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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227438/poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-hydrogel-based-shape-adjustable-polyimide-films-triggered-by-near-human-body-temperature
#1
Huanqing Cui, Xuemin Du, Juan Wang, Tianhong Tang, Tianzhun Wu, Huanqing Cui, Xuemin Du, Juan Wang, Tianhong Tang, Tianzhun Wu, Huanqing Cui, Tianzhun Wu, Xuemin Du, Tianhong Tang, Juan Wang
Hydrogel-based shape-adjustable films were successfully fabricated via grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) onto one side of polyimide (PI) films. The prepared PI-g-PNIPAM films exhibited rapid, reversible, and repeatable bending/unbending property by heating to near-human-body temperature (37 °C) or cooling to 25 °C. The excellent property of PI-g-PNIPAM films resulted from a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM at about 32 °C. Varying the thickness of PNIPAM hydrogel layer regulated the thermo-responsive shape bending degree and response speed of PI-g-PNIPAM films...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225022/core-shell-nanoparticle-arrays-double-the-strength-of-steel
#2
J-B Seol, S-H Na, B Gault, J-E Kim, J-C Han, C-G Park, D Raabe
Manipulating structure, defects and composition of a material at the atomic scale for enhancing its physical or mechanical properties is referred to as nanostructuring. Here, by combining advanced microscopy techniques, we unveil how formation of highly regular nano-arrays of nanoparticles doubles the strength of an Fe-based alloy, doped with Ti, Mo, and V, from 500 MPa to 1 GPa, upon prolonged heat treatment. The nanoparticles form at moving heterophase interfaces during cooling from the high-temperature face-centered cubic austenite to the body-centered cubic ferrite phase...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215136/protocol-and-statistical-analysis-plan-for-the-randomised-evaluation-of-active-control-of-temperature-versus-ordinary-temperature-management-reactor-trial
#3
Paul J Young, Michael J Bailey, Richard W Beasley, Ross C Freebairn, Naomi E Hammond, Frank M P van Haren, Meg L Harward, Seton J Henderson, Diane M Mackle, Colin J McArthur, Shay P McGuinness, John A Myburgh, Manoj K Saxena, Anne Turner, Steve A R Webb, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: Body temperature can be reduced in febrile patients in the intensive care unit using medicines and physical cooling devices, but it is not known whether systematically preventing and treating fever reduces body temperature compared with standard care. OBJECTIVE: To describe the study protocol and statistical analysis plan for the Randomised Evaluation of Active Control of Temperature versus Ordinary Temperature Management (REACTOR) trial. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Protocol for a phase II, multicentre trial to be conducted in Australian and New Zealand ICUs admitting adult patients...
March 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211726/realization-of-translational-symmetry-in-trapped-cold-ion-rings
#4
Hao-Kun Li, Erik Urban, Crystal Noel, Alexander Chuang, Yang Xia, Anthony Ransford, Boerge Hemmerling, Yuan Wang, Tongcang Li, Hartmut Häffner, Xiang Zhang
We crystallize up to 15 ^{40}Ca^{+} ions in a ring with a microfabricated silicon surface Paul trap. Delocalization of the Doppler laser-cooled ions shows that the translational symmetry of the ion ring is preserved at millikelvin temperatures. By characterizing the collective motion of the ion crystals, we identify homogeneous electric fields as the dominant symmetry-breaking mechanism at this energy scale. With increasing ion numbers, such detrimental effects are reduced. We predict that, with only a ten-ion ring, uncompensated homogeneous fields will not break the translational symmetry of the rotational ground state...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207294/validity-of-core-temperature-measurements-at-3-rectal-depths-during-rest-exercise-cold-water-immersion-and-recovery
