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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457244/the-different-moral-bases-of-patient-and-surrogate-decision-making
#1
Daniel Brudney
My topic is a problem with our practice of surrogate decision-making in health care, namely, the problem of the surrogate who is not doing her job-the surrogate who cannot be reached or the surrogate who seems to refuse to understand or to be unable to understand the clinical situation. The analysis raises a question about the surrogate who simply disagrees with the medical team. One might think that such a surrogate is doing her job-the team just doesn't like how she is doing it. My analysis raises the question of whether (or perhaps when) she should be overridden...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456598/-it-s-learned-on-the-job-and-it-depends-who-you-re-with-an-observational-qualitative-study-of-how-internal-jugular-cannulation-is-taught-and-learned
#2
Clifford L Shelton, Maggie M Mort, Andrew F Smith
Internal jugular cannulation may lead to serious complications. Ultrasound guidance is advocated; however, procedural complications remain a concern. Inconsistent education may be in part responsible for this. This study examined how internal jugular cannulation is taught and learned. An ethnographic approach was used in two acute hospitals. Methods comprised interviews, observations and focus groups. An inductive thematic analysis was undertaken. Three themes were identified: apprenticeship , trust and reciprocity...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454253/charge-transfer-complex-between-2-3-diaminopyridine-with-chloranilic-acid-synthesis-characterization-and-dft-td-dft-computational-studies
#3
Khairia M Al-Ahmary, Moustafa M Habeeb, Areej H Al-Obidan
New charge transfer complex (CTC) between the electron donor 2,3-diaminopyridine (DAP) with the electron acceptor chloranilic (CLA) acid has been synthesized and characterized experimentally and theoretically using a variety of physicochemical techniques. The experimental work included the use of elemental analysis, UV-vis, IR and 1 H NMR studies to characterize the complex. Electronic spectra have been carried out in different hydrogen bonded solvents, methanol (MeOH), acetonitrile (AN) and 1:1 mixture from AN-MeOH...
February 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452409/recruitment-and-retention-of-trainee-physicians-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-motivations-and-influences-on-career-choice-of-trainee-physicians
#4
C Ryan, E Ward, M Jones
Background: Across the UK there are vacant physician posts at every level. This increases workload and stress for those who remain, in turn making substantive jobs less attractive. Aim: To understand the influences on career choice and retention in training of current trainee physicians. Methods: An online survey, with a combination of closed and free text questions, was developed to assess factors that affected career choices. This was sent to all core and higher specialty trainees in Scotland and Associate or Collegiate members of the Royal College of Physicians Edinburgh not training in Scotland...
February 14, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449870/validating-the-demand-control-support-questionnaire-among-white-collar-employees-in-switzerland-and-the-united-states
#5
Daniel Mauss, Raphael M Herr, Töres Theorell, Peter Angerer, Jian Li
Background: The Demand Control Support Questionnaire (DCSQ) is an established self-reported tool to measure a stressful work environment. Validated German and English versions are however currently missing. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the psychometric properties of German and English versions of the DCSQ among white-collar employees in Switzerland and the US. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 499 employees in Switzerland and 411 in the US, respectively...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449045/how-to-measure-glucocorticoid-receptor-s-sensitivity-in-patients-with-stress-related-psychiatric-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Carolin Leistner, Andreas Menke
Stress is a state of derailed homeostasis and a main environmental risk factor for psychiatric diseases. Chronic or uncontrollable stress may lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a common feature of stress-related psychiatric disorders. One of the key mechanisms underlying a disturbed HPA axis is an impaired function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with an enhanced or reduced feedback sensitivity for glucocorticoids and subsequently altered concentrations of peripheral cortisol...
