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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544479/drinking-problems-mechanisms-of-macropinosome-formation-and-maturation
#1
REVIEW
Catherine M Buckley, Jason S King
Macropinocytosis is a mechanism for the non-specific bulk uptake and internalisation of extracellular fluid. This plays specific and distinct roles in diverse cell types such as macrophages, dendritic cells and neurons, by allowing cells to sample their environment, extract extracellular nutrients and regulate plasma membrane turnover. Macropinocytosis has recently been implicated in several diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. Uptake by macropinocytosis is also exploited by several intracellular pathogens to gain entry into host cells...
May 24, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544147/short-term-fasting-promotes-insulin-expression-in-rat-hypothalamus
#2
Tamara B Dakic, Tanja V Jevdjovic, Mina I Peric, Ivana M Bjelobaba, Milica B Markelic, Bojana S Milutinovic, Iva V Lakic, Nebojsa I Jasnic, Jelena D Djordjevic, Predrag Z Vujovic
In the hypothalamus, insulin takes on many roles involved in energy homeostasis. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine hypothalamic insulin expression during the initial phase of the metabolic response to fasting. Hypothalamic insulin content was assessed by both radioimmunoassay and western blot. The relative expression of insulin mRNA was examined by q PCR. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the distribution of insulin immunopositivity in the hypothalamus. After six-hour fasting, both glucose and insulin levels were decreased in serum but not in the cerebrospinal fluid...
May 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543431/the-effect-of-substrate-stiffness-on-cancer-cell-volume-homeostasis
#3
Meng Wang, Na Chai, Baoyong Sha, Manyun Guo, Jian Zhuang, Feng Xu, Fei Li
Existing studies on the mechanism of cell volume regulation are mainly relevant to ion channels and osmosis in extracellular fluid. Recently, accumulating evidence has shown that cellular mechanical microenvironment also influences the cell volume. Herein, we investigated the regulation of substrate stiffness on the cell volume homeostasis of MCF-7 cells and their following migration behaviors. We found that cell volume increases with increasing substrate stiffness, which could be affected by blocking the cell membrane anion permeability and dopamine receptor...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542295/therapeutic-benefits-of-phosphodiesterase-4b-inhibition-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Nicole M Wilson, Mark E Gurney, W Dalton Dietrich, Coleen M Atkins
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a deleterious inflammatory response that exacerbates pathology and worsens outcome. This inflammatory response is partially mediated by a reduction in cAMP and a concomitant upregulation of cAMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs) acutely after TBI. The PDE4B subfamily, specifically PDE4B2, has been found to regulate cAMP in inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages and microglia. To determine if PDE4B regulates inflammation and subsequent pathology after TBI, adult male Sprague Dawley rats received sham surgery or moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (2 ± 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540658/overexpression-of-the-dyrk1a-gene-dual-specificity-tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated-kinase-1a-induces-alterations-of-the-serotoninergic-and-dopaminergic-processing-in-murine-brain-tissues
#5
Jacqueline London, Claude Rouch, Linh Chi Bui, Elodie Assayag, Benoit Souchet, Fabrice Daubigney, Hind Medjaoui, Serge Luquet, Christophe Magnan, Jean Maurice Delabar, Julien Dairou, Nathalie Janel
Trisomy 21 (T21) or Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability and affects around 5 million persons worldwide. Neuroanatomical phenotypes associated with T21 include slight reduction of brain size and weight, abnormalities in several brain areas including spines dysgenesis, dendritic morphogenesis, and early neuroanatomical characteristics of Alzheimer's disease. Monoamine neurotransmitters are involved in dendrites development, functioning of synapses, memory consolidation, and their levels measured in the cerebrospinal fluid, blood, or brain areas that are modified in individuals with T21...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539434/estrogens-in-male-physiology
#6
REVIEW
Paul S Cooke, Manjunatha K Nanjappa, CheMyong Ko, Gail S Prins, Rex A Hess
Estrogens have historically been associated with female reproduction, but work over the last two decades established that estrogens and their main nuclear receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) also regulate male reproductive and nonreproductive organs. 17β-Estradiol (E2) is measureable in blood of men and males of other species, but in rete testis fluids, E2 reaches concentrations normally found only in females and in some species nanomolar concentrations of estrone sulfate are found in semen...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537241/-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1-propagates-estrogen-and-fluid-shear-stress-driven-proliferation-and-differentiation-response-in-mc3t3-e1-cells
#7
J Y Li, S G Liu, G N Xiao, M Y Mao, X W Zhang, H Q Sun
Fluid shear stress (FSS) and estrogen exposure positively regulate bone metabolism. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) plays a vital role in FSS-induced osteogenesis. An in vitro experiment with MC3T3-E1 cells combined with microarray analysis aided us in identification of the genes differentially expressed in response to FSS and highlighted the role of FGFR1 in this process. Both estrogen exposure and FSS increase methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) values and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, as well as the levels of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osteocalcin (OCN)...
