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Cancer biomarker

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783093/a-direct-plasma-mirna-assay-for-early-detection-and-histological-classification-of-lung-cancer
#1
Qixin Leng, Yue Wang, Feng Jiang
Cell-free microRNAs in plasma provide circulating biomarkers for lung cancer. Most techniques for analysis of miRNAs require a large plasma volume to purify a sufficient RNA yield followed by complicated downstream processing. Small differences in the multiple procedures often cause large analytical variations and poor diagnostic values of the plasma biomarkers. Here we investigate whether directly quantifying plasma miRNAs without RNA purification could diagnose lung cancer. FirePlex assay was directly applied to 20 μl plasma of 56 lung cancer patients and 28 cancer free controls for quantifying 11 lung tumor-associated miRNAs...
May 17, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782924/emerging-biomarkers-for-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-lung-cancer
#2
REVIEW
George Cyriac, Leena Gandhi
Immune checkpoint inhibition with anti-PD-1 therapy has been notably successful in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and changed standard practice in multiple settings. However, despite some durable benefits seen, the majority of unselected patients with NSCLC fail to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. Patient selection is crucial and will become even more important in the development of combination therapies with immune checkpoint inhibitors. PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has emerged as the most commonly used clinical biomarker of response and overall tumor mutational burden (TMB) is being explored as a clinical biomarker...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782850/histone-deacetylase-1-promotes-glioblastoma-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-via-activation-of-pi3k-akt-and-mek-erk-signaling-pathways
#3
Shun Li, Xiangrong Chen, Lifang Mao, Kashif Rafiq Zahid, Jun Wen, Liu Zhang, Maoying Zhang, Junwei Duan, Jie Duan, Xiaohong Yin, Yuanchuan Wang, Long Zhao, Xiaoping Tang, Xiangyu Wang, Guozheng Xu
Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) plays a crucial role in cancer progression and development. This enzyme has been confirmed to be a key regulator of tumor biology functions, such as tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. However, HDAC1 expression in glioma remains controversial, and its specific function and molecular mechanism in glioblastoma is poorly understood. In this study, our findings demonstrated that protein and mRNA levels of HDAC1 were increased in glioma cell lines and glioma tissues compared to normal glial cell lines and non-neoplastic brain tissues, respectively...
May 18, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782524/leucocytes-telomere-length-and-breast-cancer-risk-susceptibility-a-case-control-study
#4
Sofia Pavanello, Liliana Varesco, Viviana Gismondi, Paolo Bruzzi, Claudia Bolognesi
BACKGROUND: Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL-TL) was proposed as a biomarker of cancer risk. Recent scientific evidence suggested PBL-TL plays a diverse role in different cancers. Inconsistent results were obtained on PBL-TL in relation to breast cancer risk and specifically to the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. The aim of the present case-control study was to analyse the correlation between family history of breast cancer or presence of a BRCA mutation and PBL-TL in the hypothesis that TL is a modifier of cancer risk...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782352/an-update-on-the-management-of-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#5
Limin Gao, Nikola S Natov, Kevin P Daly, Faisal Masud, Sadia Chaudhry, Mark J Sterling, Muhammad W Saif
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a rare and heterogeneous group of neoplasia and differ in their clinical presentation, behavior, and prognosis based on both histological features and cancer stage at the time of diagnosis. Although small-sized tumors can be surgically resected, locally advanced and metastatic tumors confer a poor prognosis. In addition, only limited treatment options are available to the latter group of patients with PNETs, such as hormonal analogs, cytotoxic agents, and targeted therapy...
May 8, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782149/cryptophane-nanoscale-assemblies-expand-129xe-nmr-biosensing
#6
Serge D Zemerov, Benjamin W Roose, Mara L Greenberg, Yanfei Wang, Ivan J Dmochowski
Cryptophane-based biosensors are promising agents for the ultrasensitive detection of biomedically relevant targets via 129Xe NMR. Dynamic light scattering revealed that cryptophanes form water-soluble aggregates of tens-to-hundreds of nanometers in size. Acridine orange fluorescence quenching assays allowed quantitation of aggregation state, with critical concentration rang-ing from 200 to 600 nM, depending on the cryptophane species in solution. Addition of excess carbonic anhydrase (CA) pro-tein target to a benzenesulfonamide-functionalized cryptophane biosensor (C8B) led to C8B disaggregation and produced the expected 1:1 C8B-CA complex...