#5
Kevin C Miller, Lexie E Hughes, Blaine C Long, William M Adams, Douglas J Casa
CONTEXT:  No evidence-based recommendation exists regarding how far clinicians should insert a rectal thermistor to obtain the most valid estimate of core temperature. Knowing the validity of temperatures at different rectal depths has implications for exertional heat-stroke (EHS) management. OBJECTIVE:  To determine whether rectal temperature (Trec) taken at 4 cm, 10 cm, or 15 cm from the anal sphincter provides the most valid estimate of core temperature (as determined by esophageal temperature [Teso]) during similar stressors an athlete with EHS may experience...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202732/atomic-structure-of-granulin-determined-from-native-nanocrystalline-granulovirus-using-an-x-ray-free-electron-laser
#6
Cornelius Gati, Dominik Oberthuer, Oleksandr Yefanov, Richard D Bunker, Francesco Stellato, Elaine Chiu, Shin-Mei Yeh, Andrew Aquila, Shibom Basu, Richard Bean, Kenneth R Beyerlein, Sabine Botha, Sébastien Boutet, Daniel P DePonte, R Bruce Doak, Raimund Fromme, Lorenzo Galli, Ingo Grotjohann, Daniel R James, Christopher Kupitz, Lukas Lomb, Marc Messerschmidt, Karol Nass, Kimberly Rendek, Robert L Shoeman, Dingjie Wang, Uwe Weierstall, Thomas A White, Garth J Williams, Nadia A Zatsepin, Petra Fromme, John C H Spence, Kenneth N Goldie, Johannes A Jehle, Peter Metcalf, Anton Barty, Henry N Chapman
To understand how molecules function in biological systems, new methods are required to obtain atomic resolution structures from biological material under physiological conditions. Intense femtosecond-duration pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can outrun most damage processes, vastly increasing the tolerable dose before the specimen is destroyed. This in turn allows structure determination from crystals much smaller and more radiation sensitive than previously considered possible, allowing data collection from room temperature structures and avoiding structural changes due to cooling...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202587/it-s-cool-to-be-dominant-social-status-alters-short-term-risks-of-heat-stress
#7
Susan J Cunningham, Michelle L Thompson, Andrew E McKechnie
Climate change has potential to trigger social change. As a first step towards understanding mechanisms determining the vulnerability of animal societies to rising temperatures, we investigated interactions between social rank and thermoregulation in three arid-zone bird species: fawn-coloured lark (Mirafra africanoides, territorial); African red-eyed bulbul (Pycnonotus nigricans, loosely social) and sociable weaver (Philetairus socius, complex cooperative societies). We assessed relationships between body temperature (Tb), air temperature (Ta) and social rank in captive groups in the Kalahari Desert...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196254/effect-of-a-scalp-cooling-device-on-alopecia-in-women-undergoing-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer-the-scalp-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Julie Nangia, Tao Wang, Cynthia Osborne, Polly Niravath, Kristen Otte, Steven Papish, Frankie Holmes, Jame Abraham, Mario Lacouture, Jay Courtright, Richard Paxman, Mari Rude, Susan Hilsenbeck, C Kent Osborne, Mothaffar Rimawi
Importance: Chemotherapy may induce alopecia. Although scalp cooling devices have been used to prevent this alopecia, efficacy has not been assessed in a randomized clinical trial. Objectives: To assess whether a scalp cooling device is effective at reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia and to assess adverse treatment effects. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized clinical trial of women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy...
