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Juan Pablo Amaya, Juan I Areta, Veronica S Valentinuzzi, Emmanuel Zufiaurre
The underground environment poses particular communication challenges for subterranean rodents. Some loud and low-pitched acoustic signals that can travel long distances are appropriate for long-range underground communication and have been suggested to be territorial signals. Long-range vocalizations (LRVs) are important in long-distance communication in Ctenomys tuco-tucos. We characterized the LRV of the Anillaco Tuco-Tuco (Ctenomys sp.) using recordings from free-living individuals and described the behavioral context in which this vocalization was produced during laboratory staged encounters between individuals of both sexes...
2016: PeerJ
Ayako Yamaguchi, Jessica Cavin Barnes, Todd Appleby
Central pattern generators (CPG) in the brainstem are considered to underlie vocalizations in many vertebrate species, but the detailed mechanisms underlying how motor rhythms are generated, coordinated, and initiated remain unclear. We addressed these issues using isolated brain preparations of Xenopus laevis from which fictive vocalizations can be elicited. Advertisement calls of male X. laevis that consist of fast and slow trills are generated by vocal CPGs contained in the brainstem. Brainstem central vocal pathways consist of a premotor nucleus (DTAM) and a laryngeal motor nucleus (n...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Bret Pasch, Rachel Sanford, Steven M Phelps
Interspecific aggression between sibling species may enhance discrimination of competitors when recognition errors are costly, but proximate mechanisms mediating increased discriminative ability are unclear. We studied behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying responses to conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in Alston's singing mouse (Scotinomys teguina), a species in which males sing to repel rivals. We performed playback experiments using males in allopatry and sympatry with a dominant heterospecific (Scotinomys xerampelinus) and examined song-evoked induction of egr-1 in the auditory system to examine how neural tuning modulates species-specific responses...
October 18, 2016: Animal Cognition
Cindy X Guo, Raiju J Babu, Joanna M Black, William R Bobier, Carly S Y Lam, Shuan Dai, Tina Y Gao, Robert F Hess, Michelle Jenkins, Yannan Jiang, Lionel Kowal, Varsha Parag, Jayshree South, Sandra Elfride Staffieri, Natalie Walker, Angela Wadham, Benjamin Thompson
BACKGROUND: Amblyopia is a common neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that is characterised by visual impairment in one eye and compromised binocular visual function. Existing evidence-based treatments for children include patching the nonamblyopic eye to encourage use of the amblyopic eye. Currently there are no widely accepted treatments available for adults with amblyopia. The aim of this trial is to assess the efficacy of a new binocular, videogame-based treatment for amblyopia in older children and adults...
October 18, 2016: Trials
Asvini Subasinghe, John Wark, Alexandra Gorelik, Suzanne Garland
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between inflammation and prehypertension has never been documented in adolescent females in Australia, where obesity is prevalent. We aimed to investigate the association between high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP), obesity and prehypertension in young Australian females. DESIGN AND METHOD: Women aged 16-25 years, living in Victoria, were randomly recruited via targeted Facebook advertising for the Young Female Health Initiative and Safe-D studies...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jane Landon, Tim Lobstein, Fiona Godfrey, Paula Johns, Chris Brookes, David Jernigan
Background and aims The 2011 UN Summit on Non-Communicable Disease failed to call for global action on alcohol marketing despite calls in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases 2013-20 to restrict or ban alcohol advertising. In this paper we ask what it might take to match the global approach to tobacco enshrined in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), and suggest that public health advocates can learn from the development of the FCTC and the Code of Marketing on infant formula milks and the recent recommendations on restricting food marketing to children...
October 18, 2016: Addiction
Maya B Mathur, Michael Gould, Nayer Khazeni
Background: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements are thought to induce "boomerang effects," meaning they reduce the perceived effectiveness of a potential alternative option: non-pharmaceutical treatment via lifestyle change. Past research has observed such effects using artificially created, text-only advertisements that may not adequate capture the complex, conflicting portrayal of lifestyle change in real television advertisements. In other risk domains, individual "problem status" often moderates boomerang effects, such that subjects who currently engage in the risky behavior exhibit the strongest boomerang effects...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Steven A Kaplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Urology
Ennio Polilli, Federica Sozio, Paola Di Stefano, Antonina Sciacca, Tamara Ursini, Maurizio Paoloni, Jacopo Vecchiet, Dante Di Giammartino, Maria Pina Sciotti, Alessandro Grimaldi, Valerio Cortesi, Paolo Fazii, Elena Ricci, Claudio D'Amario, Giuseppe Ippolito, Lucio Pippa, Giustino Parruti
Undiagnosed cases of HIV infection in developed countries are estimated at 20-30% of individuals living with HIV. Web-based strategies may represent a new approach to easier, wider, and unrestricted access to early testing. The Abruzzo Region, Italy, developed a Web-based tool to recruit persons at high risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). At the Website , browsers found information on STIs (HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis), a structured questionnaire called "risk calculator" to assess one's own risk behaviors and direct booking of their test at one of six sites throughout the region...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
K D Fowler-Finn, D C Cruz, R L Rodríguez
Many animals exhibit social plasticity-changes in phenotype or behavior in response to experience with conspecifics-that change how evolutionary processes like sexual selection play out. Here, we asked whether social plasticity arising from variation in local population density in male advertisement signals and female mate preferences influences the form of sexual selection. We manipulated local density and determined whether this changed how the distribution of male signals overlapped with female preferences-i...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Peter Barss, Michal Grivna, Amna Al-Hanaee, Ayesha Al-Dhahab, Fatima Al-Kaabi, Shamma Al-Muhairi
BACKGROUND: Baby walkers (BWs) are frequent causes of infant injuries. Little research is reported from the Middle East and few population-based studies anywhere. METHODS: Using multistage random sampling in a city of the United Arab Emirates, 4 of 8 female Arab government high schools and 3 final-year classes each from science and arts tracks were selected. Structured self-administered questionnaires assessed prevalence, frequency, severity, and external causes of BW incidents and injuries, and residential hazards...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Even J Lanseng
This research investigates differences in men's and women's attitudes toward ads featuring product-relevant sex appeals. It is found that women, but not men, were more negative toward an ad featuring an attractive opposite-sex model when their commitment thoughts were heightened. Women were also more negative toward an ad with an attractive same-sex model in the presence of commitment thoughts, but only when they scored high on sociosexuality. Men appeared unaffected, regardless of their level of sociosexuality...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Meghan R Longacre, Keith M Drake, Linda J Titus, Jennifer Harris, Lauren P Cleveland, Gail Langeloh, Kristy Hendricks, Madeline A Dalton
Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013...
