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Fluid regulation

Peter Mancuso, Jeffrey L Curtis, Christine M Freeman, Marc Peters-Golden, Jason B Weinberg, Martin G Myers
Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone produced by white adipose tissue that regulates appetite and many physiologic functions including the immune response to infection. Genetic leptin deficiency in humans and mice impairs host defenses against respiratory tract infections. Since leptin deficiency is associated with obesity and other metabolic abnormalities, we generated mice that lack the leptin receptor (LepRb) in cells of the myeloid linage (LysM-LepRb-KO) to evaluate its impact in lean metabolically normal mice in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Anita Tewari, Jasbir Bedi, Baljit Singh, Jatinder Paul Singh Gill
The deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, is used worldwide and has been linked with several type of acute toxicity. However, effect of low level of deltamethrin alone or in combination with the microbial antigen on pulmonary system is not understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used as antigen which is a key inflammatory component of gram-negative bacteria, which induces a distinctive pattern of cytokine release that regulates inflammation. The aim was to determine whether chronic exposure to a low level of deltamethrin alone or in combination with LPS impair the lung response in adult male Swiss albino mice...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hiroshi Nagano, Yuki Sobue, Hayato Matsuyama, Shoichiro Saito, Hiroki Sakai, Firoj Alom, Yasuyuki Tanahashi, Toshiaki Ishii, Toshihiro Unno
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been suggested to be implicated in arginine-vasopressin secretion because intraventricular muscarinic agonist administration induces arginine-vasopressin release into the circulation. Although which subtype is involved in the regulation of arginine-vasopressin secretion is unclear, M2 receptors have been reported to be highly expressed in the hypothalamus. In the present study, M2 receptor knockout mice were used to elucidate whether M2 receptor regulates arginine-vasopressin synthesis in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
David Clemmons
The IGF binding protein family contains six members that share significant structural homology. Their principal function is to regulate the actions of IGF-I and IGF-II. These proteins are present in plasma and extracellular fluids and regulate access of both IGF-I and II to the type I IGF receptor. Additionally they have functions that are independent of their ability to bind IGFs. Each protein is regulated independently of IGF-I and IGF-II and this provides an important mechanism by which other hormones and physiologic variables can regulate IGF actions indirectly...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Scott A Waldman, Michael Camilleri
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and IBDs are two of the most prevalent disorders of the GI tract and consume a significant proportion of healthcare resources. Recent studies have shown that membrane-bound guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) receptors lining the GI tract may serve as novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of FGIDs and IBDs. GC-C receptor activation by its endogenous paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin, and the resulting intracellular production of its downstream effector cyclic GMP, occurs in a pH-dependent manner and modulates key physiological functions...
March 21, 2018: Gut
Mi-Young Lee, Sung Hoon Kim, Young Sang Oh, Seung-Ho Heo, Kang-Hyun Kim, Hee Dong Chae, Chung-Hoon Kim, Byung Moon Kang
STUDY QUESTION: Does interleukin-32 (IL-32) play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: IL-32 might be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis through increased viability, proliferation and invasion of endometrial cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Endometriosis is characterized as a chronic inflammatory disease and several proinflammatory cytokines are suggested to be involved in its pathogenesis and pathophysiology...
March 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
Xiao Wei, Zongshi Lu, Tao Yang, Peng Gao, Sijiao Chen, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: High salt consumption is a major risk factor for hypertension, and sodium homeostasis is regulated by both intestinal sodium absorption and urinary sodium excretion. Chronic caffeine intake has been reported to attenuate salt-sensitive hypertension by promoting urinary sodium excretion; however, its exact role in intestinal sodium absorption remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether and how chronic caffeine consumption antagonizes salt-sensitive hypertension by inhibiting intestinal sodium absorption...
March 16, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Yihui Zhai, Hong Xu, Qian Shen, Franz Schaefer, Claus P Schmitt, Jing Chen, Haimei Liu, Jialu Liu, Jiaojiao Liu
BACKGROUND: Bicarbonate-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids enhance the migratory capacity and damage-repair ability of human peritoneal mesothelial cells by upregulating AQP1. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. RESULTS: Here we used HEK-293T cells to investigate the effect of pH on AQP1 gene transcription levels. We found that AQP1 mRNA levels increases with pH. Transfection of HEK-293T cells with luciferase reporter vectors containing different regions of the AQP1 promoter identified an upstream region in the AQP1 gene between - 2200 and - 2300 bp as an enhancer required for pH-mediated regulation of AQP1 expression...
March 20, 2018: BMC Molecular Biology
Megan Grabenauer, Katherine N Moore, Nichole D Bynum, Robert M White, John M Mitchell, Eugene D Hayes, Ronald Flegel
Recent advances in analytical capabilities allowing for the identification and quantification of drugs and metabolites in small volumes at low concentrations have made oral fluid a viable matrix for drug testing. Oral fluid is an attractive matrix option due to its relative ease of collection, reduced privacy concerns for observed collections and difficulty to adulterate. The work presented here details the development and validation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the quantification of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone and oxymorphone in neat oral fluid...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Viktor Tomilin, Gail A Reif, Oleg Zaika, Darren P Wallace, Oleh Pochynyuk
Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a devastating disorder that is characterized by a progressive decline in renal function as a result of the development of fluid-filled cysts. Defective flow-mediated [Ca2+ ]i responses and disrupted [Ca2+ ]i homeostasis have been repeatedly associated with cyst progression in ADPKD. We have previously demonstrated that the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) channel is imperative for flow-mediated [Ca2+ ]i responses in murine distal renal tubule cells...