February 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445639/the-association-between-adverse-events-in-the-last-5-years-and-the-rate-of-breast-cancer
#7
Babak Rastegarimehr, Atefeh Zahedi, Parvin Yavari, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Moslem Taheri Soodejani
Background: This study was conducted in Yazd Province, Central Iran aimed to investigate the relationship between adverse events and breast cancer during 2012-2014. Methods: Hospital-based case-control study of 150 women with breast cancer and 150 healthy women (did not have breast cancer) was conducted. Sampling was performed in the form of accessibility. Data collection was conducted using questionnaire through interview. The collected data were entered into SPSS for statistical analysis...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445105/presence-absence-of-marine-macrozoobenthos-does-not-generally-predict-abundance-and-biomass
#8
Allert I Bijleveld, Tanya J Compton, Lise Klunder, Sander Holthuijsen, Job Ten Horn, Anita Koolhaas, Anne Dekinga, Jaap van der Meer, Henk W van der Veer
Many monitoring programmes of species abundance and biomass increasingly face financial pressures. Occupancy is often easier and cheaper to measure than abundance or biomass. We, therefore, explored whether measuring occupancy is a viable alternative to measuring abundance and biomass. Abundance- or biomass-occupancy relationships were studied for sixteen macrozoobenthos species collected across the entire Dutch Wadden Sea in eight consecutive summers. Because the form and strength of these relationships are scale-dependent, the analysis was completed at different spatiotemporal scales...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445011/understanding-veterinary-leadership-in-practice
#9
Caroline Elizabeth Pearson, Allan J Butler, Yaqub Paul Murray
The Vet Futures Report has identified 'exceptional leadership' as a key ambition for the long-term sustainability of the industry. This research investigates what it is like to be a veterinary surgeon in an in-practice leadership position, applying the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Through the researchers' interpretation of the seven participants' stories of their leadership experiences, the study advances understanding of the work environment, underlying motivations and the perceived responsibilities of veterinary leaders...
February 14, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441662/differential-vocational-rehabilitation-service-patterns-and-outcomes-for-transition-age-youth-with-autism
#10
Cahit Kaya, Cheryl Hanley-Maxwell, Fong Chan, Timothy Tansey
BACKGROUND: It is important to investigate receipt of vocational rehabilitation (VR) services, service patterns and outcomes for youth with autism, so that limited public resources can be used more efficiently. METHOD: This study used chi-squared automatic interaction detector, and multivariate logistic regression analysis to investigate relationships between demographic variables, receipt of VR services and employment outcomes for transition-age youth (TAY) with Autism...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441445/promoting-ethics-and-integrity-in-management-academic-research-retraction-initiative
#11
REVIEW
Freida Ozavize Ayodele, Liu Yao, Hasnah Haron
In the management academic research, academic advancement, job security, and the securing of research funds at one's university are judged mainly by one's output of publications in high impact journals. With bogus resumes filled with published journal articles, universities and other allied institutions are keen to recruit or sustain the appointment of such academics. This often places undue pressure on aspiring academics and on those already recruited to engage in research misconduct which often leads to research integrity...
February 13, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440211/portuguese-version-of-a-stress-and-well-being-evaluation-tool-asset-at-the-workplace-validation-of-the-psychometric-properties
#12
Maria João Heitor Dos Santos, Sérgio Moreira, Joana Carreiras, Cary Cooper, Matthew Smeed, Maria de Fátima Reis, José Pereira Miguel
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this work was to translate the English version of ASSET (A Shortened Stress Evaluation Tool) into the Portuguese version and to validate its psychometric properties. Additionally, this work tested the convergent validity of the instrument. METHODS: The translation and retroversion were conducted by experts and submitted to the authors for approval. Within an observational, cross-sectional study, regarding mental health at the workplace, ASSET together with other scales was applied to a sample of 405 participants...