March 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537228/-current-methods-of-extracellular-dna-methylation-analysis
#8
O E Bryzgunova, P P Laktionov
The discovery of the enormous role methylated cytosine plays in regulating gene expression has led to the development of a variety of techniques for detecting cytosine modification. A majority of these techniques are geared towards analyzing genomic DNA, which is typically available in large quantities. The concentration of cell-free DNAs (cfDNA) extracted from biological fluids including plasma, saliva, tears, or urine is relatively low and their degree of the fragmentation is high. Moreover, for noninvasive diagnostics of cancer, methylation patterns must be studied in minor cancer-specific fractions of DNA molecules substantially diluted by excess unmethylated molecules...
March 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536711/a-target-triggered-proximity-combination-based-fluorescence-sensing-strategy-for-adenosine-detection
#9
Xiaowen Xu, Haiping Wei, Wei Jiang
Adenosine is a potent physiological and pharmacological regulator, and its abnormal level is closely related to disease development. The sensitive and specific detection of adenosine is crucial for health evaluation and disease diagnosis. In this work, a target triggered proximity combination-based fluorescence sensing strategy is developed for the sensitive and specific detection of adenosine. A difunctional probe showing target recognition and signal amplification is designed, by integration of DNA linker-connected split aptamer fragments with a fragment-elongated polymerase/nicking template...
May 24, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534453/serotonin-functioning-and-adolescents-alcohol-use-a-genetically-informed-study-examining-mechanisms-of-risk
#10
Frances L Wang, Laurie Chassin, John E Bates, Danielle Dick, Jennifer E Lansford, Gregory S Pettit, Kenneth A Dodge
The current study used data from two longitudinal samples to test whether self-regulation, depressive symptoms, and aggression/antisociality were mediators in the relation between a polygenic score indexing serotonin (5-HT) functioning and alcohol use in adolescence. The results from an independent genome-wide association study of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid were used to create 5-HT polygenic risk scores. Adolescents and/or parents reported on adolescents' self-regulation (Time 1), depressive symptoms (Time 2), aggression/antisociality (Time 2), and alcohol use (Time 3)...
May 23, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532828/expression-of-apelin-and-apelin-receptor-apj-in-porcine-ovarian-follicles-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-effect-of-apelin-on-steroidogenesis-and-proliferation-through-apj-activation-and-different-signaling-pathways
#11
A Rak, E Drwal, Ch Rame, K Knapczyk-Stwora, M Słomczyńska, J Dupont, E L Gregoraszczuk
Apelin was thought to be an adipocyte-specific hormone, but recent studies indicate a link between apelin and female reproductive function. Using real-time PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA, we demonstrated expression of apelin and its receptor (APJ) in ovarian follicles of different sizes from mature pigs. Apelin concentration in the follicular fluid, and expression of both apelin and APJ, increased with follicular growth; greatest values were found in large follicles. Immunohistochemistry revealed the positive staining for apelin and APJ in membranes of granulosa, than theca cells...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532827/hepatoma-derived-growth-factor-protein-quantification-in-uterine-fluid-gene-expression-in-endometrial-cell-culture-and-effects-on-in%C3%A2-vitro-embryo-development-pregnancy-and-birth
#12
E Gómez, S Carrocera, D Martin, M J Sánchez-Calabuig, A Gutiérrez-Adán, A Murillo, M Muñoz
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is present in the endometrium of cows and other mammals. Recombinant HDGF (rHDGF) improves bovine blastocyst development in vitro. However, specific culture conditions and essential aspects of HDGF uterine physiology are yet unknown. In this work we quantified total HDGF protein in uterine fluid (UF) by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), and analyzed effects of rHDGF on specific embryonic stages with Day-6 bovine embryos cultured in vitro with and without BSA, and on pregnancy viability and calf phenotypes after embryo transfer to recipients...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532603/matrix-replenishing-by-bmscs-is-beneficial-for-osteoarthritic-temporomandiblar-joint-cartilage
#13
Mian Zhang, Hongxu Yang, Lei Lu, Xianghong Wan, Jing Zhang, Hongyun Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Xiaofeng Huang, Guozhi Xiao, Meiqing Wang
OBJECTIVES: The present goal was to explore whether matrix replenishment is the primary requirement for osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. METHODS: Cells isolated from the superficial and deep zone cartilage of a pig temporomandibular joint (TMJ) were exposed to fluid flow shear stress (FFSS). Differences in matrix production and cellular differentiation were detected. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was applied to C57BL/6J female mice. Green fluorescent protein-labelled exogenous bone marrow stromal cells (GFP-BMSCs) were injected weekly into TMJs, starting from 3 weeks of UAC stimulation and continuing for 4-, 8- and 12-weeks...
