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Body cooling

Stephan A Bolliger, Doris Tomasin, Jakob Heimer, Henning Richter, Michael J Thali, Dominic Gascho
Due to slowing or even inhibition of postmortem processes, freezing may make an estimation of the time-since-death very difficult. This is also true in previously frozen and subsequently thawed bodies. Knowledge of prior freezing is important, as it may lead to a different assessment of the time since death. Twelve pig heads were frozen at -20 °C, and 6 heads were either kept at room temperature (approximately 20 °C) or in a cooling cell (approximately 5 °C). The frozen brains and cadavers were thawed at either room temperature or in a cooling cell...
February 12, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Xiao Yu, Nicholas P Franks, William Wisden
Sedatives target just a handful of receptors and ion channels. But we have no satisfying explanation for how activating these receptors produces sedation. In particular, do sedatives act at restricted brain locations and circuitries or more widely? Two prominent sedative drugs in clinical use are zolpidem, a GABA A receptor positive allosteric modulator, and dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist. By targeting hypothalamic neuromodulatory systems both drugs induce a sleep-like state, but in different ways: zolpidem primarily reduces the latency to NREM sleep, and is a controlled substance taken by many people to help them sleep; DEX produces prominent slow wave activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) resembling stage 2 NREM sleep, but with complications of hypothermia and lowered blood pressure-it is used for long term sedation in hospital intensive care units-under DEX-induced sedation patients are arousable and responsive, and this drug reduces the risk of delirium...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Sumire Onitsuka, Daisuke Nakamura, Takahiro Onishi, Takuma Arimitsu, Hideyuki Takahashi, Hiroshi Hasegawa
We previously reported that ice slurry ingestion reduced forehead skin temperature, thereby potentially reducing brain temperature (Tbrain). Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the effect of ice slurry ingestion on Tbrain using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which is a robust, non-invasive method. Eight male participants ingested 7.5 g/kg of either a thermoneutral drink (37 °C; CON) or ice slurry (-1 °C; ICE) for about 5 min following a 15-min baseline period. Then, participants remained at rest for 30 min...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jon D Simmons, Steven A Kahn, Adrienne L Vickers, Edward S Crockett, Jonathon D Whitehead, Amy K Krecker, Yann-Leei Lee, Adam N Miller, Scott B Patterson, William O Richards, Wiltz W Wagner
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing the extremes of superficial burns and of full-thickness burns is straightforward. It is in the middle ground of partial thickness burns where the diagnostic difficulties emerge; it can take up to 3-5 days for signs of healing to appear. We hypothesize that cooling partial thickness burns and tracking the rate of rewarming will immediately reflect the condition of the burn: shallow partial-thickness burns that retain cell health and blood flow will rewarm rapidly, whereas deeper burns with damaged microvessels will rewarm slowly...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Conrad Voelker, Hayder Alsaad
This study aims to develop an approach to couple a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver to the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) thermal comfort model to accurately evaluate thermal comfort. The coupling was made using an iterative Java script to automatically transfer data for each individual segment of the human body back and forth between the CFD solver and the UCB model until reaching convergence defined by a stopping criterion. The location from which data are transferred to the UCB model was determined using a new approach based on the temperature difference between subsequent points on the temperature profile curve in the vicinity of the body surface...
February 2, 2018: Indoor Air
Anup Krishnan, Krishan Singh, Deep Sharma, Vivekanand Upadhyay, Amit Singh
Background: Body cooling has been used to increase sporting performance and enhance recovery. Several studies have reported improvement in exercise capacities using forearm and hand cooling or only hand cooling. Wrist cooling has emerged as a portable light weight solution for precooling prior to sporting activity. The Astrand test for aerobic performance and the Wingate test for anaerobic performance are reliable and accurate tests for performance assessment. This study conducted on elite Indian athletes analyses the effects of wrist precooling on aerobic and anaerobic performance as tested by the Astrand test and the Wingate test before and after wrist precooling...
