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Fluid regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944702/relationship-between-serum-anti-mullerian-hormone-and-intrafollicular-amh-levels-in-pcos-women
#1
M Stracquadanio, L Ciotta, M A Palumbo
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex disease characterized by various endocrine disorders that are the potential cause of anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Anti-Müllerian hormone expression is suspected to be overexpressed in PCOS granulosa cells. AMH acts as a regulator of folliculogenesis: it is produced by the granulosa cells of follicles from the stage of the primary follicle to the initial formation of the antrum. Serum and intrafollicular AMH levels are elevated in patients with PCOS due to increased number of small follicles and an increased secretion within each of these small follicles...
September 23, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943910/wound-fluids-affect-mir-21-mir-155-and-mir-221-expression-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines-and-this-effect-is-partially-abrogated-by-intraoperative-radiation-therapy-treatment
#2
Karolina Zaleska, Anna Przybyła, Katarzyna Kulcenty, Mateusz Wichtowski, Andrzej Mackiewicz, Wiktoria Suchorska, Dawid Murawa
Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease occurring in women. Conservative breast cancer surgery followed by radiation therapy is currently the standard treatment for this type of cancer. The majority of metastases occur within the scar, which initiated a series of studies. As a result, clinical trials aimed to assess whether localized radiotherapy, as intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), may more effective in inhibiting the formation of local recurrence compared with the standard postoperative whole breast radiotherapy...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942305/role-of-components-of-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-system-in-the-early-stages-of-ovarian-follicular-persistence-in-cattle
#3
F M Rodríguez, N C Gareis, G J Hein, N R Salvetti, A N Amweg, E Huber, A F Stassi, H H Ortega, F Rey
Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is one of the main causes of infertility in dairy cattle. It has been postulated that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system may contribute to follicular persistence and development of COD. The initiation of the IGF response is a result of interactions between IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and IGFBP proteases, mainly pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A). IGFBPs bind IGFs with high affinity and consequently regulate their access to IGF receptors (IGFRs). The aim of this research was to determine variations in components of the IGF system in the ovaries of cows with persistent follicles induced by long-term administration of progesterone...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941142/coordination-accelerated-iron-extraction-enables-fast-biodegradation-of-mesoporous-silica-based-hollow-nanoparticles
#4
Liying Wang, Minfeng Huo, Yu Chen, Jianlin Shi
Biodegradation behavior of inorganic silica-based nanoplatforms is of critical importance in their clinical translations, but still remains a great challenge in achieving this goal by composition regulation of biocompatible silica framework. In the present work, a chemical coordination-accelerated biodegradation strategy to endow hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) with unique coordination-responsive biodegradability, on-demand coordination-responsive drug releasing behavior, and significantly enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy by directly doping iron (Fe) ions into the framework of mesoporous silica is reported...
September 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939209/calcium-and-bone-metabolism-indices
#5
Lu Song
Calcium and inorganic phosphate are of critical importance for many body functions, thus the regulations of their plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by the concerted actions of reabsorption/excretion in the kidney, absorption in the intestines, and exchange from bone, the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) control calcium homeostasis, whereas PTH, 1,25(OH)2D, and bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23) control phosphate homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938623/mifepristone-inhibits-ovarian-cancer-metastasis-by-intervening-in-sdf-1-cxcr4-chemokine-axis
#6
Ning Zheng, Jiahang Chen, Weiqun Liu, Jian Liu, Tao Li, Hongning Chen, Jichuang Wang, Lee Jia
SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling axis determines the proliferative potential and site-specific cancer metastasis. Recent studies suggest involvement of the axis and steroidal hormone in ovarian cancer metastasis. Here we hypothesize that mifepristone (RU486), a well-known progesterone-based abortifacient, might interfere this axis and inhibit ovarian cancer metastasis. Mifepristone at concentrations < IC50 inhibited expression of CXCR4 on cell surface of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 and IGROV-1, and reduced expression of the intracellular CXCR4 protein and its related mRNA activated by SDF-1...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938480/dysregulation-of-the-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-system-by-steroids-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#7
Alice Pierre, Joëlle Taieb, Frank Giton, Michaël Grynberg, Salma Touleimat, Hady El Hachem, Renato Fanchin, Danielle Monniaux, Joëlle Cohen-Tannoudji, Nathalie di Clemente, Chrystèle Racine
Context: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and AMH type II receptor (AMHR2) are overexpressed in granulosa cells (GCs) from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of female infertility. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the regulation of the AMH/AMHR2 system by 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) and estradiol (E2) in GCs from control and PCOS women. Design, Setting, Patients: Experiments were performed on follicular fluids (FF) and GCs from women undergoing in vitro fertilization...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938399/gonadotropin-dependent-neuregulin-1-signaling-regulates-female-rat-ovarian-granulosa-cell-survival
#8
Indrajit Chowdhury, Alicia Branch, Sharifeh Mehrabi, Byron D Ford, Winston E Thompson
Mammalian ovarian follicular development and maturation of an oocyte competent to fertilize and develop into an embryo depends on tightly regulated spatiotemporally orchestrated crosstalk between cell death, survival and differentiation signals through extra- and intra-ovarian signals, as well as on a permissive ovarian follicular microenvironment. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is a member of the EGF-like factor family that mediates its effects by binding to the member of the ErbB family. Our experimental results suggest that gonadotropins promote differential expression of NRG1 and erbB receptors in granulosa cells (GCs), and NRG1 in theca cells during follicular development, and promote NRG1 secretions in the follicular fluid (FF) of rat ovaries...
