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Exertional heat illness

Andrew P Hunt, Daniel C Billing, Mark J Patterson, Joanne N Caldwell
Military activities in hot environments pose 2 competing demands: the requirement to perform realistic training to develop operational capability with the necessity to protect armed forces personnel against heat-related illness. To ascertain whether work duration limits for protection against heat-related illness restrict military activities, this study examined the heat strain and risks of heat-related illness when conducting a military activity above the prescribed work duration limits. Thirty-seven soldiers conducted a march (10 km; ∼5...
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
Julien D Périard, Sébastien Racinais, Toomas Timpka, Örjan Dahlström, Armin Spreco, Jenny Jacobsson, Victor Bargoria, Karin Halje, Juan-Manuel Alonso
PURPOSE: Assess exertional heat illness (EHI) history and preparedness in athletes competing in a World Athletics Championships under hot/humid conditions and identify the factors associated with preparedness strategies. METHODS: Of the 207 registered national teams invited to participate in the study, 50 (24%) accepted. The 957 athletes (49% of all 1965 registered) in these teams were invited to complete a precompetition questionnaire evaluating EHI history, heat stress prevention (heat acclimatisation, precooling and hydration) and recovery...
November 4, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Ximena P Garzon-Villalba, Alfred Mbah, Yougui Wu, Michael Hiles, Hanna Moore, Skai W Schwartz, Thomas E Bernard
BACKGROUND: The Deepwater Horizon disaster cleanup effort provided an opportunity to examine the effects of ambient thermal conditions on exertional heat illness (EHI) and acute injury (AI). METHODS: The outcomes were daily person-based frequencies of EHI and AI. Exposures were maximum estimated WBGT (WBGTmax) and severity. Previous day's cumulative effect was assessed by introducing previous day's WBGTmax into the model. RESULTS: EHI and AI were higher in workers exposed above a WBGTmax of 20°C (RR 1...
December 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Jillian E Sylvester, Luke N Belval, Douglas J Casa, Francis G O'Connor
Football is recognized as a leading contributor to sports injury secondary to the contact collision nature of the endeavor. While direct deaths from head and spine injury remain a significant contributor to the number of catastrophic injuries, indirect deaths (systemic failure) predominate. Exertional heat stroke has emerged as one of the leading indirect causes of death in high school and collegiate football. This review details for the team physician the unique challenge of exercising in the heat to the football player, and the prevention, diagnosis, management, and return-to-play issues pertinent to exertional heat illnesses...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
June T Spector, David K Bonauto, Lianne Sheppard, Tania Busch-Isaksen, Miriam Calkins, Darrin Adams, Max Lieblich, Richard A Fenske
BACKGROUND: Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data. METHODS: A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers' compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted...
2016: PloS One
Earl R Cooper, Michael S Ferrara, Douglas J Casa, John W Powell, Steven P Broglio, Jacob E Resch, Ronald W Courson
CONTEXT: Knowledge about the specific environmental and practice risks to participants in American intercollegiate football during preseason practices is limited. Identifying risks may mitigate occurrences of exertional heat illness (EHI). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations among preseason practice day, session number, and wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and the incidence of EHI. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. SETTING: Sixty colleges and universities representing 5 geographic regions of the United States...
August 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
J Kuryszko, P Sławuta, G Sapikowski
There are two kinds of adipose tissue in mammals: white adipose tissue - WAT and brown adipose tissue - BAT. The main function of WAT is accumulation of triacylglycerols whereas the function of BAT is heat generation. At present, WAT is also considered to be an endocrine gland that produces bioactive adipokines, which take part in glucose and lipid metabolism. Considering its endocrine function, the adipose tissue is not a homogeneous gland but a group of a few glands which act differently. Studies on the secretory function of WAT began in 1994 after discovery of leptin known as the satiation hormone, which regulates body energy homeostasis and maintainence of body mass...
2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Reginald O'Hara, Christopher Vojta, Amy Henry, Lydia Caldwell, Molly Wade, Stacie Swanton, Jon K Linderman, Jason Ordway
INTRODUCTION: Heat-related illness is a critical factor for military personnel operating in hyperthermic environments. Heat illness can alter cognitive and physical performance during sustained operations missions. Therefore, the primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a novel cooling shirt on core body temperature in highly trained US Air Force personnel. METHODS: Twelve trained (at least 80th percentile for aerobic fitness according to the American College of Sports Medicine, at least 90% on the US Air Force fitness test), male Air Force participants (mean values: age, 25 ± 2...
