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Richard P Shefferson, Ryo Mizuta, Michael J Hutchings
Although many ecological properties of species respond to climate change, their evolutionary responses are poorly understood. Here, we use data from long-term demographic studies to predict evolutionary responses of three herbaceous perennial orchid species, Cypripedium parviflorum, C. candidum and Ophrys sphegodes, to predicted climate changes in the habitats they occupy. We focus on the evolution of sprouting probability, because all three species exhibit long-term vegetative dormancy, i.e. individual plants may not emerge above-ground, potentially for several consecutive years...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Ryan P Walsh, Helen J Michaels
BACKGROUND: Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing...
2017: PloS One
Yumi Yamashita, Ayako Izuno, Yuji Isagi, Takahide Kurosawa, Shingo Kaneko
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Twenty-six microsatellite markers were developed for the endangered orchid Cypripedium japonicum (Orchidaceae) to estimate the clonal diversity and genetic structure of the remaining populations in Japan. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microsatellite loci of C. japonicum were isolated using Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) sequencing. The primer sets were tested on 55 ramets sampled from two populations in Japan. Sixteen loci showed polymorphism in at least one population, with two to five alleles per locus...
February 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
Madhav Pandey, Matt Richards, Jyotsna Sharma
We investigated the patterns of genetic diversity and structure in seven disjunct populations of a rare North American orchid, Cypripedium kentuckiense by including populations that represented the periphery and the center of the its range. Eight nuclear and two chloroplast microsatellites were used. Genetic diversity was low across the sampled populations of C. kentuckiense based on both nuclear (average An = 4.0, Ho = 0.436, He = 0.448) and cpDNA microsatellites (average An = 1.57, Nh = 1.57 and H = 0...
December 2015: Genetica
Yung-I Lee, Mei-Chu Chung, Edward C Yeung, Nean Lee
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although abscisic acid (ABA) is commonly recognized as a primary cause of seed dormancy, there is a lack of information on the role of ABA during orchid seed development. In order to address this issue, the localization and quantification of ABA were determined in developing seeds of Cypripedium formosanum. METHODS: The endogenous ABA profile of seeds was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Temporal and spatial distributions of ABA in developing seeds were visualized by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal ABA antibodies...
September 2015: Annals of Botany
Choun-Sea Lin, Jeremy J W Chen, Yao-Ting Huang, Ming-Tsair Chan, Henry Daniell, Wan-Jung Chang, Chen-Tran Hsu, De-Chih Liao, Fu-Huei Wu, Sheng-Yi Lin, Chen-Fu Liao, Michael K Deyholos, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Victor A Albert, Ming-Lun Chou, Chun-Yi Chen, Ming-Che Shih
The NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex is encoded by 11 ndh genes in plant chloroplast (cp) genomes. However, ndh genes are truncated or deleted in some autotrophic Epidendroideae orchid cp genomes. To determine the evolutionary timing of the gene deletions and the genomic locations of the various ndh genes in orchids, the cp genomes of Vanilla planifolia, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum niveum, Cypripedium formosanum, Habenaria longidenticulata, Goodyera fumata and Masdevallia picturata were sequenced; these genomes represent Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae subfamilies...
2015: Scientific Reports
Jane Oja, Petr Kohout, Leho Tedersoo, Tiiu Kull, Urmas Kõljalg
Orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) symbionts play a key role in the growth of orchids, but the temporal variation and habitat partitioning of these fungi in roots and soil remain unclear. Temporal changes in root and rhizosphere fungal communities of Cypripedium calceolus, Neottia ovata and Orchis militaris were studied in meadow and forest habitats over the vegetation period by using 454 pyrosequencing of the full internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The community of typical OrM symbionts differed by plant species and habitats...
March 2015: New Phytologist
Xin Qian, Quan-Jian Li, Fen Liu, Mao-Jiang Gong, Cai-Xia Wang, Min Tian
Knowledge about the population genetic variation of the endangered orchid, Cypripedium japonicum, is conducive to the development of conservation strategies. Here, we examined the levels and partitioning of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) diversity (109 loci) in five populations of this orchid to gain insight into its genetic variation and population structure in Eastern and Central China. It harbored considerably lower levels of genetic diversity both at the population (percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) = 11...
2014: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ryan P Walsh, Paige M Arnold, Helen J Michaels
For many species of conservation significance, multiple factors limit reproduction. This research examines the contributions of plant height, number of flowers, number of stems, pollen limitation and seed predation to female reproductive success in the deceit-pollinated orchid, Cypripedium candidum. The deceptive pollination strategy employed by many orchids often results in high levels of pollen limitation. While increased floral display size may attract pollinators, C. candidum's multiple, synchronously flowering stems could promote selfing and also increase attack by weevil seed predators...
2014: AoB Plants
Jing Luo, Bei-Wei Hou, Zhi-Tao Niu, Wei Liu, Qing-Yun Xue, Xiao-Yu Ding
The orchid family Orchidaceae is one of the largest angiosperm families, including many species of important economic value. While chloroplast genomes are very informative for systematics and species identification, there is very limited information available on chloroplast genomes in the Orchidaceae. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genomes of the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale and the ornamental orchid Cypripedium macranthos, demonstrating their gene content and order and potential RNA editing sites...
2014: PloS One
Songjun Zeng, Yu Zhang, Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Kunlin Wu, Jianxia Zhang, Jun Duan
Cypripedium orchids have high horticultural value. The populations of most species are very geographically restricted and they are becoming increasingly rare due to the destruction of native habitats and illegal collection. Reduction of the commercial value through large-scale propagation in vitro is a preferable option to reduce pressure from illegal collection. Cypripedium species are commercially propagated via seed germination in vitro. This review focuses on in vitro seed germination and provides an in-depth analysis of the seed biology of this genus...
