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Body cooling

P S Whitfield, N Herron, W E Guise, K Page, Y Q Cheng, I Milas, M K Crawford
We have examined the crystal structures and structural phase transitions of the deuterated, partially deuterated and hydrogenous organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) using time-of-flight neutron and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Near 330 K the high temperature cubic phases transformed to a body-centered tetragonal phase. The variation of the order parameter Q for this transition scaled with temperature T as Q ∼ (Tc-T)(β), where Tc is the critical temperature and the exponent β was close to ¼, as predicted for a tricritical phase transition...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Vojtěch Ledvina, Eva Janečková, Eva Matalová, Karel Klepárník
Analysing the chemical content of individual cells has already been proven to reveal unique information on various biological processes. Single-cell analysis provides more accurate and reliable results for biology and medicine than analyses of extracts from cell populations, where a natural heterogeneity is averaged. To meet the requirements in the research of important biologically active molecules, such as caspases, we have developed a miniaturized device for simultaneous analyses of individual cells. A stainless steel body with a carousel holder enables high-sensitivity parallel detections in eight microvials...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Tae Gwan Oh, Won Chul Cha, Ik Joon Jo, Mun Ju Kang, Dong Woo Lee
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to summarize the therapeutic hypothermia (TH) protocols used in emergency departments (EDs) in Korea and to investigate the differences between level 1 and 2 centers. METHODS: The chief residents from 56 EDs were given a structured survey containing questions on the indications for TH, methods for TH induction, maintaining, and finalizing TH treatments. The participants were divided into 2 groups based on their work place (level 1 vs. level 2 centers)...
December 2015: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Eric W Meisberger, Sjoerd J G Bakker, Marco S Cune
BACKGROUND: Ultrasonic instrumentation under magnification may facilitate mobilization of screw remnants but may induce heat trauma to surrounding bone. An increase of 5°C is considered detrimental to osseointegration. The objective of this investigation was to examine the rise in temperature of the outer implant body after 30 s of ultrasonic instrumentation to the inner part, in relation to implant type, type of ultrasonic equipment, and the use of coolants in vitro. METHODS: Two ultrasonic devices (Satelec Suprasson T Max and Electro Medical Systems (EMS) miniMaster) were used on five different implant types that were provided with a thermo couple (Astra 3...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
L H Dünnweber, R Rödl, G Gosheger, F M Schiedel
Although clear advances have been made during the last 5 years, practical difficulties persist for patients and surgeons in procedures for intramedullary lengthening of long bones. In particular, precise adjustment of the desired amount of lengthening and technically reliable checking of the length actually achieved are problematic. An intramedullary nail with a new type of drive that exploits the shape memory effect has been constructed. The drive technology and the behavior of the intramedullary nail in situ were evaluated in a cadaver experiment...
October 10, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Steven J Walden, Sam L Evans, Jacqui Mulville
The purpose of this study was to determine how the Vickers hardness (HV) of bone varies during soft tissue putrefaction. This has possible forensic applications, notably for determining the postmortem interval. Experimental porcine bone samples were decomposed in surface and burial deposition scenarios over a period of 6 months. Although the Vickers hardness varied widely, it was found that when transverse axial hardness was subtracted from longitudinal axial hardness, the difference showed correlations with three distinct phases of soft tissue putrefaction...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Hong Li, Melanie Elphick, Richard Shine
Viviparity (live-bearing) has evolved from oviparity (egg-laying) in more than 100 lineages of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). This transition generally has occurred in cool climates, where thermal differentials between eggs in the (cool) nest versus the (warm) maternal oviduct influence embryonic development, in ways that may enhance offspring fitness. To identify specific traits potentially under selection, we incubated eggs of a montane scincid lizard at conditions simulating natural nests, maternal body temperatures, and an intermediate stage (2-week uterine retention of eggs prior to laying)...
October 14, 2016: Oecologia
Jessica J Scriven, Penelope R Whitehorn, Dave Goulson, Matthew C Tinsley
According to Bergmann's rule we expect species with larger body size to inhabit locations with a cooler climate, where they may be well adapted to conserve heat and resist starvation. This rule is generally applied to endotherms. In contrast, body size in ectothermic invertebrates has been suggested to follow the reverse ecogeographic trend: these converse Bergmann's patterns may be driven by the ecological constraints of shorter season length and lower food availability in cooler high latitude locations. Such patterns are particularly common in large insects due to their longer development times...
2016: PloS One
Faisal Inayat, Hafeez Ul Hasan Virk
Exertional heatstroke (EHS) is a life-threatening disease characterized clinically by central nervous system dysfunction and severe hyperthermia. It frequently occurs among athletes, soldiers, and laborers. While cardiopulmonary symptoms are common in patients undergoing EHS, irreversible acute liver failure is a rarely described phenomenon. When managing cases of EHS complicated by acute liver failure, it is crucial to act promptly with aggressive total body cooling in order to prevent progression of the clinical syndrome...
