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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944732/patient-centered-drug-approval-the-role-of-patient-advocacy-in-the-drug-approval-process
#1
T Joseph Mattingly, Linda Simoni-Wastila
Recent approval of eteplirsen for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a rare disease with few treatment alternatives, has reignited the debate over the U.S. drug approval process. The evolution of legal and regulatory restrictions to the marketing and sale of pharmaceuticals has spanned more than a century, and throughout this history, patient advocacy has played a significant role. Scientific evidence from clinical trials serves as the foundation for drug approval, but the patient voice has become increasingly influential...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944632/-student-pursuing-a-bachelor-of-science-in-nursing-160-between-process-of-professionalization-and-professional-development-in-swiss-and-belgien
#2
Myriam Graber, Veronique Haberey-Knuessi
The predictable shortage of nursing staff, in Switzerland as in the rest of Europe, continues to highlight a recurring problem for public health policy. The issue here is not just questions about the care and treatment of patients or the quality of such care, but also about the conditions necessary for adequate staff recruitment and the long-term professional engagement of health care personnel. Training in nursing care at the Universities of Applied Science of Western Switzerland is also indirectly concerned by rationalisation measures currently in force in the public Activé par Editorial Manager® et Preprint Manager® appartenant à Aries Systems Corporation health sector...
April 19, 2017: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944306/reward-related-neural-correlates-of-antisocial-behavior-and-callous-unemotional-traits-in-young-men
#3
Laura Murray, Daniel S Shaw, Erika E Forbes, Luke W Hyde
BACKGROUND: Individuals involved in antisocial behavior often engage in excessive reward-driven behavior even in the face of severe punishments including incarceration. However, the neural mechanisms of reward processing in antisocial behavior have not been examined while considering the heterogeneity of antisocial behavior and specific phases of reward and loss processing. In this study, we investigate the relationship between antisocial behavior, callous-unemotional traits, and neural activity during the anticipation and receipt of rewards and losses...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944218/diabetes-mitigates-the-role-of-memory-complaint-in-predicting-dementia-risk-results-from-the-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-vitamin-e-and-selenium-study
#4
X Zhang, F A Schmitt, A M Caban-Holt, X Ding, R J Kryscio, E Abner
BACKGROUND: Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are associated with increased risk of dementia in older adults, but the role of comorbidities in modifying this risk is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether comorbidities modify estimated dementia risk based on SMCs. DESIGN: The Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease with Vitamin E and Selenium Study (PREADVISE) was designed as an ancillary study to the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), a randomized, multi-center prostate cancer prevention trial with sites in the Unites States, Puerto Rico, and Canada...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943413/the-cortical-dynamics-of-speaking-lexical-and-phonological-knowledge-simultaneously-recruit-the-frontal-and-temporal-cortex-within-200%C3%A2-ms
#5
Kristof Strijkers, Albert Costa, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Language production models typically assume that retrieving a word for articulation is a sequential process with substantial functional delays between conceptual, lexical, phonological and motor processing, respectively. Nevertheless, explicit evidence contrasting the spatiotemporal dynamics between different word production components is scarce. Here, using anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography during overt meaningful speech production, we explore the speed with which lexico-semantic versus acoustic-articulatory information of a to-be-uttered word become first neurophysiologically manifest in the cerebral cortex...
September 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942364/toll-like-receptor-mediated-upregulation-of-cxcl16-in-psoriasis-orchestrates-neutrophil-activation
#6
Sabine Steffen, Susanne Abraham, Maik Herbig, Franziska Schmidt, Kristin Blau, Susann Meisterfeld, Stefan Beissert, Jochen Guck, Claudia Günther
Innate immune processes are central in the development of the chronic inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. Studying stimulation of keratinocytes, monocytes and dendritic cells by type I interferons or ligation of toll-like receptors TLR1/2, TLR2/6 or TLR7, but not TLR7/8, resulted in enhanced surface expression and secretion of the chemokine CXCL16. The corresponding receptor CXCR6 was expressed on neutrophils whose recruitment into skin is important especially in early psoriatic disease. Using the recently developed technique real-time deformability cytometry demonstrated that CXCL16 and IL-8 decreased the stiffness and enhanced deformation of neutrophils facilitating transmigration through vessel wall...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941768/lateralization-effects-on-functional-connectivity-of-the-auditory-network-in-patients-with-unilateral-pulsatile-tinnitus-as-detected-by-functional-mri
#7
Han Lv, Pengfei Zhao, Zhaohui Liu, Xuehuan Liu, Heyu Ding, Liheng Liu, Guopeng Wang, Jing Xie, Rong Zeng, Yuchen Chen, Zhenghan Yang, Shusheng Gong, Zhenchang Wang
Unilateral pulsatile tinnitus (PT) was proved to be a kind of disease with brain functional abnormalities within and beyond the auditory network (AN). However, changes in patterns of the lateralization effects of PT are yet to be established. Relationship between the AN and other brain networks in PT patients is also a scientific question need to be answered. In this study, we recruited 23 left-sided, 23 right-sided PT (LSPT, RSPT) patients and 23 normal controls (NC). We combined applied independent component analysis and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to investigate alteration feature of the FC of the AN by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)...