February 14, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195970/reduction-of-physiological-strain-under-a-hot-and-humid-environment-by-a-hybrid-cooling-vest
#9
Albert P C Chan, Y Yang, Francis K W Wong, Michael C H Yam, Del P Wong, W F Song
Cooling treatment is regarded as one of good practices to provide safe training conditions to athletic trainers in the hot environment. The present study aimed to investigate whether wearing a commercial lightweight and portable hybrid cooling vest that combines air ventilation fans with frozen gel packs was an effective means to reduce participants' body heat strain. In this within-subject repeated measures study, 10 male volunteers participated in two heat-stress trials (one with the cooling vest - COOL condition, and another without - CON condition, in a randomized order) inside a climatic chamber with a controlled ambient temperature 33 °C and relative humidity (RH) 75% on an experimental day...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181795/water-responsive-shape-recovery-induced-buckling-in-biodegradable-photo-cross-linked-poly-ethylene-glycol-peg-hydrogel
#10
Abhijit Vijay Salvekar, Wei Min Huang, Rui Xiao, Yee Shan Wong, Subbu S Venkatraman, Kiang Hiong Tay, Ze Xiang Shen
The phenomenon of recovering the permanent shape from a severely deformed temporary shape, but only in the presence of the right stimulus, is known as the shape memory effect (SME). Materials with such an interesting effect are known as shape memory materials (SMMs). Typical stimuli to trigger shape recovery include temperature (heating or cooling), chemical (including water/moisture and pH value), and light. As a SMM is able not only to maintain the temporary shape but also to respond to the right stimulus when it is applied, via shape-shifting, a seamless integration of sensing and actuation functions is achieved within one single piece of material...
February 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169506/a-combinational-effect-of-bulk-and-surface-shape-memory-transitions-on-the-regulation-of-cell-alignment
#11
Koichiro Uto, Takao Aoyagi, Cole A DeForest, Allan S Hoffman, Mitsuhiro Ebara
A novel shape-memory cell culture platform has been designed that is capable of simultaneously tuning surface topography and dimensionality to manipulate cell alignment. By crosslinking poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) macromonomers of precisely designed nanoarchitectures, a shape-memory PCL with switching temperature near body temperature is successfully prepared. The temporary strain-fixed PCLs are prepared by processing through heating, stretching, and cooling about the switching temperature. Temporary nanowrinkles are also formed spontaneously during the strain-fixing process with magnitudes that are dependent on the applied strain...
February 7, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166951/positive-selection-acted-on-the-extracellular-transmembrane-linkers-of-heat-receptors-during-evolution
#12
Yang Liu, Fang Lu, Hui Jiang, Yezhong Tang
All organisms must maintain body temperature within a suitable range and be able to sense the environmental temperature variations. However, it remains largely unknown how thermal sensing systems have evolved in animals. The transient receptor potential cation channel (TRP) protein family acts as warm/heat or cool/cold receptors by changing the probability of channel opening in response to thermal stimulation. Here, we examined the selective pressures acting on the transmembrane region of six segments (S1~S6) of thermo-TRP family members...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164457/isometric-thermogenesis-at-rest-and-during-movement-a-neglected-variable-in-energy-expenditure-and-obesity-predisposition
#13
REVIEW
A G Dulloo, J L Miles-Chan, J-P Montani, Y Schutz
Isometric thermogenesis as applied to human energy expenditure refers to heat production resulting from increased muscle tension. While most physical activities consist of both dynamic and static (isometric) muscle actions, the isometric component is very often essential for the optimal performance of dynamic work given its role in coordinating posture during standing, walking and most physical activities of everyday life. Over the past 75 years, there has been sporadic interest into the relevance of isometric work to thermoregulatory thermogenesis and to adaptive thermogenesis pertaining to body-weight regulation...
February 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162872/simple-and-effective-method-to-lower-body-core-temperatures-of-hyperthermic-patients
#14
John P O'Connor
Hyperthermia is a potentially life threatening scenario that may occur in patients due to accompanying morbidities, exertion, or exposure to dry and arid environmental conditions. In particular, heat stroke may result from environmental exposure combined with a lack of thermoregulation. Key clinical findings in the diagnosis of heatstroke are (1) a history of heat stress or exposure, (2) a rectal temperature greater than 40 °C, and (3) central nervous system dysfunction (altered mental state, disorientation, stupor, seizures, or coma) (Prendergast and Erickson, 2014 [1])...