August 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937414/rheumatoid-arthritis-and-citrullination
#9
Erika Darrah, Felipe Andrade
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated citrullination is a key element that drives the production and maintenance of antibodies to citrullinated proteins, a hallmark in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This article reviews recent literature on the origin of citrullinated antigens in RA. RECENT FINDINGS: The study of synovial fluid from patients with RA has provided important insights into the identity of citrullinated proteins that accumulate in the RA joint (the RA citrullinome) and mechanisms that control their generation...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936736/pathological-effects-of-exosomes-in-mediating-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#10
Esam S B Salem, Guo-Chang Fan
Diabetic subjects are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease, which accounts for 60-80% of diabetes-related mortality. Atherosclerosis is still considered as a leading cause of heart failure in diabetic patients, but it could also be an intrinsic and long-term effect of contractile cardiac cells malfunction, known as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Pathologically, this cardiac dysfunction is manifested by inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, hypertrophy and altered cardiomyocytes metabolism. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of DCM pathophysiology are not clearly understood...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936275/a-bio-inspired-method-for-direct-measurement-of-local-wall-shear-rates-with-micrometer-localization-using-the-multimeric-protein-von-willebrand-factor-as-sensor-molecule
#11
Klaus Bonazza, Bernhard Scheichl, Johannes Frank, Hanspeter Rottensteiner, Gerald Schrenk, Gernot Friedbacher, Peter L Turecek, Friedrich Scheiflinger, Günter Allmaier
Wall shear rates are critical for a broad variety of fluidic phenomena and are taken into account in nearly every experimental or simulation study. Generally, shear rates are not observable directly but rather derived from other parameters such as pressure and flow, often assuming somehow idealized systems. However, there is a biological system which is able to constantly measure the wall shear as a part of a regulatory circuit: The blood circulation system takes advantage of shear rate sensor (protein)molecules (multimeric forms of von Willebrand Factor, VWF), which are dissolved in the blood plasma and dramatically change their conformation under shear conditions...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935638/phagocytosis-of-microparticles-by-alveolar-macrophages-during-acute-lung-injury-requires-mertk
#12
Michael P Mohning, Stacey M Thomas, Lea Barthel, Kara J Mould, Alexandra L McCubbrey, S Courtney Frasch, Donna Bratton, Peter M Henson, William J Janssen
Microparticles are a newly recognized class of mediators in the pathophysiology of lung inflammation and injury, but little is known about the factors that regulate their accumulation and clearance. The primary objective of our study was to determine whether alveolar macrophages engulf microparticles and to elucidate the mechanisms by which this occurs. Alveolar microparticles were quantified in bronchoalveolar fluid of mice with lung injury induced by LPS and hydrochloric acid. Microparticle numbers were greatest at the peak of inflammation and declined as inflammation resolved...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934245/angiopoietin-like-protein-2-regulates-porphyromonas-gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-response-in-human-gingival-epithelial-cells
#13
Tasuku Ohno, Genta Yamamoto, Jun-Ichiro Hayashi, Eisaku Nishida, Hisashi Goto, Yasuyuki Sasaki, Takeshi Kikuchi, Mitsuo Fukuda, Yoshiaki Hasegawa, Makio Mogi, Akio Mitani
Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) maintains tissue homeostasis by inducing inflammation and angiogenesis. It is produced in infiltrating immune cells or resident cells, such as adipocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and tumor cells. We hypothesized that ANGPTL2 might play an important role as a unique mediator in both systemic and periodontal disease. We demonstrated an increased ANGPTL2 concentration in gingival crevicular fluid from chronic periodontitis patients. Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment strongly induced ANGPTL2 mRNA and protein levels in Ca9-22 human gingival epithelial cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933223/genetic-and-histological-alterations-reveal-key-role-of-prostaglandin-synthase-and-cyclooxygenase-1-and-2-in-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-neuroinflammation-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-rats-exposed-to-moderate-fluid-percussion-injury
#14
Hideki Shojo, Cesario V Borlongan, Tadashi Mabuchi
After the initial insult in traumatic brain injury (TBI), secondary neurodegeneration occurs that is intimately associated with neuroinflammation. Prostaglandin (PG) synthases and cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 may contribute to inflammation in the brain. Temporal and spatial expression features of PG and COX1 and 2 following trauma may guide the development of antineuroinflammation strategies. Here, we examined PG synthase signaling and COX1 and 2 gene expression levels and COX-1- and 2-positive cell types and their temporal localization in TBI-induced brain in an effort to reveal their participation in the disease's evolving neuroinflammation...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931591/testing-the-time-of-flight-model-for-flagellar-length-sensing