September 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941527/pediatric-optic-neuritis
#8
Melinda Y Chang, Stacy L Pineles
Optic neuritis is rare in children in comparison to adults, but accounts for approximately 25% of pediatric acute demyelinating syndromes. Features of pediatric optic neuritis that differ from adults include a higher rate of bilaterality, poor visual acuity on presentation, and papillitis. Diagnostic work-up includes brain magnetic resonance imaging, lumbar puncture, and blood tests to exclude infectious and inflammatory disorders. Pediatric optic neuritis may occur following infection or vaccination, or in association with a systemic demyelinating process such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, or multiple sclerosis...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940977/atypical-neuronal-activation-during-a-spatial-working-memory-task-in-13-year-old-very-preterm-children
#9
Pia-Maria S H Arthursson, Deanne K Thompson, Megan Spencer-Smith, Jian Chen, Tim Silk, Lex W Doyle, Peter J Anderson
Children born very preterm (VP; <32 weeks' gestational age) are at risk for unfavorable outcomes in several cognitive domains, including spatial working memory (WM). The underlying neural basis of these cognitive impairments is poorly understood. We investigated differences in neuronal activation during spatial WM using a backward span (BS) task relative to a control (C) task in 45 VP children and 19 term-born controls aged 13 years. VP children showed significantly more activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and significantly less activation in the left parahippocampal gyrus compared with controls...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940907/complex-effect-of-projected-sea-temperature-and-wind-change-on-flatfish-dispersal
#10
Geneviève Lacroix, Léo Barbut, Filip A M Volckaert
Climate change not only alters ocean physics and chemistry but also affects the biota. Larval dispersal patterns from spawning to nursery grounds and larval survival are driven by hydrodynamic processes and shaped by (a)biotic environmental factors. Therefore, it is important to understand the impacts of increased temperature rise and changes in wind speed and direction on larval drift and survival. We apply a particle-tracking model coupled to a 3D-hydrodynamic model of the English Channel and the North Sea to study the dispersal dynamics of the exploited flatfish (common) sole (Solea solea)...
September 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940758/time-dependent-neuronal-changes-associated-with-craving-in-opioid-dependence-an-fmri-study
#11
Anna Murphy, Dan I Lubman, Shane McKie, Prun S Bijral, Lesley A Peters, Qasim Faiz, Sophie E Holmes, Ian M Anderson, Bill Deakin, Rebecca Elliott
Relapse after initially successful treatment is a significant problem facing the treatment of opioid dependence. Evidence suggests craving elicited by re-exposure to drug cues may precipitate relapse. Attempts to identify neural biomarkers of cue-elicited craving have yielded inconsistent findings. We aimed to apply a novel continuous functional magnetic resonance imaging technique to follow the minute-to-minute evolution of brain responses, which correlate with the waxing and waning of craving. Newly detoxified male opioid-dependent patients and healthy control participants attended two separate, counterbalanced, functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning sessions during which they viewed a 10-minute video (drug cue or neutral cue) followed by 5 minutes of fixation...
September 22, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940670/deoxygenation-of-inspiratory-muscles-during-cycling-hyperpnoea-and-loaded-breathing-in-health-and-disease-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Takako Tanaka, Nada Basoudan, Luana T Melo, Lisa Wickerson, Laurent J Brochard, Ewan C Goligher, W Darlene Reid
Assessing inspiratory muscle deoxygenation and blood flow can provide insight into anaerobic stress, recruitment strategies and mechanisms of inspiratory muscle limitation. Therefore, this review aimed to synthesize measurements of inspiratory muscle oxyhaemoglobin (O2 Hb), deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb), blood volume and flow of the inspiratory muscles acquired via near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during cycling, hyperpnoea and loaded breathing in healthy non-athletes, healthy athletes and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic heart failure (CHF)...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940415/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-ameliorate-acute-allergic-rhinitis-in-rats
#13
Chunlei Li, Yanxia Fu, Yinyin Wang, Yanhua Kong, Mengdi Li, Danhui Ma, Wanli Zhai, Hao Wang, Yuting Lin, Sihan Liu, Fangli Ren, Jun Li, Yi Wang
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated as a potential antiinflammatory treatment in many inflammatory-related diseases; however, it remains unclear whether MSCs could be used to treat acute allergic rhinitis. A rat model of allergic rhinitis was treated with MSCs. The effect of MSCs on the inflammation of allergic rhinitis was evaluated by sneezing, nose rubbing, the pathology of the nasal mucosa, and the expression of interleukin 4, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and immunoglobulin E in the serum of rats...
