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Body cooling

D Nyuiadzi, A Travel, B Méda, C Berri, L A Guilloteau, V Coustham, Y Wang, J K Tona, A Collin
Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis was previously reported to decrease the occurrence of ascites and to potentially improve cold tolerance of broilers. The objective of our study was to explore the effects of the interaction of cold incubation temperatures and cool ambient temperatures until 21 d of age on performance and body temperature. Ross 308 eggs were incubated either under control conditions I0 (37.6°C) or with cyclic cold stimulations I1 (6 h/d at 36.6°C from d 10 to 18 of incubation) or with 2 cold stimulations I2 (30 min at 15°C) at d 18 and 19 of incubation...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
Cynthia L Thompson, Brianna L Powell, Susan H Williams, Goro Hanya, Kenneth E Glander, Christopher J Vinyard
Thyroid hormones boost animals' basal metabolic rate and represent an important thermoregulatory pathway for mammals that face cold temperatures. Whereas the cold thermal pressures experienced by primates in seasonal habitats at high latitudes and elevations are often apparent, tropical habitats also display distinct wet and dry seasons with modest changes in thermal environment. We assessed seasonal and temperature-related changes in thyroid hormone levels for two primate species in disparate thermal environments, tropical mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
Justin M Cousins, Luke Re Bereznicki, Nick B Cooling, Gregory M Peterson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing the prescribing of psychotropic medication by general practitioners (GPs) to nursing home residents with dementia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: GPs with experience in nursing homes were recruited through professional body newsletter advertising, while 1,000 randomly selected GPs from southeastern Australia were invited to participate, along with a targeted group of GPs in Tasmania. An anonymous survey was used to collect GPs' opinions...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Murray M Humphries, Emily K Studd, Allyson K Menzies, Stan Boutin
From a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals-here referred to as seasonal specialists-decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e...
October 12, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Thomas Knigge, Maddalena A Di Lellis, Tiphaine Monsinjon, Heinz-R Köhler
The internal temperature of land snails depends on environmental factors, such as exposure to electromagnetic radiation and airflow as well as biotic factors including shell size, shell colouration and thickness or the resting position of the snail. In controlled field experiments, we quantified heating by thermal absorption of light and airflow-induced heat loss in the white garden snail, Theba pisana, from Normandy, France. Heating experiments revealed a significant positive relation of the internal body temperature with illumination period, shell temperature and air temperature at different times of day...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Yijie Zhao, Wen Yi, Albert P C Chan, Daniel W M Chan
A hot environment combined with physically demanding tasks can subject workers to a higher risk of heat stress. A series of regulations and guidelines have been proposed to design appropriate anti-heat stress work uniform to reduce body heat strain. The present study aimed to examine heat strain recovery in different anti-heat stress clothing ensembles after work to exhaustion in the heat. 10 healthy males performed intermittent treadmill running/walking to exhaustion, followed by 30min passive recovery sitting in a climatic chamber, which simulated the hot and humid outdoor environment (34°C temperature, 60% relative humidity, 0...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Kimberly J Nahon, Mariëtte R Boon, Fleur Doornink, Ingrid M Jazet, Patrick C N Rensen, Gustavo Abreu-Vieira
It is colloquially stated that body size plays a role in the human response to cold, but the magnitude and details of this interaction are unclear. To explore the inherent influence of body size on cold-exposed metabolism, we investigated the relation between body composition and resting metabolic rate in humans at thermoneutrality and during cooling within the nonshivering thermogenesis range. Body composition and resting energy expenditure were measured in 20 lean and 20 overweight men at thermoneutrality and during individualized cold exposure...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Guo-Shuai Yang, Xiao-Yan Zhou, Xue-Fang An, Xuan-Jun Liu, Yan-Jun Zhang, Dan Yu
Seizure is a serious complication of stroke, indicating poor prognosis. Notch signaling is associated with neuronal activity. Inhibition of Notch signaling suppresses seizure activity induced by kainic acid. The present study investigated the effect of the Notch inhibitor, DAPT, alone or in combination with mild hypothermia, on post-stroke seizures. A global cerebral ischemia (GCI) model was performed in Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats. Seizure activity was evaluated by the frequency of seizure attacks, seizure severity scores, and seizure discharges...
October 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xiaopeng Zhong, Xiujuan Wang, Fei Fei, ManCui Zhang, Po Ding, Shiwu Zhang
To investigate the molecular mechanism of dihydrocapsaicin (DHC)-induced mild hypothermia in rats, and to compare its protective effect on the central nervous system with that of a conventional method of inducing hypothermia, 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups based on the following conditions: control group, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) group, body surface cooling group, and DHC group. Tracheal clipping was used to mimic asphyxia arrest. Rats were assessed for their neurological deficit scores...
October 16, 2017: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
Robert H Ong, Andrew J C King, Jaap A Kaandorp, Benjamin J Mullins, M Julian Caley
A long-standing interest in marine science is in the degree to which environmental conditions of flow and irradiance, combined with optical, thermal and morphological characteristics of individual coral colonies, affects their sensitivity of thermal microenvironments and susceptibility to stress-induced bleaching within and/or among colonies. The physiological processes in Scleractinian corals tend to scale allometrically as a result of physical and geometric constraints on body size and shape. There is a direct relationship between scaling to thermal stress, thus, the relationship between allometric scaling and rates of heating and cooling in coral microenvironments is a subject of great interest...