May 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781825/prognostic-value-of-serum-ca19-9-and-perioperative-ca-125-levels-in-ovarian-clear-cell-carcinoma
#7
Jun Zhu, Long Jiang, Hao Wen, Rui Bi, Xiaohua Wu, Xingzhu Ju
BACKGROUND: There are no effective biomarkers for surveillance in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), and the value of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA-125) is limited. We sought to determine the value of both carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and CA-125 levels postoperatively on the prognosis for OCCC. METHODS: A total of 130 patients with OCCC who were consecutively treated by cytoreduction at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center were reviewed retrospectively...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781548/multi-omics-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer-biomarkers-from-genome-to-the-immunome
#8
Cole Clifford, Natasha Vitkin, Sarah Nersesian, Gillian Reid-Schachter, Julie-Ann Francis, Madhuri Koti
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a lethal gynaecological disease that imposes significant burden on health care and patient quality of life. High-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary (HGSC) is the most prevalent histological type of EOC. A vast majority of HGSC cases are diagnosed at late stages of the disease, limiting the opportunity for clinical intervention and resulting in a 10-year survival rate of <20%. Recent innovations in high-throughput molecular analysis of patient-derived specimens may address these clinical challenges by providing an enhanced understanding of the molecular aetiology of ovarian cancer, in addition to offering several opportunities for rational biomarker and targeted therapy discovery...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781317/combination-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-her2-positive-breast-cancer-current-and-future-prospects
#9
Mariana Brandão, Noam F Pondé, Francesca Poggio, Nuria Kotecki, Mauren Salis, Matteo Lambertini, Evandro de Azambuja
HER2-positive disease is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that has been revolutionized by anti-HER2 directed therapies. Multiple drugs have been developed and are currently in clinical use, including trastuzumab, lapatinib, pertuzumab, T-DM1 and neratinib, alone or combined in "dual HER2-blockade" regimens. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature review was performed regarding the current state and the future of combination regimens containing anti-HER2 agents, focusing on their efficacy, toxicity and cost-effectiveness...
May 21, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780646/incorporating-cystatin-c-to-predict-methotrexate-elimination-in-patients-with-cns-lymphoma-and-suspicious-renal-function
#10
Jason N Barreto, Allison L McClanahan, Andrew D Rule, Carrie A Thompson, Erin Frazee
High-dose methotrexate (MTX; ≥1 g/m2 ) is a renally eliminated and nephrotoxic first-line therapy for central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. Creatinine-based estimation of renal function is the recommended approach to dosing MTX in these cases, but nonrenal determinants of creatinine production and elimination in cancer patients such as malnutrition and cachexia lead to overestimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by this method and a heightened risk for drug toxicity. Serum cystatin C is one of the first readily available, relatively inexpensive, endogenous biomarkers to emerge as a practical adjunct to creatinine for estimation of renal function for drug dosing...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780635/liquid-biopsy-for-lung-cancer-early-detection
#11
REVIEW
Mariacarmela Santarpia, Alessia Liguori, Alessandro D'Aveni, Niki Karachaliou, Maria Gonzalez-Cao, Maria Grazia Daffinà, Chiara Lazzari, Giuseppe Altavilla, Rafael Rosell
Molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have markedly improved the therapeutic management of advanced lung cancer. However, it still remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with disease stage at diagnosis representing the main prognostic factor. Detection of lung cancer at an earlier stage of disease, potentially susceptible of curative resection, can be critical to improve patients survival. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening of high-risk patients has been demonstrated to reduce mortality from lung cancer, but can be also associated with high false-positive rate, thus often resulting in unnecessary interventions for patients...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780634/liquid-biopsy-for-early-stage-lung-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Wenhua Liang, Yi Zhao, Weizhe Huang, Hengrui Liang, Haikang Zeng, Jianxing He
Liquid biopsy, which analyzes biological fluids especially blood specimen to detect and quantify circulating cancer biomarkers, have been rapidly introduced and represents a promising potency in clinical practice of lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Unlike conventional tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy is non-invasive, safe, simple in procedure, and is not influenced by manipulators' skills. Notably, some circulating cancer biomarkers are already detectable in disease with low-burden, making liquid biopsy feasible in detecting early stage lung cancer...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780630/the-role-of-liquid-biopsy-in-predicting-post-operative-recurrence-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Hengrui Liang, Jianbin Huang, Bo Wang, Zhichao Liu, Jianxing He, Wenhua Liang
Background: Radical resection is the cornerstone for patients with early stage of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, fatal disease recurs in about 30-70% of resected cases. The circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is one of the main causes of recurrence of cancer. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is also a potential predictive biomarker of recurrence in patients with early stage NSCLC. A meta-analysis was conducted to identify the prognostic value of the CTCs and ctDNA in predicting the disease recurrence after surgery of NSCLC patients...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780595/early-detection-of-ulcerative-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Yu Zhen, Chengxin Luo, Hu Zhang
Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CACC) is one of the most serious complications of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly in ulcerative colitis (UC); it accounts for approximately 15% of all-causes mortality among IBD patients. Because CACC shows a worse prognosis and higher mortality than sporadic colorectal cancer, early detection is critical. Colonoscopy is primarily recommended for surveillance and several advanced endoscopic imaging techniques are emerging. In addition, recent studies have reported on attempts to develop clinically relevant biomarkers for surveillance using various biosamples, which may become high-performance screening tools in the future, so the best approach and technique for cancer surveillance in long-standing UC patients remain under debate...