December 0: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Susan W Yeargin, Zachary Y Kerr, Douglas J Casa, Aristarque Djoko, Ross Hayden, John T Parsons, Thomas P Dompier
INTRODUCTION: Data on exertional heat illness (EHI) in youth football are limited and have not been compared across competition levels. PURPOSE: This study describes the epidemiology of EHI events in youth, high school (HS), and college football in the 2012-2014 seasons. METHODS: One hundred and eighteen youth teams (players age 5-14 yr), 96 HS programs (~14-18 yr), and 34 college programs (~18-23 yr) participated. During games and practices, athletic trainers recorded EHI events and athlete exposures (AE), defined as one athlete participating in one game/practice...
August 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
David W DeGroot, Gordon Mok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Susan W Yeargin, John T Parsons, Thomas P Dompier, Douglas J Casa, Zachary Y Kerr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Bruce H Jones, Stephen P Rossi, David W DeGroot, Laura A Pacha, Keith G Hauret
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
M A Brownlow, A J Dart, L B Jeffcott
Metabolic heat produced by Thoroughbred racehorses during racing can rapidly elevate core body temperature (1°C/min). When environmental conditions are hot and humid, the normal physiological cooling mechanisms become ineffective. The heat accumulated may exceed a critical thermal maximum (estimated to be 42°C), which may trigger a complex pathophysiological cascade with potentially lethal consequences. This syndrome has been labelled exertional heat illness (EHI). EHI is described in humans, but has not been well documented in Thoroughbred racehorses...
July 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
Bancha Satirapoj, Suramanat Kongthaworn, Panbubpa Choovichian, Ouppatham Supasyndh
BACKGROUND: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a life-threatening illness and leads to multi-organ dysfunction including acute kidney injury (AKI). The clinical significance of abnormal electrolytes and renal outcomes in ESH patients has been poorly documented. We aim to exhibit the electrolyte abnormalities, renal outcomes and risk factors of patients with AKI receiving dialysis in EHS. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study in EHS patients between 2003 and 2014 were conducted...
June 6, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Kevin Egan, Des Field, Mary C Rea, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill, Paul D Cotter
Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jon K Davis, Lindsay B Baker, Kelly Barnes, Corey Ungaro, John Stofan
Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year...
October 2016: Sports Medicine
Casper Reske-Nielsen, Katherine Schlosser, Robert C Pascucci, James A Feldman
BACKGROUND: Heat stroke, heat-related illness, and malignant hyperthermia all present with hyperthermia. The former two are common presentations in the emergency department (ED). On the other hand, malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an uncommon but equally dangerous condition that requires prompt recognition and specific treatment with dantrolene sodium and avoidance of certain medications to reduce morbidity and mortality. Recent research focusing on nonanesthetic or exercise-induced MH has demonstrated a relationship between certain gene mutations and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility...
August 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch
From 2000 through 2015, there were 1,542 incident diagnoses of exertional hyponatremia among active component members of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps. Annual incidence rates rose sharply from 2008 through 2010 but then decreased by more than 50% from 2010 through 2013. In 2015, the number of cases (n=116) increased by approximately 20% from the previous year. The recent increase in rates overall reflects increased rates in the Army and the Marine Corps. Relative to their respective counterparts, crude incidence rates of exertional hyponatremia for the entire 16-year surveillance period were higher among females, those in the youngest age group, Marines, and recruit trainees...
March 2016: MSMR
Rachel M VanScoy, Julie K DeMartini, Douglas J Casa
Exertional heat illnesses (EHI) occur in various populations and settings. Within a school setting, there are student athletes who take part in physical activity where the risk of EHI is increased. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) released an updated position statement on EHI in September of 2015. This article is a summary of the position statement. The sports medicine team, including school nurses and athletic trainers, provides quality health care to these physically active individuals. Thus, it is important for school nurses to understand the prevention, recognition, and treatment of EHI...
May 2016: NASN School Nurse
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