February 12, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436758/perception-of-dental-students-on-risk-factors-of-musculoskeletal-disorders
#13
A C Botta, C D Presoto, D Wajngarten, J A D B Campos, P P N S Garcia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Job Factors Questionnaire, and the influence of gender, academic level and pain/discomfort on dental students' perception regarding risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: One hundred forty-five dental students from Stony Brook School of Dental Medicine participated voluntarily in this study. The survey was organised in two sections: (i) Job Factors Questionnaire with 15 items that evaluated students' perceptions about job/study environmental risk factors and their potential contribution to musculoskeletal disorders...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435898/experiences-of-racism-and-breastfeeding-initiation-and-duration-among-first-time-mothers-of-the-black-women-s-health-study
#14
Michele K Griswold, Sybil L Crawford, Donna J Perry, Sharina D Person, Lynn Rosenberg, Yvette C Cozier, Julie R Palmer
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding rates are lower for black women in the USA compared with other groups. Breastfeeding and lactation are sensitive time points in the life course, centering breastfeeding as a health equity issue. In the USA, experiences of racism have been linked to poor health outcomes but racism relative to breastfeeding has not been extensively investigated. AIMS: This study aims to investigate the association between experiences of racism, neighborhood segregation, and nativity with breastfeeding initiation and duration...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435353/exploring-links-between-common-mental-health-problems-alcohol-substance-use-and-perpetration-of-intimate-partner-violence-a-rapid-ethnographic-assessment-with-men-in-urban-kenya
#15
A Schafer, P Koyiet
Introduction: Kenya has some of the highest rates of gender-based violence (GBV) in the world, particularly intimate partner violence. World Vision completed a rapid ethnographic assessment to explore common problems faced by men and local perspectives about the links between men, mental health, alcohol use and GBV. Methods: Data from community free-listing surveys (n = 52), four focus group discussions and two key informant interviews formed the basis for thematic analysis and findings...
2018: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433519/factors-influencing-turnover-intention-among-primary-care-doctors-a-cross-sectional-study-in-chongqing-china
#16
Tong Wen, Yan Zhang, Xue Wang, Guo Tang
BACKGROUND: The intention to leave a job, known as turnover intention, among primary care doctors has a significant impact on primary health care service delivery. We investigated primary care doctors' turnover intention and analysed associated factors involved in primary health facilities in Chongqing, China. METHODS: A total of 440 doctors were interviewed, they were selected using a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. The survey instrument was a self-administered questionnaire which assessed socio-demographic and work-related characteristics, job satisfaction and turnover intention...
February 13, 2018: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431755/simplified-determination-of-complex-stoichiometry-for-colorimetric-metal-indicators-by-inkjet-printing
#17
Kento Kuwahara, Kentaro Yamada, Koji Suzuki, Daniel Citterio
This paper presents the determination of complex binding stoichiometry for colorimetric metal indicators according to the Job plot method by means of an office inkjet printer in combination with digital colour analysis. In contrast to the conventional solution-based analysis involving manual preparation of many mixed solutions, the elaborated inkjet-based approach allows convenient automated mixing of metal salt and indicator solutions in various ratios on a paper substrate. Inkjet-deposited liquid volumes and mixing ratios were controlled by simple colour value setting on a PC...
February 12, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428450/physicians-working-under-the-influence-of-alcohol-an-analysis-of-past-disciplinary-proceedings-and-their-outcomes
#18
Damian Jacob Sendler
INTRODUCTION: The intoxicated person may cause harm to others, often requiring expert evaluation for the determination of guilt. The primary aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms of mistakes that led 17 doctors accused of working under the influence of alcohol to face malpractice. We also wanted to clarify what were the legal, professional, and financial consequences - depending on specific patient outcomes. METHOD: We based analysis on the review and meta-analysis of the past forensic evaluation reports of institution-run forensics programs...
February 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426685/burnout-job-resources-and-job-demands-associated-with-low-personal-accomplishment-in-united-states-radiology-residents
#19
Jeffrey P Guenette, Stacy E Smith
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify job resources and job demands associated with measures of personal accomplishment (PA) in radiology residents in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 34-item online survey was administered between May and June 2017 to U.S. radiology residents and included the 8 Likert-type PA questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, 19 visual analog scale job demands-resources questions, and 7 demographic questions...
February 6, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422184/health-promoting-lifestyles-and-their-related-influences-among-nursing-assistants-in-nursing-homes-in-china
#20
Lixia Chen, Jing Zhang, Wei Fu
OBJECTIVE: The aims are to assess the health-promoting lifestyle status of nursing assistants in nursing homes in China and explore the roles of demographic, health conception, perceived health behavior self-efficacy, and job satisfaction in health-promoting lifestyles. METHOD: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design and convenience sampling, 285 nursing assistants from different nursing homes in Hangzhou were investigated using the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, Self-Rated Abilities for Health Practice Scale, Health Conception Scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire to measure their health-promoting lifestyle status...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
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