October 13, 2016: Appetite
Hongying Dai, Michael J Deem, Jianqiang Hao
OBJECTIVES: Studies have identified a proliferation of e-cigarette advertisements on Twitter. We investigate whether the prevalence of e-cigarette related advertising is associated with state tobacco regulations after taking socio-economic characteristics into account. METHODS: We collected e-cigarette related tweets from July 23 to October 14, 2015 (n = 757,167) on Twitter. State regulations and smoking prevalence were provided by the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids program...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
Maximilian L Allen, Heiko U Wittmer, Endro Setiawan, Sarah Jaffe, Andrew J Marshall
Intraspecific communication is integral to the behavioural ecology of solitary carnivores, but observing and quantifying their communication behaviours in natural environments is difficult. Our systematic literature review found that basic information on scent marking is completely lacking for 23% of all felid species, and information on 21% of other felid species comes solely from one study of captive animals. Here we present results of the first systematic investigation of the scent marking behaviours of Sunda clouded leopards in the wild...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nina J Berry, Karleen D Gribble
The use of health and nutrition content claims in infant formula advertising is restricted by many governments in response to WHO policies and WHA resolutions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such prohibited claims could be observed in Australian websites that advertise infant formula products. A comprehensive internet search was conducted to identify websites that advertise infant formula available for purchase in Australia. Content analysis was used to identify prohibited claims. The coding frame was closely aligned with the provisions of the Australian and New Zealand Food Standard Code, which prohibits these claims...
October 14, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Valery S Effoe, Jeffrey A Katula, Julienne K Kirk, Carolyn F Pedley, Linda Y Bollhalter, W Mark Brown, Margaret R Savoca, Stedman T Jones, Janet Baek, Alain G Bertoni
BACKGROUND: The use of the electronic medical record (EMR) system in recruitment in clinical trials has the potential for providing a very reliable and cost-effective recruiting methodology which may improve participant recruitment in clinical trials. We examined a recruitment approach centered on the use of the EMR, as well as other traditional methods, in the Lifestyle Intervention for Treatment of Diabetes (LIFT Diabetes) trial. METHODS: LIFT Diabetes is a randomized controlled trial designed to investigate the effects of two contrasting interventions on cardiovascular disease risk: a community-based intensive lifestyle program aimed at achieving weight loss and a clinic-based enhanced diabetes self-management program...
October 13, 2016: Trials
Min Su Kim, Philip J Bos, Dong-Woo Kim, Deng-Ke Yang, Joong Hee Lee, Seung Hee Lee
Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Erika Franklin Fowler, Laura Baum, Colleen Barry, Jeff Niederdeppe, Sarah E Gollust
Public opinion about the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been polarized since the law's passage. Past research suggests these conditions would make any media influence on the public limited at best. However, during the early phase of implementation, locally broadcast ACA-related media messages-in the form of paid health insurance and political advertisements and news media stories-abounded as advocates, insurance marketers, and politicians sought to shape the public's perceptions of the law. To what extent did message exposure affect ACA perceptions during the first open enrollment period? We merge data on volumes of messaging at the media market level with nationally representative survey data to examine the relationship between estimated exposure to media messaging and the public's perceptions of how informed they were about and favorable toward the ACA in October 2013...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
Andrea L Murphy, Ruth Martin-Misener, Stan P Kutcher, Claire L O'Reilly, Timothy F Chen, David M Gardner
BACKGROUND: The role of community pharmacists is changing globally with pharmacists engaging in more clinically-oriented roles, including in mental health care. Pharmacists' interventions have been shown to improve mental health related outcomes but various barriers can limit pharmacists in their care of patients. We aimed to explore the experiences of people with lived experience of mental illness and addictions in community pharmacies to generate findings to inform practice improvements...
October 12, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
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