September 6, 2016: Curēus
Jonathan B Armstrong, Eric J Ward, Daniel E Schindler, Peter J Lisi
As climate change increases maximal water temperatures, behavioural thermoregulation may be crucial for the persistence of coldwater fishes, such as salmonids. Although myriad studies have documented behavioural thermoregulation in southern populations of salmonids, few if any have explored this phenomenon in northern populations, which are less likely to have an evolutionary history of heat stress, yet are predicted to experience substantial warming. Here, we treated a rare heat wave as a natural experiment to test whether wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) at the northern extent of their primary range (60° latitude) can thermoregulate in response to abnormally high thermal conditions...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Petr Husa
Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) are very common. The most common of these is mixed cryoglobulinaemia. Anti-HCV antibodies and viral ribonucleic acid, HCV RNA, can be found in the cryoprecipitates, together with the rheumatoid factor. Cryoglobulins consist of a complex of immunoglobulins that in vitro precipitate upon the cooling bellow the human body temperature. Vasculitis is caused by the deposition of such immune complexes in the small blood vessels. A link with the HCV infection is considered to be established with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, lymphoproliferative disorders (in particular B cell lymphoma), Sjögren and sicca syndrome, lichen planus, porfyria cutanea tarda and diabetes mellitus...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Po-Chun Hsu, Alex Y Song, Peter B Catrysse, Chong Liu, Yucan Peng, Jin Xie, Shanhui Fan, Yi Cui
Thermal management through personal heating and cooling is a strategy by which to expand indoor temperature setpoint range for large energy saving. We show that nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) is transparent to mid-infrared human body radiation but opaque to visible light because of the pore size distribution (50 to 1000 nanometers). We processed the material to develop a textile that promotes effective radiative cooling while still having sufficient air permeability, water-wicking rate, and mechanical strength for wearability...
September 2, 2016: Science
Thonimar V Alencar, Leandro M Malard, Ana M de Paula
We report on hot photoluminescence measurements that show the effects of acoustic phonon supercollision processes in the intensity of graphene light emission. We use a simple optical method to induce defects on single layer graphene in a controlled manner to study in detail the light emission dependence on the sample defect density. It is now well accepted that the graphene photoluminescence is due to black-body thermal emission from the quasi-equilibrium electrons at a temperature well above the lattice temperature...
September 30, 2016: Nanotechnology
Mohammad Fazel Bakhsheshi, Yong Wang, Lynn Keenliside, Ting-Yim Lee
BACKGROUND: Target temperature management is the single most effective intervention and the gold standard in post-resuscitation care today. However, cooling the whole body below 33-34 °C can cause severe complications. Therefore, developing a selective brain cooling (SBC) approach which can be initiated early to induce rapid cooling and maintain the target temperature over 12-24 h before slowly rewarming brain temperature by itself alone would be advantageous. Vortex tubes are simple mechanical devices generating cold air from a stream of compressed air without applied chemical or energy...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
William Ruger Porter, Jayc C Sedlmayr, Lawrence M Witmer
Extant crocodilians are a highly apomorphic archosaur clade that is ectothermic, yet often achieve large body sizes that can be subject to higher heat loads. Therefore, the anatomical and physiological roles that blood vessels play in crocodilian thermoregulation need further investigation to better understand how crocodilians establish and maintain cephalic temperatures and regulate neurosensory tissue temperatures during basking and normal activities. The cephalic vascular anatomy of extant crocodilians, particularly American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection technique and high resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Chaoran Nie, Jiaxu Dong, Pengjiao Zhang, Xintong Liu, Fei Han
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness and safety of the infusion of ice-cold fluids for prehospital hypothermia in cardiac arrest victims are unclear. This study assessed its effects in adult victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: An online search of PubMed and Cochrane Library databases was performed. Cooling methods were limited to ice-cold fluid perfusion. Randomized controlled trials were included in this review. The main outcomes were body temperature at hospital arrival, survival to hospital discharge, neurological recovery, incidence of pulmonary edema, and the rate of rearrest...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Raghuram Chava, Menekhem Zviman, Madhavan Srinivas Raghavan, Henry Halperin, Farhan Maqbool, Romergryko Geocadin, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Aravindan Kolandaivelu, Benjamin A Rosen, Harikrishna Tandri
Early induction of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA); however, currently no reliable methods exist to initiate cooling. We investigated the effect of high flow transnasal dry air on brain and body temperatures in adult porcine animals. Adult porcine animals (n = 23) under general anesthesia were subject to high flow of transnasal dry air. Mouth was kept open to create a unidirectional airflow, in through the nostrils and out through the mouth. Brain, internal jugular, and aortic temperatures were recorded...
September 16, 2016: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
William M Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Douglas J Casa
CONTEXT: Although body cooling has both performance and safety benefits, knowledge on optimizing cooling during specific sport competition is limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is twofold; 1) to identify when during sport competition it is optimal for body cooling and 2) to identify optimal body cooling modalities to enhance safety and maximize sport performance. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify articles with specific context regarding body cooling, sport performance, and cooling modalities used during sport competition...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Megan L Keen, Kevin C Miller
: Clinical Scenario: Exercise performed in hot and humid environments increases core body temperature (TC). If TC exceeds 40°C for prolonged periods of time, exertional heat stroke (EHS) may occur. EHS is one of the leading causes of sudden death in athletes. Mortality and morbidity increase the longer the patient's TC remains above 40°C; thus, it is imperative to initiate cooling as quickly as possible. "Acceptable" cooling rates in EHS situations are between 0.08°C·min-1 and 0.15°C·min-1 while "ideal" cooling rates are above 0...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Daniel Heller, Alex Heller, Samir Moujaes, Shelley J Williams, Ryan Hoffmann, Paul Sarkisian, Kaveh Khalili, Uwe Rockenfeller, Timothy D Browder, Deborah A Kuhls, John J Fildes
A battery-operated active cooling/heating device was developed to maintain thermoregulation of trauma victims in austere environments while awaiting evacuation to a hospital for further treatment. The use of a thermal manikin was adopted for this study in order to simulate load testing and evaluate the performance of this novel portable active cooling/heating device for both continuous (external power source) and battery power. The performance of the portable body temperature conditioner (PBTC) was evaluated through cooling/heating fraction tests to analyze the heat transfer between a thermal manikin and circulating water blanket to show consistent performance while operating under battery power...
September 2016: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
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