January 2018: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Tomohisa Mori, Toshiko Sawaguchi
Relatively high doses of psychostimulants induce neurotoxicity on the dopaminergic system and self-injurious behavior (SIB) in rodents. However the underlying neuronal mechanisms of SIB remains unclear. Dopamine receptor antagonists, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists, Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) inhibitors and free radical scavengers significantly attenuate methamphetamine-induced SIB. These findings indicate that activation of dopamine as well as NMDA receptors followed by radical formation and oxidative stress, especially when mediated by NOS activation, is associated with methamphetamine-induced SIB...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Yuma A Bijleveld, Timo R de Haan, Johanna H van der Lee, Floris Groenendaal, Peter H Dijk, Arno van Heijst, Rogier C J de Jonge, Koen P Dijkman, Henrica L M van Straaten, Monique Rijken, Inge A Zonnenberg, Filip Cools, Alexandra Zecic, Debbie H G M Nuytemans, Anton H van Kaam, Ron A A Mathôt
The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of i.v. benzylpenicillin in term neonates undergoing moderate hypothermia after perinatal asphyxia were evaluated, as to date these are unknown. To do so, a system-specific modeling approach was applied, in which our recently developed covariate model describing developmental and temperature induced changes in amoxicillin clearance (CL) in the same patient study population, was incorporated into a population PK model of benzylpenicillin with a priori birthweight (BW) based allometric scaling...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sven Lidin, Laura C Folkers
Recent developments in X-ray sources and detectors and the parallel development of software for nonstandard crystallography has made analysis of very complex structural problems accessible to nonexperts. Here, we report the successful solution of the structure of ht-Sn3Sb2, an analysis that presents several challenges but that is still manageable in a relatively straightforward way. This compound exists only in a narrow temperature regime and undergoes an unquenchable phase transformation on cooling to room temperature; it contains two elements with close to identical scattering factors, and the structure is incommensurately modulated with four symmetry dependent modulation wave vectors...
January 27, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Jessica M Povroznik, Elizabeth B Engler-Chiurazzi, Tania Nanavati, Paola Pergami
Objectives: This study aimed to identify differences in absolute neutrophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio between neonates with two forms of ischemic brain injury, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and acute ischemic stroke, compared to controls. We also aimed to determine whether this neutrophil/lymphocyte response pattern is associated with disease severity or is a consequence of the effects of total-body cooling, an approved treatment for moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
Heather C Massey, James R House, Michael J Tipton
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated skin vasomotor responses in the fingers and toes during cooling and rewarming with and without normobaric hypoxia. METHODS: Fourteen volunteers (8 males and 6 females) were exposed to gradual air cooling (mean±SD: -0.4±0.1oC·min-1) followed by rewarming (+0.5±0.1oC·min-1) while breathing normoxic air (FIO2 0.21 at 761±3 mm Hg) or hypoxic gas (FIO2 0.12, at 761±3 mm Hg, equivalent to ~5000 m above sea level). Throughout the gradual cooling and rewarming phases, rectal temperature was measured, and skin temperatures and laser Doppler skin blood flow were measured on the thumb, little finger, and great and little toe pads...
January 16, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Ollie Jay, Nathan B Morris
Cold water or ice slurry ingestion during exercise seems to be an effective and practical means to improve endurance exercise performance in the heat. However, transient reductions in sweating appear to decrease the potential for evaporative heat loss from the skin by a magnitude that at least negates the additional internal heat loss as a cold ingested fluid warms up to equilibrate with body temperature; thus explaining equivalent core temperatures during exercise at a fixed heat production irrespective of the ingested fluid temperature...
January 24, 2018: Sports Medicine
Matthew J Maley, Geoffrey M Minett, Aaron J E Bach, Stephanie A Zietek, Kelly L Stewart, Ian B Stewart
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to compare a range of cooling methods possibly utilised by occupational workers, focusing on their effect on body temperature, perception and manual dexterity. METHODS: Ten male participants completed eight trials involving 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of cooling or control of no cooling (CON) (34°C, 58% relative humidity). The cooling methods utilised were: ice cooling vest (CV0), phase change cooling vest melting at 14°C (CV14), evaporative cooling vest (CVEV), arm immersion in 10°C water (AI), portable water-perfused suit (WPS), heliox inhalation (HE) and ice slushy ingestion (SL)...