May 2018: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780251/wwc3-inhibits-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-lung-cancer-by-activating-hippo-yap-signaling
#15
Qiang Han, Joachim Kremerskothen, Xuyong Lin, Xiupeng Zhang, Xuezhu Rong, Di Zhang, Enhua Wang
Background: Though we recently reported that the WWC3 inhibits the invasiveness and metastasis of lung cancer by activating the Hippo pathway, the impact and underlying mechanisms of this process still remain unclear. Methods: To identify the role of WWC3 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer, we performed immunohistochemistry to detect the expression levels of WWC3 and EMT-related biomarker, and analyzed their correlations in a cohort of 127 patients with NSCLC...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780045/-screening-for-biological-marker-of-dose-optimization-in-cancer-radiotherapy
#16
Tatsuya Ueno, Satoru Monzen, Mitsuru Chiba, Yuki Morino, Yoichiro Hosokawa
PURPOSE AND METHODS: External radiotherapy of target regions using high-energy beams leads to excessive exposure along with individual variation in therapeutic and adverse effects. However, high-precision radiotherapy utilizes 3D-multi detector computed tomography to confirm both target position and administer radiation dose. To install the individual bioinformation in the radiotherapy plan (particularly, radiosensitivity into the target region and/or the around normal tissue), the investigation of biomarkers, which are able to estimate their radiosensitivity was performed...
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779470/ascites-derived-extracellular-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-for-ovarian-cancer
#17
Luděk Záveský, Eva Jandáková, Vít Weinberger, Luboš Minář, Veronika Hanzíková, Daniela Dušková, Lenka Záveská Drábková, Iveta Svobodová, Aleš Hořínek
Ovarian cancer as the most fatal gynecological malignancy is often manifested by excessive fluid accumulation known as ascites or effusion. Ascites-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) may be closely associated with ovarian cancer progression. However, our knowledge of their roles, altered expression, and clinical outcomes remained limited. In this study, large-scale expression profiling of 754 human miRNAs was performed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 384-well TaqMan array human miRNA A and B cards to identify differentially expressed miRNAs between extracellular fraction of the ascitic fluid associated with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and control plasma...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779368/automated-3d-printed-microfluidic-array-for-rapid-nanomaterial-enhanced-detection-of-multiple-proteins
#18
Karteek Kadimisetty, Spundana Malla, Ketki Bhalerao, Islam M Mosa, Snehasis Bhakta, Norman Lee, James F Rusling
We report here the fabrication and validation of a novel 3D printed, automated immunoarray to detect multiple proteins with ultralow detection limits. This low cost, miniature immunoarray employs electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection measured with a CCD camera and employs touch screen control of a micropump to facilitate automated use. The miniaturized array features prefilled reservoirs to deliver sample and reagents to a paper-thin pyrolytic graphite microwell detection chip to complete sandwich immunoassays...
May 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779068/new-insights-into-the-inflamed-tumor-immune-microenvironment-of-gastric-cancer-with-lymphoid-stroma-from-morphology-and-digital-analysis-to-gene-expression
#19
Irene Gullo, Patrícia Oliveira, Maria Athelogou, Gilza Gonçalves, Marta L Pinto, Joana Carvalho, Ana Valente, Hugo Pinheiro, Sara Andrade, Gabriela M Almeida, Ralf Huss, Kakoli Das, Patrick Tan, José C Machado, Carla Oliveira, Fátima Carneiro
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer with lymphoid stroma (GCLS) is characterized by prominent stromal infiltration of T-lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate GCLS biology through analysis of clinicopathological features, EBV infection, microsatellite instability (MSI), immune gene-expression profiling and PD-L1 status in neoplastic cells and tumor immune microenvironment. METHODS: Twenty-four GCLSs were analyzed by RNA in situ hybridization for EBV (EBER), PCR/fragment analysis for MSI, immunohistochemistry (PD-L1, cytokeratin, CD3, CD8), co-immunofluorescence (CK/PD-L1, CD68/PD-L1), NanoString gene-expression assay for immune-related genes and PD-L1 copy number alterations...
May 19, 2018: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779016/integrated-analysis-of-colorectal-cancer-microrna-datasets-identification-of-micrornas-associated-with-tumor-development
#20
Luca Falzone, Letizia Scola, Antonino Zanghì, Antonio Biondi, Antonio Di Cataldo, Massimo Libra, Saverio Candido
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, no effective early diagnostic biomarkers are available for colorectal carcinoma. Therefore, there is a need to discover new molecules able to identify pre-cancerous lesions. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been associated with the onset of specific pathologies, thus the identification of miRNAs associated to colorectal cancer may be used to detect this pathology at early stages. On these bases, the expression levels of miRNAs were analyzed to compare the miRNAs expression levels of colorectal cancer samples and normal tissues in several miRNA datasets...
May 18, 2018: Aging
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