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job-based approach

Paloma de Souza Cavalcante Pissinati, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço Haddad, José Carlos Dalmas, Marcela Maria Birolim
The aim was to analyze socio-demographic and occupational factors associated with gains and losses perceived by employees nearing retirement in a public university. In an exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative survey, employees (n = 164) approaching retirement in a public university in northern Paraná State, Brazil, assigned scales of importance to gains and losses. The data were analyzed with simple and multiple linear regression, based on the sizes of the scales, with socio-demographic and occupational variables as predictors...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Caroline H D Jones, Margaret Glogowska, Louise Locock, Daniel S Lasserson
BACKGROUND: Many point of care diagnostic technologies are available which produce results within minutes, and offer the opportunity to deliver acute care out of hospital settings. Increasing access to diagnostics at the point of care could increase the volume and scope of acute ambulatory care. Yet these technologies are not routinely used in many settings. We aimed to explore how point of care testing is used in a setting where it has become 'normalized' (embedded in everyday practice), in order to inform future adoption and implementation in other settings...
October 19, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Kevin Patrick, Eric B Hekler, Deborah Estrin, David C Mohr, Heleen Riper, David Crane, Job Godino, William T Riley
This paper addresses the rapid pace of change in the technologies that support digital interventions; the complexity of the health problems they aim to address; and the adaptation of scientific methods to accommodate the volume, velocity, and variety of data and interventions possible from these technologies. Information, communication, and computing technologies are now part of every societal domain and support essentially every facet of human activity. Ubiquitous computing, a vision articulated fewer than 30 years ago, has now arrived...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Suad Jaffer Al-Lawati, Mushtaque Ahmed, Malik Al-Wardy, Ahmed Al-Busaidi, B S Choudri
It is well recognized that management of wastewater and sludge is a critical environmental issue in many countries. Wastewater treatment and the sludge production take place under different technical, economic and social contexts, thus requiring different approaches and involving different solutions. In most of cases, a regular and environmentally safe wastewater treatment and associated sludge management requires the development of realistic and enforceable regulations as well as treatment systems appropriate to local circumstances...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Job Aben, Greta Bocedi, Stephen C F Palmer, Petri Pellikka, Diederik Strubbe, Caspar Hallmann, Justin M J Travis, Luc Lens, Erik Matthysen
As biodiversity hotspots are often characterized by high human population densities, implementation of conservation management practices that focus only on the protection and enlargement of pristine habitats is potentially unrealistic. An alternative approach to curb species extinction risk involves improving connectivity among existing habitat patches. However, evaluation of spatially explicit management strategies is challenging, as predictive models must account for the process of dispersal, which is difficult in terms of both empirical data collection and modelling...
August 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Sohail Anjum, Usman Mahboob
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perceptions of house officers working in hospitals about joining anaesthesiology as a career. METHODS: This quantitative, descriptive questionnaire-based study was carried out from September 2014 to February 2015 in 26 teaching hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised house officers. Those with at least three months of working experience in anaesthesiology were included. They were approached in their respective departments and a validated self-reporting questionnaire was delivered to them and received back by hand...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Bo-Hyun Park, YuKyung Ko
BACKGROUND: DCE was applied to investigate nursing students' preferred hospital choice criteria and to investigate the trends in the trade-offs by calculating the marginal rate of substitution between these criteria. This study identified the properties of the hospitals primarily selected by nursing students, and aims to estimate the monetary value of each attribute. METHODS: Based on discussions and in-depth interviews with nursing students' focus groups and a literature review, we created a discrete choice experiment (DCE) that assessed how students' stated preference for a certain hospital choice was influenced by various job attributes: higher salary, location, hospital type, salary per year, provision of a dormitory, etc...
September 29, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Tsegahun Manyazewal, Martha J Oosthuizen, Mokgadi C Matlakala
OBJECTIVES: Many resource-limited countries have adopted and implemented healthcare reform to improve the quality of healthcare, but few have had much impact and strategies in support of these efforts remain limited. We aimed to explore and propose evidence-based strategies to strengthen implementation of healthcare reform in resource-limited settings. DESIGN: Descriptive and exploratory designs in two phases. Phase I involved assessing the effectiveness of the healthcare reform implemented in Ethiopia in the form of business process reengineering, with evidence compiled from healthcare professionals through a self-administered questionnaire; and phase II involved proposing strategies and seeking consensus from experts using Delphi method...
2016: BMJ Open
Diana J Mason
The Hill Burton Act, which was signed into law in 1946 and ended in 1997, was one of the most significant forces that shaped the health care system we have today. Providing grants and loans for the construction and expansion of hospitals across the country, it required beneficiary hospitals to give some amount of uncompensated care to the poor and uninsured in return. The act not only led to our health care system's current emphasis on the acute-care hospital as the primary site of health care delivery, but it also had a profound effect on nursing, fully involving the profession in an acute-care world...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
Julie Ann Cogin, Ju Li Ng, Ilro Lee
BACKGROUND: We assess how human resource management (HRM) is implemented in Australian hospitals. Drawing on role theory, we consider the influence HRM has on job attitudes of healthcare staff and hospital operational efficiency. METHODS: We adopt a qualitative research design across professional groups (physicians, nurses, and allied health staff) at multiple levels (executive, healthcare managers, and employee). A total of 34 interviews were carried out and analyzed using NVivo...