2017: PloS One
Drew M Morris, June J Pilcher, Robert B Powell
This study seeks to understand the degree of body cooling, cold perception and physical discomfort during Antarctic tour excursions. Eight experienced expedition leaders across three Antarctic cruise voyages were monitored during occupational tasks: kayaking, snorkelling and zodiac outings. Subjective cold perception and discomfort were recorded using a thermal comfort assessment and skin temperature was recorded using a portable data logger. Indoor cabin temperature and outdoor temperature with wind velocity were used as measures of environmental stress...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Joyce Keifer, Zhaoqing Zheng
Use of hypothermia as a means of anesthesia for amphibians and reptiles is prohibited by agencies that establish veterinary guidelines. This has recently been called into question by members of the scientific community based on reviews of published literature. Using pond turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans), hypothermia as a method for anesthesia to precede euthanasia by decapitation was assessed. Turtles were subjected to hypothermia using a cooling followed by freezing protocol. Body temperature measurements ranged between -1 to -2°C while core body temperature was -1°C...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Samuel C Andrew, Laura L Hurley, Mylene M Mariette, Simon C Griffith
The most commonly documented morphological response across many taxa to climatic variation across their range follows Bergmann's rule, which predicts larger body size in colder climates. In observational data from wild zebra finches breeding across a range of temperatures in the spring and summer, we show that this relationship appears to be driven by the negative effect of high temperatures during development. This idea was then experimentally tested on zebra finches breeding in temperature controlled climates in the laboratory...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
G C Miranda-de la Lama, M Rodríguez-Palomares, R G Cruz-Monterrosa, A A Rayas-Amor, R S B Pinheiro, F M Galindo, M Villarroel
Livestock transport exposes animals to a range of potential stressors that may compromise their welfare and final product quality, and those effects typically increase with the distance travelled. In North America, producers often use pot-belly vehicles for long hauls but little is known about their suitability for transporting lambs. We followed two long-distance trips using pot-belly trailers carrying 500 lambs (each) from Northern to Central Mexico in winter, to measure possible effects on animal welfare and meat quality...
September 30, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Yang Guo, Chaochao Dun, Junwei Xu, Jiuke Mu, Peiyun Li, Liwen Gu, Chengyi Hou, Corey A Hewitt, Qinghong Zhang, Yaogang Li, David L Carroll, Hongzhi Wang
Freestanding, flexible/foldable, and wearable bifuctional ultrathin graphene paper for heating and cooling is fabricated as an active material in personal thermal management (PTM). The promising electrical conductivity grants the superior Joule heating for extra warmth of 42 °C using a low supply voltage around 3.2 V. Besides, based on its high out-of-plane thermal conductivity, the graphene paper provides passive cooling via thermal transmission from the human body to the environment within 7 s. The cooling effect of graphene paper is superior compared with that of the normal cotton fiber, and this advantage will become more prominent with the increased thickness difference...
September 29, 2017: Small
L Lan, X L Qian, Z W Lian, Y B Lin
The effects of local body cooling on thermal comfort and sleep quality in a hot environment were investigated in an experiment with 16 male subjects. Sleep quality was evaluated subjectively, using questionnaires completed in the morning, and objectively, by analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that were continuously monitored during the sleeping period. Compared with no cooling, the largest improvement in thermal comfort and sleep quality was observed when the back and head (neck) were both cooled at a room temperature of 32°C...
September 28, 2017: Indoor Air
Borivoje Dakić, Milan Radonjić
We study the question of what kind of a macroscopic superposition can(not) naturally exist as a ground state of some gapped local many-body Hamiltonian. We derive an upper bound on the energy gap of an arbitrary physical Hamiltonian provided that its ground state is a superposition of two well-distinguishable macroscopic "semiclassical" states. For a large class of macroscopic superposition states we show that the gap vanishes in the macroscopic limit. This in turn shows that preparation of such states by simple cooling to the ground state is not experimentally feasible and requires a different strategy...
September 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Sébastien Racinais, Scott Cocking, Julien D Périard
Most professional and recreational athletes perform pre-conditioning exercises, often collectively termed a 'warm-up' to prepare for a competitive task. The main objective of warming-up is to induce both temperature and non-temperature related responses to optimize performance. These responses include increasing muscle temperature, initiating metabolic and circulatory adjustments, and preparing psychologically for the upcoming task. However, warming-up in hot and/or humid ambient conditions increases thermal and circulatory strain...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
Petros G Botonis, Stylianos N Kounalakis, Evgenia D Cherouveim, Maria D Koskolou, Nickos D Geladas
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of skin surface menthol application on rectal temperature (Tre) during prolonged immersion in cool and cold water. We hypothesized that menthol application would lead to a slower Tre decline due to the reduced heat loss as a consequence of the menthol-induced vasoconstriction and that this effect would be attenuated during cold-water immersion. Six male subjects were immersed for 55min in stirred cool (24°C) or cold (14°C) water immediately after attaining a Tre of 38°C by cycling at 60% of maximum heart rate on two occasions: without (ΝΜ) and with (Μ) whole-body skin application of menthol cream...
September 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Alexandre Marraffa, Mats Lekander, Peter Solsjö, Mats J Olsson, Julie Lasselin, John Axelsson
Yawning has been proposed to serve both physiological and social functions, the latter likely to have developed later in its evolution. A central hypothesis is that yawning cools the brain but whether yawning is a thermoregulatory mechanism that is activated during hyperthermia (i.e., thermoregulatory failure) or is activated in any instance of brain temperature increase (e.g., also during fever) is unclear and experimental assessments of yawning during fever are lacking. In this study, we determined the effect of experimentally induced fever on yawning frequency...
September 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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