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Sudden death in sport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620687/size-as-an-important-determinant-of-chest-blow-induced-commotio-cordis
#1
Christopher Madias, Barry J Maron, Nathan Dau, N A Mark Estes, Cynthia Bir, Mark S Link
PURPOSE: Commotio cordis is sudden cardiac death caused by a relatively innocent blow to the left chest wall. Adolescents account for the majority of the cases; whether this is due to the higher frequency of adolescents playing ball sports or whether there is some maturational reduction of risk is not known. METHODS: In a swine model of commotio cordis, the effect of body weight/size (directly related to age) to the susceptibility of chest impact induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) is examined...
April 3, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582881/risk-assessment-of-the-occurrence-of-sudden-death-related-to-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-in-dakar
#2
Simon Antoine Sarr, Boubacar Dodo, Kana Babaka, Fatou Aw, Malick Bodian, Mouhamadou Bamba Ndiaye, Adama Kane, Maboury Diao, Serigne Abdou Ba
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess of the risk of sudden death in a population of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients in Dakar. METHODS: This was a transverse study at the cardiology clinic of Aristide Le Dantec Hospital from January 2014 to June 2015. We used the European Society of Cardiology risk score to calculate this risk. RESULTS: The average age of patients was 53 years. Unexplained syncope was found in two patients and two others had a family history of sudden death...
January 23, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551755/a-guideline-update-for-the-practice-of-echocardiography-in-the-cardiac-screening-of-sports-participants-a-joint-policy-statement-from-the-british-society-of-echocardiography-and-cardiac-risk-in-the-young
#3
David Oxborough, Daniel Augustine, Sabiha Gati, Keith George, Allan Harkness, Thomas Mathew, Michael Papadakis, Liam Ring, Shaun Robinson, Julie Sandoval, Rizwan Sarwar, Sanjay Sharma, Vishal Sharma, Nabeel Sheikh, John Somauroo, Martin Stout, James Willis, Abbas Zaidi
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an athlete is a rare but tragic event. In view of this, pre-participation cardiac screening is mandatory across many sporting disciplines to identify those athletes at risk. Echocardiography is a primary investigation utilized in the pre-participation setting and in 2013 the British Society of Echocardiography and Cardiac Risk in the Young produced a joint policy document providing guidance on the role of echocardiography in this setting. Recent developments in our understanding of the athlete's heart and the application of echocardiography have prompted this 2018 update...
March 2018: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532331/athlete-s-heart-and-left-heart-disease
#4
Cesare de Gregorio, Dalia Di Nunzio, Gianluca Di Bella
Physical activity comprises all muscular activities that require energy expenditure. Regular sequence of structured and organized exercise with the specific purpose of improving wellness and athletic performance is defined as a sports activity.Exercise can be performed at various levels of intensity and duration. According to the social context and pathways, it can be recreational, occupational, and competitive. Therefore, the training burden varies inherently and the heart adaptation is challenging.Although a general agreement on the fact that sports practice leads to metabolic, functional and physical benefits, there is evidence that some athletes may be subjected to adverse outcomes...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463075/adverse-effects-of-doping-with-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-aas-in-competitive-athletics-recreational-sports-and-bodybuilding
#5
Elena Vorona, Eberhard Nieschlag
Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455769/prevention-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-athletes-sportspersons-and-marathoners-in-india
#6
REVIEW
Amit Vora, Nitin Burkule, Ashish Contractor, Kartikeya Bhargava
The annual incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes is significantly lower than the general population. However, when SCD occurs in an athlete during sporting event or training, it sends shockwaves in the society and raises questions about cardiovascular effects of sports and exercise. This document reviews the causes and mechanism of SCD in sports and exercise in young and older athletes. In the Indian context, we suggest a 'pre-participation screening' of young and older athletes and consider a 'supervised, graded exercise regime' for the uninitiated, older sports participant...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423771/inherited-cardiomyopathies-and-sports-participation
#7
REVIEW
A Zorzi, A Pelliccia, D Corrado
Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death in adolescents and young adults with inherited cardiomyopathies. Many young subjects aspire to continue competitive sport after a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy and the clinician is frequently confronted with the problem of eligibility and the request of designing specific exercise programs. Since inherited cardiomyopathies are the leading cause of sudden cardiovascular death during sports performance, a conservative approach implying disqualification of affected athletes from most competitive athletic disciplines is recommended by all the available international guidelines...
