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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214650/2-methoxyestradiol-protects-against-igg-immune-complex-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-blocking-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-activities
#1
Chunguang Yan, Yanfei Shen, Qiqing Sun, Dong Yuan, Huifang Tang, Hongwei Gao
Increasing evidences indicate that 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) plays an essential role in protecting against inflammatory responses. However, its effect on IgG immune complex (IC)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains enigmatic. In the study, by using i.p. administration of 2ME2, we evaluated its influence on IgG IC-induced pulmonary injury in mice. We found that during IgG IC-induced ALI, mice treated by 2ME2 displayed a substantial decrease in vascular permeability and neutrophil influx (represented by myeloperoxidase activity) when compared with their counterparts receiving vehicle treatment...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214543/theoretical-structural-characterization-of-lymphoguanylin-a-potential-candidate-for-the-development-of-drugs-to-treat-gastrointestinal-disorders
#2
Állan S Pires, William F Porto, Pryscilla O Castro, Octavio L Franco, Sérgio A Alencar
Guanylin peptides (GPs) are small cysteine-rich peptide hormones involved in salt absorption, regulation of fluids and electrolyte homeostasis. This family presents four members: guanylin (GN), uroguanylin (UGN), lymphoguanylin (LGN) and renoguanylin (RGN). GPs have been used as templates for the development of drugs for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Currently, LGN is the only GP with just one disulfide bridge, making it a remarkable member of this family and a potential drug template; however, there is no structural information about this peptide...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213128/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-human-testis-reveals-system-wide-molecular-and-cellular-pathways-associated-with-non-obstructive-azoospermia
#3
Mehdi Alikhani, Mehdi Mirzaei, Marjan Sabbaghian, Pouria Parsamatin, Razieh Karamzadeh, Samane Adib, Niloofar Sodeifi, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Masoud Zabet-Moghaddam, Lindsay Parker, Yunqi Wo, Vivek Gupta, Paul A Haynes, Hamid Gourabi, Hossein Baharvand, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
: Male infertility accounts for half of the infertility problems experienced by couples. Azoospermia, having no measurable level of sperm in seminal fluid, is one of the known conditions resulting in male infertility. In order to elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms causing male azoospermia, label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics was carried out on testicular tissue specimens from patients with obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia, including maturation arrest (MA) and Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210225/increased-apoptosis-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-mediated-by-at1r-ras-erk1-2-signaling-results-in-sympathetic-hyperactivity-and-renovascular-hypertension-in-rats-after-kidney-injury
#4
Hongguo Zhu, Lishan Tan, Yumin Li, Jiawen Li, Minzi Qiu, Lanying Li, Mengbi Zhang, Min Liang, Aiqing Li
Background: The central nervous system plays a vital role in the development of hypertension, but the molecular regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore signaling in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) which might contribute to renal hypertension. Methods: Renal hypertension model was established by five-sixth nephrectomy operation (5/6Nx) in male Sprague Dawley rats. Ten weeks afterwards, they were random assigned to no treatment, or intracerebroventricular injection (ICV) with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, losartan [angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) antagonist], farnesylthiosalicylic acid (Ras inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), or SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and Z-DEVD-FMK (caspase-3 inhibitor)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209916/diabetic-concentrations-of-metformin-inhibit-platelet-mediated-ovarian-cancer-cell-progression
#5
Rafaela Erices, Sofía Cubillos, Raúl Aravena, Felice Santoro, Monica Marquez, Renan Orellana, Carolina Ramírez, Pamela González, Patricia Fuenzalida, María Loreto Bravo, Bárbara Oliva, Sumie Kato, Carolina Ibañez, Jorge Brañes, Erasmo Bravo, Catalina Alonso, Karen García, Clemente Arab, Vicente A Torres, Alejandro S Godoy, Jaime Pereira, Galdo Bustos, Julio Cesar Cardenas, Mauricio A Cuello, Gareth I Owen
Clinical studies have suggested a survival benefit in ovarian cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking metformin, however the mechanism by which diabetic concentrations of metformin could deliver this effect is still poorly understood. Platelets not only represent an important reservoir of growth factors and angiogenic regulators, they are also known to participate in the tumor microenvironment implicated in tumor growth and dissemination. Herein, we investigated if diabetic concentrations of metformin could impinge upon the previously reported observation that platelet induces an increase in the tube forming capacity of endothelial cells (angiogenesis) and upon ovarian cancer cell aggressiveness...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208271/cation-dependent-surface-charge-regulation-in-gated-nanofluidic-devices