December 2014: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Søren Barsberg, Hanne N Rasmussen, Nete Kodahl
UNLABELLED: HASH(0x5a0bee8) PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Orchid seeds are minute and covered with a thin coat, yet they often have a long life after dispersal. They are notorious for low and irregular germination, in nature as well as in vitro. Since orchids are often rare species of conservational and commercial interest, reproduction by seeds is an important concern. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the resilience of these highly specialized seeds and stimulatory processes toward germination...
October 2013: American Journal of Botany
Raziel Davison, Florence Nicolè, Hans Jacquemyn, Shripad Tuljapurkar
Although correlations between vital rates can have important effects on evolution and demography, few studies have investigated their effects on population dynamics. Here, we extend life-table response experiments (LTREs) to variable environments, showing how to quantify contributions made by (1) mean vital rates, (2) variability driven by environmental fluctuations, (3) correlations implying demographic trade-offs and reflecting stage transition synchrony, and (4) elasticities reflecting local selection pressures...
March 2013: American Naturalist
Yan-Yan Guo, Yi-Bo Luo, Zhong-Jian Liu, Xiao-Quan Wang
Intercontinental disjunctions between tropical regions, which harbor two-thirds of the flowering plants, have drawn great interest from biologists and biogeographers. Most previous studies on these distribution patterns focused on woody plants, and paid little attention to herbs. The Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of angiosperms, with a herbaceous habit and a high species diversity in the Tropics. Here we investigate the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the slipper orchids, which represents a monophyletic subfamily (Cypripedioideae) of the orchid family and comprises five genera that are disjunctly distributed in tropical to temperate regions...
2012: PloS One
E G Filippov, E V Andronova
Ten gene loci of nine enzyme systems (PGI, 6-PGD, NADHD, SKDH, GDH, PGM, DIA, ADH, GOT-1, and GOT-2) were analyzed in Cypripedium calceolus, C. macranthon, C. shanxiense, and C. ventricosum plants from the south of the Russian Far East. Alleles of loci 6-PGD, NADHD, GDH, ADH, GOT-1, and PGIproved to be diagnostic for C. calceolus and C. macranthon. Plants of C. shanxiense from Primorye and Sakhalin Island were monomorphic at all of the loci examined, and their allelic structure can be regarded as diagnostic for the species...
May 2011: Genetika
Ji-hong Li, Zhong-jian Liu, Gerardo A Salazar, Peter Bernhardt, Holger Perner, Yukawa Tomohisa, Xiao-hua Jin, Shih-wen Chung, Yi-bo Luo
A molecular analysis was performed on 56 taxa in the orchid genus Cypripedium using nrDNA ITS and five chloroplast regions (trnH-psbA, atpI-atpH, trnS-trnfM, trnL-F spacer, and the trnL intron). The genus Cypripedium was confirmed as monophyletic. Our data provided strong support for monophyletic grouping of eight infrageneric sections (Subtropica, Obtusipetala, Trigonopedia, Sinopedilum, Bifolia, Flabelinervia, Arietinum, and Cypripedium) defined in earlier taxonomic treatments, and paraphyletic grouping of two sections (Irapeana and Retinervi)...
November 2011: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
M A Case, H T Mlodozeniec, L E Wallace, T W Weldy
Cypripedium kentuckiense is a recently described rare orchid found in Arkansas (predominantly) and in eight other states. Much debate has focused on whether this taxon should be recognized as a distinct species or considered to be an extreme manifestation of the variability present in the widespread taxon Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens. In this study, 12 isozyme loci were analyzed for 14 populations of C. parviflorum var. pubescens and eight populations of C. kentuckiense. These data were used to examine the genetic similarity of these taxa, assess whether isozyme data support the continued recognition of C...
December 1998: American Journal of Botany
R Primack, E Stacy
An 11-yr experimental study of the cost of reproduction in three wild populations of the perennial orchid Cypripedium acaule contrasted experimental plants that were repeatedly hand-pollinated and often made fruits with control plants that were not hand-pollinated and only rarely made fruits. Repeated flowering without subsequent fruit production resulted in no detectable reduction in either plant size or probability of flowering in subsequent years. A cost of fruit production was evident in experimental plants in all three populations in terms of a reduced probability of flowering and smaller leaf area in subsequent years, but was not evident in terms of mortality rate...
December 1998: American Journal of Botany
Zong-Xin Ren, De-Zhu Li, Peter Bernhardt, Hong Wang
Charles Darwin was fascinated by the orchid-pollinator interactions, but he did not realize that many orchid species are pollinated by deceit. Cypripedium, a model lineage of nonrewarding orchid flowers, is pollinated primarily by bees. Here we present both an example of floral mimesis of fungus-infected foliage in orchids and an example of flat-footed flies (Agathomyia sp.; Platypezidae) as pollen vectors for angiosperms. Cypripedium fargesii is a nectarless, terrestrial, endangered orchid from southwestern China that requires cross-pollination to produce the maximum number of viable embryos...
May 3, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shi-Bao Zhang, Zhi-Jie Guan, Wei Chang, Hong Hu, Qing Yin, Kun-Fang Cao
Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium are close relatives in the subfamily Cypripedioideae. Cypripedium leaves contain guard cell chloroplasts, whereas Paphiopedilum do not. It is unclear whether the lack of guard cell chloroplasts affects photosynthetic induction, which is important for understory plants to utilize sunflecks. To understand the role of guard cell chloroplasts in photosynthetic induction of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium, the stomatal anatomy and photosynthetic induction of Paphiopedilum armeniacum and Cypripedium flavum were investigated at different ratios of red to blue light...
June 2011: Physiologia Plantarum
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