September 20, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939575/urine-cytology-screening-of-french-workers-exposed-to-occupational-urinary-tract-carcinogens-a-prospective-cohort-study-over-a-20-year-period
#14
Frederic Dutheil, Lucile Rouanet, Aurélien Mulliez, Geraldine Naughton, Luc Fontana, Michel Druet-Cabanac, Farès Moustafa, Alain Chamoux
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that urine cytology screening can provide relevant epidemiological data for earlier detection of urothelial cancer caused by occupational exposure. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Industries using urothelial carcinogens in France. Urine samples were collected on site, after a work week and were analysed at the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were workers exposed to urothelial carcinogens...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939572/understanding-barriers-and-outcomes-of-unspecified-non-directed-altruistic-kidney-donation-from-both-professional-s-and-patient-s-perspectives-research-protocol-for-a-national-multicentre-mixed-methods-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Rebecca Gare, Petrut Gogalniceanu, Hannah Maple, Lisa Burnapp, Alexis Clarke, Lynsey Williams, Sam Norton, Joseph Chilcot, Paul Gibbs, Annie Mitchell, Paul McCrone, Heather Draper, Nizam Mamode
INTRODUCTION: Living donation accounts for over one-third of all kidney transplants taking place in the UK. (1) The concept of anonymously donating a kidney to a stranger (non-directed altruistic or unspecified kidney donation (UKD)) remains uncomfortable for some clinicians, principally due to concerns about the motivations and long-term physical and psychological outcomes in this donor group. AIMS: The research programme aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of the unspecified donor programme in the UK...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939409/over-the-counter-mouthwash-use-and-risk-of-pre-diabetes-diabetes
#16
Kaumudi J Joshipura, Francisco J Muñoz-Torres, Evangelia Morou-Bermudez, Rakesh P Patel
AIMS: Over-the-counter mouthwash (most of which are antibacterial) comprises part of routine oral care for many; however, potential adverse effects of the long-term daily use have not been evaluated. Antibacterial mouthwash could destroy oral microbes critical for nitric oxide formation, and in turn predispose to metabolic disorders including diabetes. Our aim was to evaluate longitudinally the association between baseline over-the-counter mouthwash use and development of pre-diabetes/diabetes over a 3-year follow-up...
September 19, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938688/drag-reducing-polymers-decrease-hepatic-injury-and-metastases-after-liver-ischemia-reperfusion
#17
Samer Tohme, Marina V Kameneva, Hamza O Yazdani, Vikas Sud, Julie Goswami, Patricia Loughran, Hai Huang, Richard L Simmons, Allan Tsung
INTRODUCTION: Surgery, a crucial therapeutic modality in the treatment of solid tumors, can induce sterile inflammatory processes which can result in metastatic progression. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, an inevitable consequence of hepatic resection of metastases, has been shown to foster hepatic capture of circulating cancer cells and accelerate metastatic growth. Efforts to reduce these negative consequences have not been thoroughly investigated. Drag reducing polymers (DRPs) are blood-soluble macromolecules that can, in nanomolar concentrations, increase tissue perfusion, decrease vascular resistance and decrease near-wall microvascular concentration of neutrophils and platelets thereby possibly reducing the inflammatory microenvironment...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938454/11%C3%AE-hsd2-sumoylation-modulates-cortisol-induced-mineralocorticoid-receptor-nuclear-translocation-independently-of-effects-on-transactivation
#18
Rubén Jiménez-Canino, Fabián Lorenzo-Díaz, Alex Odermatt, Matthew A Bailey, Dawn E W Livingstone, Frederic Jaisser, Nicolette Farman, Diego Alvarez de la Rosa
The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) has an essential role in aldosterone target tissues, conferring aldosterone selectivity for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) by converting 11β-hydroxyglucocorticoids to inactive 11-ketosteroids. Congenital deficiency of 11β-HSD2 causes a form of salt-sensitive hypertension known as the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess. The disease phenotype, which ranges from mild to severe, correlates well with reduction in enzyme activity. Furthermore, polymorphisms in the 11β-HSD2 coding gene (HSD11B2) have been linked to high blood pressure and salt-sensitivity, major cardiovascular risk factors...
September 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937981/cognitive-function-in-patients-with-stable-coronary-heart-disease-related-cerebrovascular-and-cardiovascular-responses
#19
Mathieu Gayda, Vincent Gremeaux, Louis Bherer, Martin Juneau, Joffrey Drigny, Olivier Dupuy, Gabriel Lapierre, Véronique Labelle, Annik Fortier, Anil Nigam
Chronic exercise has been shown to prevent or slow age-related decline in cognitive functions in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals. We sought to assess cognitive function in a stable coronary heart disease (CHD) sample and its relationship to cerebral oxygenation-perfusion, cardiac hemodynamic responses, and [Formula: see text] peak compared to age-matched and young healthy control subjects. Twenty-two young healthy controls (YHC), 20 age-matched old healthy controls (OHC) and 25 patients with stable CHD were recruited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937790/the-doctor-of-philosophy-experience-of-athletic-trainers-facilitators-and-barriers-to-anticipatory-faculty-socialization
#20
Thomas Bowman, Joanne Klossner, Stephanie Mazerolle
CONTEXT:   It is important to understand the process whereby athletic trainers learn about their future roles, particularly when the roles can be complex and demanding. Little is known about the experiences of athletic training doctoral students, including facilitators and barriers to socialization as aspiring faculty members. OBJECTIVE:   To investigate factors influencing the anticipatory socialization of athletic training doctoral students into future faculty roles...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
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