#6
Marie Fuest, Kaushik K Rangharajan, Caitlin Boone, A T Conlisk, Shaurya Prakash
Surface charge governs nanoscale aqueous electrolyte transport, both in engineered analytical systems and in biological entities such as ion channels and ion pumps as a function of ion type and concentration. Embedded electrodes in a nanofluidic channel, isolated from the fluid in the channel by a dielectric layer, act as active, tunable gates to systematically modify local surface charge density at the interface between the nanochannel surface and the aqueous electrolyte solution, causing significant changes in measured nanochannel conductance...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205588/hypoxia-induced-angiotensin-ii-by-the-lactate-chymase-dependent-mechanism-mediates-radioresistance-of-hypoxic-tumor-cells
#7
Guozhu Xie, Ying Liu, Qiwei Yao, Rong Zheng, Lanfang Zhang, Jie Lin, Zhaoze Guo, Shasha Du, Chen Ren, Quan Yuan, Yawei Yuan
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a principal determinant of arterial blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance. RAS component dysregulation was recently found in some malignancies and correlated with poor patient outcomes. However, the exact mechanism of local RAS activation in tumors is still unclear. Here, we find that the local angiotensin II predominantly exists in the hypoxic regions of tumor formed by nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, where these tumor cells autocrinely produce angiotensin II by a chymase-dependent rather than an angiotensin converting enzyme-dependent mechanism...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205587/nickel-biopathways-in-tropical-nickel-hyperaccumulating-trees-from-sabah-malaysia
#8
Antony van der Ent, Damien L Callahan, Barry N Noller, Jolanta Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Wojciech J Przybylowicz, Alban Barnabas, Hugh H Harris
The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202730/liquid-behavior-of-cross-linked-actin-bundles
#9
Kimberly L Weirich, Shiladitya Banerjee, Kinjal Dasbiswas, Thomas A Witten, Suriyanarayanan Vaikuntanathan, Margaret L Gardel
The actin cytoskeleton is a critical regulator of cytoplasmic architecture and mechanics, essential in a myriad of physiological processes. Here we demonstrate a liquid phase of actin filaments in the presence of the physiological cross-linker, filamin. Filamin condenses short actin filaments into spindle-shaped droplets, or tactoids, with shape dynamics consistent with a continuum model of anisotropic liquids. We find that cross-linker density controls the droplet shape and deformation timescales, consistent with a variable interfacial tension and viscosity...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202646/mussel-adhesion-essential-footwork
#10
REVIEW
J Herbert Waite
Robust adhesion to wet, salt-encrusted, corroded and slimy surfaces has been an essential adaptation in the life histories of sessile marine organisms for hundreds of millions of years, but it remains a major impasse for technology. Mussel adhesion has served as one of many model systems providing a fundamental understanding of what is required for attachment to wet surfaces. Most polymer engineers have focused on the use of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (Dopa), a peculiar but abundant catecholic amino acid in mussel adhesive proteins...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202124/-effect-of-heat-shock-factor-1-on-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-airway-inflammation-in-mice-with-allergic-asthma
#11
Jing Wang, Li-Hong Xin, Wei Cheng, Zhen Wang, Wen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) on airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in mice with asthma and possible mechanisms. METHODS: A total of 36 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, asthma, HSF1 small interfering RNA negative control (siHSF1-NC), and siHSF1 intervention (n=9 each). Ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge were performed to induce asthma in the latter three groups. The mice in the siHSF1-NC and siHSF1 groups were treated with siHSF1-NC and siHSF1, respectively...
February 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199901/cd44-deficiency-enhanced-streptococcus-equi-ssp-zooepidemicus-dissemination-and-inflammation-response-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Qiang Fu, Pingping Xiao, Yaosheng Chen, Zigong Wei, Xiaohong Liu
Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is responsible for peritonitis, septicemia, meningitis, arthritis and several other serious diseases in various species. Recent studies have demonstrated that CD44 is implicated in the process of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study, the role of CD44 in the host response to S. zooepidemicus infection was investigated in a mouse model. Upon intraperitoneal infection with S. zooepidemicus, the expression of CD44 on the peritoneal exudate cells from wild-type (WT) mice was increased...