May 19, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532212/soft-matter-in-lipid-protein-interactions
#14
Michael F Brown
Membrane lipids and cellular water (soft matter) are becoming increasingly recognized as key determinants of protein structure and function. Their influences can be ascribed to modulation of the bilayer properties or to specific binding and allosteric regulation of protein activity. In this review, we first consider hydrophobic matching of the intramembranous proteolipid boundary to explain the conformational changes and oligomeric states of proteins within the bilayer. Alternatively, membranes can be viewed as complex fluids, whose properties are linked to key biological functions...
May 22, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531919/bupleurum-chinense-extract-ameliorates-an-ova-induced-murine-allergic-asthma-through-the-reduction-of-the-th2-and-th17-cytokines-production-by-inactivation-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#15
Thi Tho Bui, Chun Hua Piao, Chang Ho Song, Hee Soon Shin, Ok Hee Chai
Bupleurum chinense belongs to the Bupleurum spp. family that has been used in traditional herbal medicine for over thousand years. It has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-fibrotic and immunomodulatory effect. However, the effect of B. Chinense on allergic asthma remains unclear. This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of B. Chinense extracts (BCE) on airway inflammation in asthmatic mice model. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model, we evaluated the number of total cells, differential inflammatory cells and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung homogenate as well as histological structure...
May 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530642/rasa1-regulates-the-function-of-lymphatic-vessel-valves-in-mice
#16
Philip E Lapinski, Beth A Lubeck, Di Chen, Abbas Doosti, Scott D Zawieja, Michael J Davis, Philip D King
Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM) is a blood and lymphatic vessel (LV) disorder that is caused by inherited inactivating mutations of the RASA1 gene, which encodes p120 RasGAP (RASA1), a negative regulator of the Ras small GTP-binding protein. How RASA1 mutations lead to the LV leakage defects that occur in CM-AVM is not understood. Here, we report that disruption of the Rasa1 gene in adult mice resulted in loss of LV endothelial cells (LECs) specifically from the leaflets of intraluminal valves in collecting LVs...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530170/k-modulates-genetic-competence-and-the-stress-regulon-of-streptococcus-mutans
#17
Gursonika Binepal, Iwona B Wenderska, Paula Crowley, Richard N Besingi, Dilani B Senadheera, L Jeannine Brady, Dennis G Cvitkovitch
Potassium (K+) is the most abundant cation in dental plaque fluid. Previously, we reported the link between K+ transport via Trk2 in Streptococcus mutans and its two critical virulence attributes: acid tolerance and surface adhesion. Herein, we build further on the intimate link between K+ levels and S. mutans biology. High (>25 mM) versus low (≤5 mM) K+ concentrations in the growth medium affected conformational epitopes of cell surface-localized adhesin P1. At low K+, the expression of stress response elements gcrR and codY, cell-adhesion-associated genes such as spaP and metabolism-associated genes such as bglP was induced at stationary phase (P<0...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528375/hypothalamic-signaling-in-body-fluid-homeostasis-and-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Brian J Kinsman, Haley N Nation, Sean D Stocker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The central nervous system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and consequently arterial blood pressure. Key hypothalamic regions sense and integrate neurohumoral signals to subsequently alter intake (thirst and salt appetite) and output (renal excretion via neuroendocrine and autonomic function). Here, we review recent findings that provide new insight into such mechanisms that may represent new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Implementation of cutting edge neuroscience approaches such as opto- and chemogenetics highlight pivotal roles of circumventricular organs to impact body fluid homeostasis...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526374/impact-of-high-dose-vitamin-d3-on-plasma-free-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-and-antimicrobial-peptides-in-critically-ill-mechanically-ventilated-adults
#19
Jenny E Han, Jessica A Alvarez, Jennifer L Jones, Vin Tangpricha, Mona A Brown, Li Hao, Lou Ann S Brown, Greg S Martin, Thomas R Ziegler
OBJECTIVES: High-dose vitamin D3 increases plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in critically ill, ventilated patients; however, to our knowledge, the effect on plasma levels of free (nonprotein-bound) 25(OH)D has not been investigated in critical illness. Moreover, the relationship of free 25(OH)D and the regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains unknown. The aims of this study were to determine in critically ill adults with respiratory failure the effect of previous high-dose regimens of vitamin D3 on free 25(OH)D concentrations, the relationship of free 25(OH)D with circulating cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), and the associations between plasma levels of free 25(OH)D and these AMPs to alveolar macrophage phagocytosis function...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524038/-intervention-effect-of-qingzao-runfei-huazhuo-xingxue-decoction-on-pm2-5-induced-pulmonary-injury-in-mice
#20
Jinbo Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yanxia Chen, Xinlu Wang, Aihua Hou, Lingling Dai
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Qingzao Runfei Huazhuo Xingxue decoction (QRHXD) on inflammatory reaction and histopathology in mice with PM2.5-induced pulmonary injury, and to approach the possible mechanism of prevention and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine on lung injury induced by haze. METHODS: Fifty healthy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10): namely control, PM2.5, PM2.5 + low-, moderate-, and high-dose groups. The PM2...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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