January 30, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161043/utilising-green-and-bluespace-to-mitigate-urban-heat-island-intensity
#15
K R Gunawardena, M J Wells, T Kershaw
It has long been recognised that cities exhibit their own microclimate and are typically warmer than the surrounding rural areas. This 'mesoscale' influence is known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect and results largely from modification of surface properties leading to greater absorption of solar radiation, reduced convective cooling and lower water evaporation rates. Cities typically contain less vegetation and bodies of water than rural areas, and existing green and bluespace is often under threat from increasing population densities...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156130/evaluation-of-various-cooling-systems-after-exercise-induced-hyperthermia
#16
Pearl M S Tan, Eunice Y N Two, Noreffendy B Ali, Bryan C H Ang, Iswady Iskandar, Lydia Y L Law, Jason K W Lee
CONTEXT:  Rapid diagnosis and expeditious cooling of individuals with exertional heat stroke is paramount for survival. OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the efficacy of various cooling systems after exercise-induced hyperthermia. DESIGN:  Crossover study. SETTING:  Laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:  Twenty-two men (age = 24 ± 2 years, height = 1.76 ± 0.07 m, mass = 70.7 ± 9.5 kg) participated...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145733/why-do-team-sport-athletes-drink-fluid-in-excess-when-exercising-in-cool-conditions
#17
Melissa J Bargh, Roderick F G J King, Michael P Gray, Ben Jones
This study assessed the potential physiological and perceptual drivers of fluid intake and thirst sensation during intermittent exercise. Ten male rugby players (17 ± 1 years, stature: 179.1 ± 4.2 cm, body mass (BM): 81.9 ± 8.1 kg) participated in six 6-min small-sided games, interspersed with 2 min rest, where fluid intake was ad libitum during rest periods. Pre- and postmeasurements of BM, subjective ratings (thirst, thermal comfort, thermal sensation, mouth dryness), plasma osmolality (POsm), serum sodium concentration (S[Na(+)]), haematocrit and haemoglobin (to calculate plasma volume change; PV) were taken...
November 10, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144161/influence-of-bmi-gender-and-sports-on-pain-decrease-and-medication-usage-after-facet-medial-branch-neurotomy-or-si-joint-lateral-branch-cooled-rf-neurotomy-in-case-of-low-back-pain-original-research-in-the-austrian-population
#18
Wolfgang Stelzer, Valentin Stelzer, Dominik Stelzer, Monika Braune, Christine Duller
PURPOSE: This retrospective original research was designed to illustrate the general outcome after radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy of lumbar medial branch (MB) and posterior ramus of the sacroiliac joint of 160 patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. METHODS: Visual Analog Scale (VAS) 0-10 pain scores, quality of life, body mass index (BMI), medication usage, and frequency of physical exercise/sports participation (none, 1-3×/week, more) were collected before the procedure, at 1 month post procedure (n=160), and again at 6 (n=73) and 12 months (n=89) post procedure...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141620/cold-water-mediates-greater-reductions-in-limb-blood-flow-than-whole-body-cryotherapy
#19
Chris Mawhinney, David A Low, Helen Jones, Daniel J Green, Joseph T Costello, Warren Gregson
PURPOSE: Cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole body cryotherapy (WBC) are widely used recovery methods in an attempt to limit exercise-induced muscle damage, soreness and functional deficits after strenuous exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ecologically-valid CWI and WBC protocols on post-exercise lower limb thermoregulatory, femoral artery and cutaneous blood flow responses. METHODS: Ten males completed a continuous cycle exercise protocol at 70% maximal oxygen uptake until a rectal temperature of 38°C was attained...
January 30, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137731/clinical-presentation-autopsy-results-and-toxicology-findings-in-an-acute-n-ethylpentylone-fatality
#20
Phoutthasone Thirakul, Laura S Hair, Kirstin L Bergen, Julia M Pearson
The clinical presentation, autopsy findings and toxicology results in an acute fatality involving N-ethylpentylone, a new cathinone derivative, are described. Law enforcement transported a male who was agitated and exhibiting unusual behavior to a local hospital. Upon arrival at the hospital, his body temperature was 105.5 degrees Fahrenheit and his blood pH was 6.7. Clinical laboratory analysis revealed elevated troponins, rhabdomyolysis, hypoglycemia, hepatic and renal injury, respiratory failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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