February 9, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199362/flowtaxis-of-osteoblast-migration-under-fluid-shear-and-the-effect-of-rhoa-kinase-silencing
#13
Brandon D Riehl, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Il Keun Kwon, Jung Yul Lim
Despite the important role of mechanical signals in bone remodeling, relatively little is known about how fluid shear affects osteoblastic cell migration behavior. Here we demonstrated that MC3T3-E1 osteoblast migration could be activated by physiologically-relevant levels of fluid shear in a shear stress-dependent manner. Interestingly, shear-sensitive osteoblast migration behavior was prominent only during the initial period after the onset of the steady flow (for about 30 min), exhibiting shear stress-dependent migration speed, displacement, arrest coefficient, and motility coefficient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199326/a-mathematical-model-of-calcium-dynamics-in-hsy-cells
#14
Jung Min Han, Akihiko Tanimura, Vivien Kirk, James Sneyd
Saliva is an essential part of activities such as speaking, masticating and swallowing. Enzymes in salivary fluid protect teeth and gums from infectious diseases, and also initiate the digestion process. Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) plays a critical role in saliva secretion and regulation. Experimental measurements of Ca2+ and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) concentrations in HSY cells, a human salivary duct cell line, show that when the cells are stimulated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or carbachol (CCh), they exhibit coupled oscillations with Ca2+ spike peaks preceding IP3 spike peaks...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199196/danshen-extract-regulates-the-expression-of-aquaporin-3-in-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells
#15
Wenwen Zhang, Yiwen Zhang, Xiaoli Hu, Huihui Cheng, Ying Hua, Xueqiong Zhu
Danshen extract has been used in the treatment of oligohydramnios, however, the mechanism of its action has not been elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that down-regulation of AQP3 in fetal membranes may contribute to the development of oligohydramnios. In this study, we investigated the effects of Danshen extract on AQP3 expression in human amniotic epithelial cells from term pregnancies with oligohydramnios or those with those with (those with) normovolemic amniotic fluid. Human amniotic epithelial cells from the oligohydramnios group expressed a lower level of AQP3 mRNA and protein than those with normovolemia...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197139/let-s-tie-the-knot-marriage-of-complement-and-adaptive-immunity-in-pathogen-evasion-for-better-or-worse
#16
REVIEW
Kaila M Bennett, Suzan H M Rooijakkers, Ronald D Gorham
The complement system is typically regarded as an effector arm of innate immunity, leading to recognition and killing of microbial invaders in body fluids. Consequently, pathogens have engaged in an arms race, evolving molecules that can interfere with proper complement responses. However, complement is no longer viewed as an isolated system, and links with other immune mechanisms are continually being discovered. Complement forms an important bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. While its roles in innate immunity are well-documented, its function in adaptive immunity is less characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194319/candidate-genes-that-have-facilitated-freshwater-adaptation-by-palaemonid-prawns-in-the-genus-macrobrachium-identification-and-expression-validation-in-a-model-species-m-koombooloomba
#17
Md Lifat Rahi, Shorash Amin, Peter B Mather, David A Hurwood
BACKGROUND: The endemic Australian freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium koombooloomba, provides a model for exploring genes involved with freshwater adaptation because it is one of the relatively few Macrobrachium species that can complete its entire life cycle in freshwater. METHODS: The present study was conducted to identify potential candidate genes that are likely to contribute to effective freshwater adaptation by M. koombooloomba using a transcriptomics approach...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191841/pressure-profile-for-an-associating-lennard-jones-fluid-confined-in-a-spherical-cavity
#18
Li-Yuan Wang, Fang Gu, Hai-Jun Wang, Zong-Li Sun
Pressure tensor of an associating Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid confined in spherical cavity of hard wall is derived, where a high-order density correlation has been involved. To give the two-body association potential for calculating the pressure tensor, an angle-average of site-site attraction over all orientations of two particles is performed. Furthermore, the classical density functional theory is employed to obtain density profile of the fluid under consideration. To show the dependence of pressure tensor on association strength, functionality, dimension of the cavity and bulk fluid density, the normal and tangential pressure profiles are presented under various conditions...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190728/juvenile-hormone-suppresses-resistance-to-infection-in-mated-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Robin A Schwenke, Brian P Lazzaro
Hormonal signaling provides metazoans with the ability to regulate development, growth, metabolism, immune defense, and reproduction in response to internal and external stimuli. The use of hormones as central regulators of physiology makes them prime candidates for mediating allocation of resources to competing biological functions (i.e., hormonal pleiotropy) [1]. In animals, reproductive effort often results in weaker immune responses (e.g., [2-4]), and this reduction is sometimes linked to hormone signaling (see [5-7])...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190443/neurologic-manifestations-of-major-electrolyte-abnormalities
#20
M Diringer
The brain operates in an extraordinarily intricate environment which demands precise regulation of electrolytes. Tight control over their concentrations and gradients across cellular compartments is essential and when these relationships are disturbed neurologic manifestations may develop. Perturbations of sodium are the electrolyte disturbances that most often lead to neurologic manifestations. Alterations in extracellular fluid sodium concentrations produce water shifts that lead to brain swelling or shrinkage...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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