February 8, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414256/updated-recommendations-for-athletes-with-heart-disease
#8
Rachel Lampert, Douglas P Zipes
Professional society recommendations to decrease sudden cardiac death in athletes, including eligibility requirements with disqualification for athletes with diagnosed disease as well as preparticipation screening and emergency preparedness, were updated in 2015. The update includes new sections on aortic disease, channelopathies, and sickle cell trait, as well as a change in format from the previous binary yes/no format to the more nuanced and contemporary "class and level of evidence" format. Eighty-four of the 246 recommendations now carry Class II designation-"reasonable," or "may be considered...
January 29, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413645/the-role-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-assessment-of-highly-trained-athletes
#9
REVIEW
Sabiha Gati, Sanjay Sharma, Dudley Pennell
Exercise-associated benefits on the cardiovascular systems are well established. Although exercise-associated sudden cardiac death is rare, most deaths in young athletes are due to hereditary or congenital cardiac diseases. Athletic adaptation itself is associated with several structural changes that overlap those observed in individuals with cardiomyopathies, often leading to dilemmas for the clinician regarding life-changing decisions including advice against competitive sports participation. Cardiac magnetic resonance plays an increasingly important role in helping to establish an accurate diagnosis in these individuals...
February 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409092/-gallop-in-the-routineergometrie-only-chore-or-diagnostic-challenge
#10
Stephan Knöchner, K Kronberg, U Schumann
ANAMNESIS:  A 47-year-old recreational sportsman showed in a routine ergometry polymorphic ventricular extrasystoles with good physical performance. INVESTIGATIONS:  In resting ECG impressed ventricular extrasystoles (VES) predominantly right-hand-block-like with superior axis, a long-term ECG yielded up to 100 VES per hour. Echocardiographically imposing 4 - 5 trabeculae, feathered, reticular structures apically in the left and lower in the right ventricle...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392521/a-new-consensus-document-on-electrocardiographic-interpretation-in-athletes-does-it-help-to-prevent-sudden-cardiac-death-in-athletes
#11
REVIEW
N M Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, H T Jørstad, J L R M Smeets
Sudden cardiac arrest or death (SCA/SCD) in athletes has a low event rate. Pre-participation or eligibility screening is a widely accepted method of primary prevention of SCA/SCD in athletes. Most European countries and international sports governing bodies perform ECG-inclusive screening. However, implementation of a resting 12-lead ECG in pre-participation or eligibility cardiac screening is still a topic of debate. Recently, the 'International recommendations for electrocardiographic interpretation in athletes' was published in three leading international medical journals...
March 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381184/l%C3%A3-g-f%C3%A3-ljsamhet-till-rekommenderad-hj%C3%A3-rtscreening-av-elitidrottare-l%C3%A3-gesanalys-i-%C3%A3-sterg%C3%A3-tland
#12
Sofia Sunnerud, Eva Nylander, Magnus Janzon, Anna Carlén, Kristofer Hedman
Low adherence to recommended pre-participation cardiac evaluation of Swedish athletes Pre-participation cardiac evaluation of athletes is recommended by international organizations like the European Society of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, as well as by the Swedish Sports Confederation. The purpose of the evaluation is to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes by early identification of individuals at risk. To our knowledge, no previous study has been made regarding the implementation of pre-participation cardiac evaluation of athletes in Sweden...
January 30, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337583/sudden-death-aversion-avoiding-superior-options-because-they-feel-riskier
#13
Jesse Walker, Jane L Risen, Thomas Gilovich, Richard Thaler
We present evidence of sudden-death aversion (SDA)-the tendency to avoid "fast" strategies that provide a greater chance of success, but include the possibility of immediate defeat, in favor of "slow" strategies that reduce the possibility of losing quickly, but have lower odds of ultimate success. Using a combination of archival analyses and controlled experiments, we explore the psychology behind SDA. First, we provide evidence for SDA and its cost to decision makers by tabulating how often NFL teams send games into overtime by kicking an extra point rather than going for the 2-point conversion (Study 1) and how often NBA teams attempt potentially game-tying 2-point shots rather than potentially game-winning 3-pointers (Study 2)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330860/sudden-death-in-sport-and-riding-horses-during-and-immediately-after-exercise-a-case-series
#14
C Navas de Solis, F Althaus, N Basieux, D Burger
BACKGROUND: Sudden death affects the health of horses, the safety of riders and the public perception of animal welfare during equestrian events. OBJECTIVES: To describe the signalment, clinical history, sudden death episode, rider injuries and causes of sudden death during exercise or closely thereafter in sport and pleasure riding horses. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series based on an online questionnaire. METHODS: An online questionnaire was distributed to the veterinary and equestrian community...