March 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Lixia Fu, Jing Guan, Yujia Zhang, Pei Ma, Yuanyuan Zhuang, Jinye Bai, Yasi Ding, Qi Hou, Wan Gong, Mingbao Lin, Wensheng Zheng, Jianmin Zhang
Background: Tulobuterol patch, one of strongest bronchodilators, was recently shown to improve bronchial hyperresponsiveness and significantly decrease the sputum eosinophil counts by combining with nonspecific anti-inflammatory drugs on patients with asthma. However, there is limited study on the anti-inflammatory activities of tulobuterol patch and its potential machenism. Results: The tulobuterol patch significantly ameliorated inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue, reduced the number of total leukocytes and its differential count, markedly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-11 and IL-4 in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid, as well as a reduction in IL-4/IFN-γ ratio...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Álvaro Sebastián-Serrano, Laura de Diego-García, David C Henshall, Tobías Engel, Miguel Díaz-Hernández
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare heritable metabolic bone disease caused by hypomorphic mutations in the ALPL (in human) or Akp2 (in mouse) gene, encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) enzyme. In addition to skeletal and dental malformations, severe forms of HPP are also characterized by the presence of spontaneous seizures. Initially, these seizures were attributed to an impairment of GABAergic neurotransmission caused by altered vitamin B6 metabolism. However, recent work by our group using knockout mice null for TNAP (TNAP-/-), a well-described model of infantile HPP, has revealed a deregulation of purinergic signaling contributing to the seizure phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Siddharth Mallapragada, Ananya Wadhwa, Pallavi Agrawal
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are biological molecules bridging the innate and acquired immune systems of the defense mechanism. They have been found to be effective against not only Gram-positive and -negative bacterial species but also fungi and viruses with their broad spectrum of activity. Among the various niches where they are found in the human body, in the oral cavity, the AMPs are secreted by the epithelial cells, defense cells, crevicular fluid, and in the salivary secretions and form the first line of defense against bacterial invasion...
November 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Alyssa K Carlson, Rachel A Rawle, Erik Adams, Mark C Greenwood, Brian Bothner, Ronald K June
Osteoarthritis affects over 250 million individuals worldwide. Currently, there are no options for early diagnosis of osteoarthritis, demonstrating the need for biomarker discovery. To find biomarkers of osteoarthritis in human synovial fluid, we used high performance liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry for global metabolomic profiling. Metabolites were extracted from human osteoarthritic (n = 5), rheumatoid arthritic (n = 3), and healthy (n = 5) synovial fluid, and a total of 1233 metabolites were detected...
March 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Midori Edamatsu, Yasuhiro Kondo, Motonori Ando
The cochlear stria vascularis produces endolymph and thereby plays an active role in inner ear homeostasis. We recently reported that the H+ /myo-inositol cotransporter (HMIT) gene is expressed in the stria vascularis. Here, we examined the protein localization of HMIT and Na+ /myo-inositol cotransporter 1 (SMIT1) in the stria vascularis by immunohistochemistry. HMIT and SMIT1 were detected in the lateral wall of the cochlear duct. HMIT was widely detected throughout the stria vascularis, while SMIT1 was enriched in the strial basal cells...
March 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Marta Aleksandrowicz, Ewa Kozniewska
Vasopressin (arginine vasopressin, AVP) plays a crucial role in maintaining body fluid homeostasis. Excessive release of vasopressin can lead to hyponatremia. Changes in cerebral circulation during vasopressin-induced chronic hyponatremia are not elucidated. The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of chronic vasopressin-induced hyponatremia on the regulation of the tone of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of the rat. Chronic hyponatremia was induced in vivo with the help of vasopressin, released continuously from subcutaneously implanted ALZET mini-osmotic pumps, and a liquid diet...
March 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Cassiano R A F Diniz, Plinio C Casarotto, Senem M Fred, Caroline Biojone, Eero Castrén, Sâmia R L Joca
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with peripheral fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular function, but recent evidence also suggests a functional role in the brain. RAS regulates physiological and behavioral parameters related to the stress response, including depressive symptoms. Apparently, RAS can modulate levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TRKB, which are important in the neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. However, the interaction between the BDNF/TRKB system and RAS in depression has not been investigated before...
March 14, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Zacharias Kontarakis, Andrea Rossi, Sophie Ramas, Michael T Dellinger, Didier Y R Stainier
Organ homeostasis relies upon cellular and molecular processes that restore tissue structure and function in a timely fashion. Lymphatic vessels help maintain fluid equilibrium by returning interstitial fluid that evades venous uptake back to the circulation. Despite its important role in tissue homeostasis, cancer metastasis, and close developmental origins with the blood vasculature, the number of molecular players known to control lymphatic system development is relatively low. Here we show, using genetic approaches in zebrafish and mice, that the endothelial specific microRNA mir-126, previously implicated in vascular integrity, regulates lymphatic development...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
Jianjun Chang, Yan Ding, Zhiyu Zhou, Hong-Guang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Transepithelial fluid and salt re-absorption in epithelial tissues play an important role in fluid and salt homeostasis. In absorptive epithelium, fluid and salt flux is controlled by machinery mainly composed of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE), aquaporin, and sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase). Dysregulation of fluid and salt transport across epithelium contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as pulmonary edema and cystic fibrosis...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kara Pham, Emma Turian, Kai Liu, Shuwang Li, John Lowengrub
We consider the nonlinear dynamics of an avascular tumor at the tissue scale using a two-fluid flow Stokes model, where the viscosity of the tumor and host microenvironment may be different. The viscosities reflect the combined properties of cell and extracellular matrix mixtures. We perform a linear morphological stability analysis of the tumors, and we investigate the role of nonlinearity using boundary-integral simulations in two dimensions. The tumor is non-necrotic, although cell death may occur through apoptosis...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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