2018: PloS One
Ilkka Heinonen, Jari A Laukkanen
Environmental stress such as extremely warm or cold temperature is often considered a challenge to human health and body homeostasis. However, human body can adapt relatively well to heat and cold environments and recent studies have also elucidated that particularly heat stress might be even highly beneficial for human health. Consequently, the aim of the present brief review is first to discuss general cardiovascular and other responses to acute heat stress, followed by a review of beneficial effects of Finnish sauna bathing on general and cardiovascular health and mortality as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease risk...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Kyungtae Kim, Akash Arora, Ronald M Lewis, Meijiao Liu, Weihua Li, An-Chang Shi, Kevin D Dorfman, Frank S Bates
Cooling disordered compositionally asymmetric diblock copolymers leads to the formation of nearly spherical particles, each containing hundreds of molecules, which crystallize upon cooling below the order-disorder transition temperature (TODT). Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) reveals that dispersity in the block degrees of polymerization stabilizes various Frank-Kasper phases, including the C14 and C15 Laves phases, which have been accessed experimentally in low-molar-mass poly(isoprene)-b-poly(lactide) (PI-PLA) diblock copolymers using thermal processing strategies...
January 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Joanne N Caldwell, Anne M J van den Heuvel, Pete Kerry, Mitchell J Clark, Gregory E Peoples, Nigel A S Taylor
Physiologically trivial time differences for cooling the intrathoracic viscera of hyperthermic individuals have been reported between cold- and temperate-water immersion treatments. One explanation for that observation is reduced convective heat delivery to the skin during cold immersion, and this experiment was designed to test both the validity of that observation, and its underlying hypothesis. Eight healthy males participated in four head-out, water immersions: two when normothermic, and two following exercise-induced, moderate-profound hyperthermia...
January 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Won Gu Lee, So-Young Huh, Jin-Hyung Lee, Bong Goo Yoo, Meyung Kug Kim
Heat stroke (HS) is a medical emergency and life threatening condition, characterized by body temperature over 40°C. This can lead to dysfunction of multiple organs such as the heart, liver, kidneys, lungs, blood coagulation system, and central nervous system. Neurological complications include change in consciousness, cerebellar dysfunction, convulsions, aphasia, muscular weakness, and parkinsonism. Cerebellar syndrome is the most common neurological finding in HS. We report a case of HS presenting with status epilepticus, without any other neurological manifestations...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
Young Duck Kim, Yuanda Gao, Ren-Jye Shiue, Lei Wang, Ozgur Burak Aslan, Myung-Ho Bae, Hyungsik Kim, Dongjea Seo, Heon-Jin Choi, Suk Hyun Kim, Andrei Nemilentsau, Tony Low, Cheng Tan, Dmitri K Efetov, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Kenneth L Shepard, Tony F Heinz, Dirk Englund, James C Hone
Ultrafast electrically driven nanoscale light sources are critical components in nanophotonics. Compound semiconductor-based light sources for the nanophotonic platforms have been extensively investigated over the past decades. However, monolithic ultrafast light sources with a small footprint remain a challenge. Here, we demonstrate electrically driven ultrafast graphene light emitters that achieve light pulse generation with up to 10 GHz bandwidth, across a broad spectral range from the visible to the near-infrared...
January 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Michael Hubig, Sebastian Schenkl, Holger Muggenthaler, Felix Güttler, Andreas Heinrich, Ulf Teichgräber, Gita Mall
Post-mortem body cooling is the foundation of temperature-based death time estimations (TDE) in homicide cases. Forensic science generally provides two types of p.m. body cooling models, the phenomenological and the physical models. Since both of them have to implement important individual parameters like the quantity of abdominal fat explicitly or implicitly, a more exact quantification and localization of abdominal fat is a desideratum in TDE. Particularly for the physical models, a better knowledge of the abdominal fat distribution could lead to relevant improvements in TDEs...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
C Mawhinney, R Allan
It is well documented that strenuous exercise elicits stress on the body, which may lead to physiological impairments and associated reductions in muscle function and fatigue, in the hours and days post-exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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