January 13, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284578/sudden-cardiac-death-in-athletes
#15
REVIEW
Michael S Emery, Richard J Kovacs
Sudden cardiac death is a tragedy at any age and under any circumstances but is perhaps most tragic when it claims the life of the athlete, the individual who epitomizes health and a healthy lifestyle. Sports cardiologists from around the world have worked to quantitate the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the athlete, to identify risk factors, to develop pre-participation screening tools, and to formulate plans to deal with on-field SCD. Progress has been made, but much remains to be done in order to make both competitive and recreational sports safer for both patients with known cardiac disease and athletes without known or suspected cardiac abnormalities...
January 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237243/exercise-related-severe-cardiac-events
#16
L Vicent, A Ariza-Solé, J R González-Juanatey, A Uribarri, J Ortiz, E López de Sá, J Sans-Roselló, C T Querol, P Codina, I Sousa-Casasnovas, M Martínez-Sellés
Physical activity has benefits on health. However, there is a small risk of effort-related adverse events. The aim of this study is to describe exercise-related severe cardiovascular events and to relate them with the type of sport performed. We performed a ten-year retrospective study in eight Spanish cardiac intensive care units. Adverse cardiac events were defined as acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest or syncope related to physical activity. From 117 patients included, 109 were male (93.2%), and mean age was 51...
April 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196876/early-recognition-of-sudden-cardiac-arrest-in-athletes-during-sports-activity
#17
N M Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, H J Wellens, J J Piek
INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in athletes is an unexpected life-threatening event, which is often not recognised early and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not always initiated immediately. We describe key features to rapidly recognise non-traumatic SCA in athletes during sports activity. METHODS: We reviewed videos and images of athletes suffering from non-traumatic SCA during sports activity. We searched Google images, Google videos and YouTube...
January 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183415/the-pre-participation-screening-in-young-athletes-which-protocol-do-we-need-exactly
#18
İbrahim I Çetin, Filiz Ekici, Ayşe E Kibar, Murat Sürücü, Ali Orgun
The aim was to assess the utility and feasibility of a comprehensive cardiac screening protocol in young athletes before participation in sports. A total of 380 athletes referring before participation in sports, between April, 2014 and April, 2015, were included in this study. The mean age was 12.4 years. A screening protocol has been applied to all, including personal and family history, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, 24-hour rhythm Holter analysis, and treadmill exercise test...
November 29, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173402/sudden-cardiac-death-during-sports-activities-in-the-general-population
#19
REVIEW
Kumar Narayanan, Wulfran Bougouin, Ardalan Sharifzadehgan, Victor Waldmann, Nicole Karam, Eloi Marijon, Xavier Jouven
Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular and overall mortality. Participation in sports is an important determinant of cardiovascular health and fitness. Regular sports activity is associated with a smaller risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, there is a small risk of sports-related SCD. Sports-related SCD accounts for approximately 5% of total SCD. SCD among athletes comprises only a fraction of all sports-related SCD. Sport-related SCD has a male predominance and an average age of affliction of 45 to 50 years...
December 2017: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148628/clinical-significance-of-st-depression-at-exercise-stress-testing-in-competitive-athletes-usefulness-of-coronary-ct-during-screening
#20
Fabio Sperandii, Emanuele Guerra, Eliana Tranchita, Carlo Minganti, Chiara Lanzillo, Antonia Nigro, Federico Quaranta, Attilio Parisi, Mauro DI Roma, Luciano Maresca, Federica Fagnani, Leonardo Calò
BACKGROUND: Congenital coronary anomalies (CCAs) and coronary artery disease (CAD) arouse intense scientific and clinical interest in sports medicine and sports cardiology medical communities because of their potential to trigger sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes. Exercise stress testing represent the first instrumental assessment to evaluate electrocardiographic changes during effort. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is an advanced accurate noninvasive imaging modality for excluding CAD and abnormalities of origin and course of coronary vessels...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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