#15
Hiroaki Ishikawa, Wallace F Marshall
Cilia and flagella are microtubule-based organelles that protrude from the surface of most cells, are important to sense extracellular signals and make a driving force for fluid flow. Maintenance of flagellar length requires an active transport process known as intraflagellar transport (IFT). Recent studies reveal that the amount of IFT injection negatively correlates with the length of flagella. These observations suggest that a length-dependent feedback regulates IFT. However, it is unknown how cells recognize the length of flagella and control IFT...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931548/fluid-replacement-modulates-oxidative-stress-but-not-nitric-oxide-mediated-cutaneous-vasodilation-and-sweating-during-prolonged-exercise-in-the-heat
#16
Brendan D McNeely, Robert D Meade, Naoto Fujii, Andrew J E Seely, Ronald J Sigal, Glen P Kenny
The roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation in regulating cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during prolonged (≥60 min) exercise are currently unclear. Moreover, it remains to be determined whether fluid replacement (FR) modulates the above thermoeffector responses. To investigate, eleven young men completed 90-min of continuous moderate intensity (46% of VO2peak) cycling performed at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production of 600 W (No-FR condition)...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931546/a-new-paradigm-of-sodium-regulation-in-inflammation-and-hypertension
#17
Annet Kirabo
Dysregulation of sodium (Na(+)) balance is a major cause of hypertensive cardiovascular disease. The current dogma is that interstitial Na(+) readily equilibrates with plasma and that renal excretion and reabsorption is sufficient to regulate extracellular fluid volume and control blood pressure. These ideas have been recently challenged by the discovery that Na(+) accumulates in tissues without commensurate volume retention and activates immune cells, leading to hypertension and autoimmune disease. However, objections have been raised to this new paradigm, with some investigators concerned about where and how salt is stored in tissues...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931526/cellubrevin-vesicle-associated-membrane-protein-3-vamp-3-mediated-endocytosis-and-trafficking-regulate-platelet-functions
#18
Meenakshi Banerjee, Smita Joshi, Jinchao Zhang, Carole L Moncman, Shilpi Yadav, Beth A Bouchard, Brian Storrie, Sidney W Whiteheart
Endocytosis is key to fibrinogen (Fg) uptake, trafficking of integrins (αIIbβ3, αvβ3) and purinergic receptors (P2Y1, P2Y12), and thus for normal platelet function. However, the molecular machinery required and possible trafficking routes are still ill-defined. To further identify elements of the platelet endocytic machinery, we examined the role of a vesicle-residing, Soluble N-ethylmaleimide Factor Attachment Protein Receptor (v-SNARE) called Cellubrevin/Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein-3 (VAMP-3) in platelet function...
September 20, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930473/molecular-insights-into-human-serum-albumin-as-a-receptor-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-the-extracellular-region
#19
Tae Su Choi, Hyuck Jin Lee, Jong Yoon Han, Mi Hee Lim, Hugh I Kim
Regulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation by metal ions and proteins is essential for understanding the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Human serum albumin (HSA), a regulator of metal and protein transportation, can modulate metal-Aβ interactions and Aβ aggregation in human fluid; however, the molecular mechanisms for such activities remain unclear. Herein, we report the molecular-level complexation between Zn(II), Cu(II), Aβ, and HSA, which is able to alter the aggregation and cytotoxicity of Aβ peptides and induce their cellular transportation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929768/protein-corona-analysis-of-silver-nanoparticles-links-to-their-cellular-effects
#20
Sabine Juling, Alicia Niedzwiecka, Linda Böhmert, Dajana Lichtenstein, Soeren Selve, Albert Braeuning, Andreas F Thünemann, Eberhard Krause, Alfonso Lampen
The breadth of applications of nanoparticles and the access to food-associated consumer products containing nano-sized materials lead to oral human exposure to such particles. In biological fluids nanoparticles dynamically interact with biomolecules and form a protein corona. Knowledge about the protein corona is of great interest for understanding the molecular effects of particles as well as their fate inside the human body. We used a mass spectrometry-based toxicoproteomics approach to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity of silver nanoparticles and to comprehensively characterize the protein corona formed around silver nanoparticles in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
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