2016: Human Resources for Health
Kimberly C Dreison, Lauren Luther, Kelsey A Bonfils, Michael T Sliter, John H McGrew, Michelle P Salyers
Burnout is prevalent among mental health providers and is associated with significant employee, consumer, and organizational costs. Over the past 35 years, numerous intervention studies have been conducted but have yet to be reviewed and synthesized using a quantitative approach. To fill this gap, we performed a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of burnout interventions for mental health workers. We completed a systematic literature search of burnout intervention studies that spanned more than 3 decades (1980 to 2015)...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
Sam Illingworth
The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970). However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday & Martin, 2003). This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists...
2016: F1000Research
Shingo Hattori, Kengo Akagawa, Kazuaki Kudo, Kazuyuki Ishii
We demonstrated that the circular dichroism (CD) exciton chirality method, based on the supramolecular interactions of meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (MTPPS4, M = Zn or H2), was applicable for the determination of the absolute configuration between the side chains of two basic amino acid residues of stable monomeric β-hairpin peptides (tryptophan zipper: Trpzip). When MTPPS4 was added to an aqueous solution containing Trpzip, a bisignate CD signal was detected in the Soret band region in addition to a decrease in absorbance...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Lisa M Puchalski Ritchie, Monique van Lettow, Austine Makwakwa, Adrienne K Chan, Jemila S Hamid, Harry Kawonga, Alexandra L C Martiniuk, Michael J Schull, Vanessa van Schoor, Merrick Zwarenstein, Jan Barnsley, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective treatment, tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with low- and middle-income countries most affected. In many such settings, including Malawi, the high burden of disease and severe shortage of skilled healthcare workers has led to task-shifting of outpatient TB care to lay health workers (LHWs). LHWs improve access to healthcare and some outcomes, including TB completion rates, but lack of training and supervision limit their impact...
2016: Trials
Anneke van Dijk-de Vries, Marloes A van Bokhoven, Sabine de Jong, Job F M Metsemakers, Peter F M Verhaak, Trudy van der Weijden, Jacques Th M van Eijk
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus face several emotional and social consequences of their chronic illness in their everyday life. Symptoms of distress and depression are prevalent. For providing psychosocial self-management support, nurses in primary care were trained to identify patients with psychosocial problems during routine medically-shaped diabetes consultations. However, detection rates appeared to be strikingly low. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to examine patients' readiness to discuss psychosocial problems with nurses during diabetes consultations...
November 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Helen T Allan, Carin Magnusson, Karen Evans, Elaine Ball, Sue Westwood, Kathy Curtis, Khim Horton, Martin Johnson
The invisibility of nursing work has been discussed in the international literature but not in relation to learning clinical skills. Evans and Guile's (Practice-based education: Perspectives and strategies, Rotterdam: Sense, 2012) theory of recontextualisation is used to explore the ways in which invisible or unplanned and unrecognised learning takes place as newly qualified nurses learn to delegate to and supervise the work of the healthcare assistant. In the British context, delegation and supervision are thought of as skills which are learnt "on the job...
September 5, 2016: Nursing Inquiry
Amer Momani, Muʼath Hirzallah, Ahmad Mumani
Occupational injuries and illnesses in healthcare can cause great human suffering, incur high cost, and have an adverse impact on the quality of patient care. One of the most effective solutions for addressing health and safety issues and improving decisions at the point of care rests in raising employees' safety awareness to recognize, avoid, or respond to potential problems before they arise. In this article, the DMAIC Six Sigma model (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) is used as a systematic program to measure, improve, and sustain employees' safety awareness in healthcare organizations...
August 30, 2016: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
Markus Kreuzthaler, Jose Antonio Miñarro-Giménez, Stefan Schulz
Big data resources are difficult to process without a scaled hardware environment that is specifically adapted to the problem. The emergence of flexible cloud-based virtualization techniques promises solutions to this problem. This paper demonstrates how a billion of lines can be processed in a reasonable amount of time in a cloud-based environment. Our use case addresses the accumulation of concept co-occurrence data in MEDLINE annotation as a series of MapReduce jobs, which can be scaled and executed in the cloud...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Helen Mason, Job van Exel, Rachel Baker, Werner Brouwer, Cam Donaldson
Governments across Europe are required to make decisions about how best to allocate scarce health care resources. There are legitimate arguments for eliciting societal vales in relation to health care resource allocation given the roles of the general public as payers and potential patients. However, relatively little is known about the views of the general public on general principles which could guide these decisions. In this paper we present five societal viewpoints on principles for health care resources allocation and develop a new approach, Q2S, designed to investigate the extent to which these views are held across a range of European countries...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Bhaskar Purohit, Tim Martineau, Kabir Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Limited research on Posting and Transfer (P&T) policies and systems in the public sector health services and the reluctance for an open debate on the issue makes P&T as a black box. Limited research on P&T in India suggests that P&T policies and systems are either non-existent, weak, poorly implemented or characterized by corruption. Hence the current study aimed at opening the "black box" of P&T systems in public sector health services in India by assessing the implementation gaps between P&T policies and their actual implementation...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
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