases in order to allow for more personalized care and adapted management as well as for well-designed therapeutic trials. Novel tools for monitoring primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients have been recently proposed. In addition, major insight has been gained into bile acid (BA) physiology during the last decade including the role of BAs as metabolic modulators and the gut-liver axis...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Yongtao Xiao, Weihui Yan, Kejun Zhou, Yi Cao, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of systemic bile acid homeostasis can lead to cholestatic liver diseases and metabolic syndromes. As important anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs, synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to treat several cholestatic disorders, including biliary atresia (BA), because of their effects on the regulation of bile acid metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie GCs regulation of bile acid homeostasis remain unclear. AIMS: To provide a mechanistic basis for the effects of GCs on bile acid homeostasis...
July 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Sara A Mayo, Ye K Song, Melissa R Cruz, Tri M Phan, Kavindra V Singh, Danielle A Garsin, Barbara E Murray, Elizabeth J Dial, Lenard M Lichtenberger
NSAIDuse is limited due to the drugs' toxicity to the gastrointestinal mucosa, an action incompletely understood. Lower gut injury induced byNSAIDs is dependent on bile secretion and is reported to increase the growth of a number of bacterial species, including an enterococcal species,Enterococcus faecalis This study examined the relationships between indomethacin (INDO)-induced intestinal injury/bleeding, small bowel overgrowth (SBO) and dissemination of enterococci, and the contribution of bile secretion to these pathological responses...
March 2016: Physiological Reports
Ana Belén Aláez-Chillarón, Iñaki Moreno-Manso, Francisco José Martín-Vieira, Mohamed Fadel Mojtar, Enrique Pérez-Merino
BACKGROUND: Gallstone ileus is caused by the exit of a gallstone from the gallbladder or bile duct into the small intestine, resulting in bowel obstruction if this stone becomes lodged in a small bowel loop. CLINICAL CASE: The case is presented of a 78 year-old woman with an episode of intestinal obstruction. After studying the main cause of the obstruction, it was decided to perform a laparotomy where a gallstone located in the terminal ileum was causing the obstruction...
January 6, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Lu Wang, Bing Zhao, Ying Chen, Li Ma, Er-Zhen Chen, En-Qiang Mao
AIM: To investigate the effects of biliary tract external drainage (BTED) on intestinal barrier injury in rats with hemorrhagic shock (HS). METHODS: BTED was performed via cannula insertion into the bile duct of rats. HS was induced by drawing blood from the femoral artery at a rate of 1 mL/min until a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 ± 5 mmHg was achieved. That MAP was maintained for 60 min. A total of 99 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a sham group, an HS group and an HS + BTED group...
December 7, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Anna Baghdasaryan, Claudia D Fuchs, Christoph H Österreicher, Ursula J Lemberger, Emina Halilbasic, Ingrid Påhlman, Hans Graffner, Elisabeth Krones, Peter Fickert, Annika Wahlström, Marcus Ståhlman, Gustav Paumgartner, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Michael Trauner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Approximately 95% of bile acids (BAs) excreted into bile are reabsorbed in the gut and circulate back to the liver for further biliary secretion. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of the ileal apical sodium-dependent BA transporter (ASBT/SLC10A2) may protect against BA-mediated cholestatic liver and bile duct injury. METHODS: Eight week old Mdr2(-/-) (Abcb4(-/-)) mice (model of cholestatic liver injury and sclerosing cholangitis) received either a diet supplemented with A4250 (0...
March 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Ewa Wunsch, Marta Klak, Urszula Wasik, Malgorzata Milkiewicz, Malgorzata Blatkiewicz, Elzbieta Urasinska, Olivier Barbier, Dariusz Bielicki, Dimitrios P Bogdanos, Elwyn Elias, Piotr Milkiewicz
BACKGROUND/AIM: Sulphotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1) exerts hepatoprotective effects. Transcription of SULT2A1 gene is induced by pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and can be repressed by miR-378a-5p. We studied the PXR/SULT2A1 axis in chronic cholestatic conditions: primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). MATERIALS/METHODS: Western-blot/PCRs for SULT2A1/PXR were performed in PSC (n = 11), PBC (n = 19), and control liver tissues (n = 19). PXR and SULT2A1 mRNA was analyzed in intestinal tissues from 22 PSC patients...
2015: Journal of Immunology Research
Seema Awasthi, Manoj Saxena, Faiyaz Ahmad, Ashutosh Kumar, Shyamoli Dutta
BACKGROUND: Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is the sixth most common form of extra-pulmonary site of infection after lymphatic, genitourinary, bone and joint, miliary and meningeal TB with a rising incidence in recent years. TB can affect any part of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract including anus, peritoneum and hepato-biliary system. The clinical manifestations of abdominal tuberculosis are non-specific and mimic various GI disorders and cause delay in diagnosis and management. AIM: To evaluate the various clinical, radiological and microbiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis and to define the role of histopathological examination in establishing the diagnosis in resource poor settings and to analyze the compliance and response to anti-tubercular treatment...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Carolien Out, Jay V Patankar, Marcela Doktorova, Marije Boesjes, Trijnie Bos, Sanna de Boer, Rick Havinga, Henk Wolters, Renze Boverhof, Theo H van Dijk, Anna Smoczek, André Bleich, Vinay Sachdev, Dagmar Kratky, Folkert Kuipers, Henkjan J Verkade, Albert K Groen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Regulation of bile acid homeostasis in mammals is a complex process regulated via extensive cross-talk between liver, intestine and intestinal microbiota. Here we studied the effects of gut microbiota on bile acid homeostasis in mice. METHODS: Bile acid homeostasis was assessed in four mouse models. Germfree mice, conventionally-raised mice, Asbt-KO mice and intestinal-specific Gata4-iKO mice were treated with antibiotics (bacitracin, neomycin and vancomycin; 100 mg/kg) for five days and subsequently compared with untreated mice...
September 2015: Journal of Hepatology
Peizhen Song, Cheryl E Rockwell, Julia Yue Cui, Curtis D Klaassen
Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate BA synthesis and transport by the farnesoid X receptor in the liver (FXR-SHP) and intestine (FXR-Fgf15). However, the relative importance of individual BAs in regulating these processes is not known. Therefore, mice were fed various doses of five individual BAs, including cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxoycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in their diets at various concentrations for one week to increase the concentration of one BA in the enterohepatic circulation...
February 15, 2015: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Rita Aldini, Matteo Micucci, Monica Cevenini, Romana Fato, Christian Bergamini, Cristina Nanni, Massimiliano Cont, Cecilia Camborata, Silvia Spinozzi, Marco Montagnani, Giulia Roda, Antonia D'Errico-Grigioni, Francesca Rosini, Aldo Roda, Giuseppe Mazzella, Alberto Chiarini, Roberta Budriesi
Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated...
2014: PloS One
Ming Kong, Longdong Zhu, Li Bai, Xiaohui Zhang, Yu Chen, Shuang Liu, Sujun Zheng, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han, Zhongping Duan
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) or insufficiency is recognized for its association with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), whereas the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Using animal models, we found that vitamin D deficiency promoted the high-fat diet (HFD)-initiated simple steatosis into typical NASH, characterized by elevated hepatic inflammation and fat degeneration. The NASH derived from VDD + HFD was related to poor retention of bile acids in the liver and biliary tree, in line with downregulation of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter (iASBT)...
November 1, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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