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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786892/association-between-initial-age-of-exposure-to-childhood-abuse-and-cognitive-control-preliminary-evidence
#1
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
Cognitive control, which relies on the protracted development of frontal-parietal regions into adolescence, is a brain process that may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of childhood abuse. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine associations between the age of onset of childhood abuse and alterations to the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control in early adulthood, which have not been previously examined. During fMRI scanning, participants completed hybrid block/event-related versions of a classic color-word Stroop task as well as emotional Stroop tasks (threat and positive words)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785065/relation-between-coping-and-posttrauma-cognitions-on-ptsd-in-a-combat-trauma-population
#2
Christina M Sheerin, Nadia Chowdhury, Mackenzie J Lind, Erin D Kurtz, Lance M Rappaport, Erin C Berenz, Ruth C Brown, Treven Pickett, Scott D McDonald, Carla Kmett Danielson, Ananda B Amstadter
Individual differences in cognitive processes and coping behaviors play a role in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the large numbers of combat-exposed service members returning from the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) conflicts, exploring individual differences in cognitive-affective processes is important for informing our understanding of PTSD etiology and early intervention in military samples. The present study examined the unique main and interactive effects of negative posttrauma cognitions (i...
2018: Military Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784760/formation-of-the-intrathymic-dendritic-cell-pool-requires-ccl21-mediated-recruitment-of-ccr7-progenitors-to-the-thymus
#3
Emilie J Cosway, Izumi Ohigashi, Karin Schauble, Sonia M Parnell, William E Jenkinson, Sanjiv Luther, Yousuke Takahama, Graham Anderson
During αβ T cell development in the thymus, migration of newly selected CD4+ and CD8+ thymocytes into medullary areas enables tolerance mechanisms to purge the newly selected αβ TCR repertoire of autoreactive specificities. Thymic dendritic cells (DC) play key roles in this process and consist of three distinct subsets that differ in their developmental origins. Thus, plasmacytoid DC and Sirpα+ conventional DC type 2 are extrathymically derived and enter into the thymus via their respective expression of the chemokine receptors CCR9 and CCR2...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784588/brain-stimulation-patterns-emulating-endogenous-thalamocortical-input-to-parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons-reduce-nociception-in-mice
#4
Yeowool Huh, Dahee Jung, Taeyoon Seo, Sukkyu Sun, Su Hyun Kim, Hyewhon Rhim, Sooyoung Chung, Chong-Hyun Kim, Youngwoo Kwon, Marom Bikson, Yong-An Chung, Jeansok J Kim, Jeiwon Cho
BACKGROUND: The bursting pattern of thalamocortical (TC) pathway dampens nociception. Whether brain stimulation mimicking endogenous patterns can engage similar sensory gating processes in the cortex and reduce nociceptive behaviors remains uninvestigated. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of cortical parvalbumin expressing (PV) interneurons within the TC circuit in gating nociception and their selective response to TC burst patterns. We then tested if transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) patterned on endogenous nociceptive TC bursting modulate nociceptive behaviors...
May 18, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784144/it-is-important-that-the-process-goes-quickly-isn-t-it-a-qualitative-multi-country-study-of-colorectal-or-lung-cancer-patients-narratives-of-the-timeliness-of-diagnosis-and-quality-of-care
#6
Marlene Malmström, Birgit H Rasmussen, Britt-Marie Bernhardson, Senada Hajdarevic, Lars E Eriksson, Rikke Sand Andersen, John I MacArtney
PURPOSE: The emphasis on early diagnosis to improve cancer survival has been a key factor in the development of cancer pathways across Europe. The aim of this analysis was to explore how the emphasis on early diagnosis and timely treatment is reflected in patient's accounts of care, from the first suspicion of colorectal or lung cancer to their treatment in Denmark, England and Sweden. METHOD: We recruited 155 patients in Denmark, England and Sweden who were within six months of being diagnosed with lung or colorectal cancer...
June 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782926/decoding-cell-signalling-and-regulation-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#7
REVIEW
A K Santos, M S Vieira, R Vasconcellos, V A M Goulart, A H Kihara, R R Resende
Oligodendrocytes are fundamental for the functioning of the nervous system; they participate in several cellular processes, including axonal myelination and metabolic maintenance for astrocytes and neurons. In the mammalian nervous system, they are produced through waves of proliferation and differentiation, which occur during embryogenesis. However, oligodendrocytes and their precursors continue to be generated during adulthood from specific niches of stem cells that were not recruited during development. Deficiencies in the formation and maturation of these cells can generate pathologies mainly related to myelination...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781875/feasibility-of-microrna-profiling-in-human-inner-ear-perilymph
#8
Matthew Shew, Athanasia Warnecke, Thomas Lenarz, Heike Schmitt, Sumedha Gunewardena, Hinrich Staecker
Hearing loss is common and caused by a wide range of molecular and cellular pathologies. Current diagnosis of hearing loss depends on a combination of physiologic testing, patient history, and in some cases genetic testing. Currently, no biopsy or equivalent procedure exists to diagnose inner ear disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short ribonucleic acids that regulate a variety of cellular processes. They have been found to be reliable markers for a variety of disease processes. In particular, a variety of miRNAs that are markers for neurodegenerative disease have been identified in cerebrospinal fluid...
May 17, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781811/spleen-derived-classical-monocytes-mediate-lung-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-il-1%C3%AE
#9
Hsi-Min Hsiao, Ramiro Fernandez, Satona Tanaka, Wenjun Li, Jessica H Spahn, Stephen Chiu, Mahzad Akbarpour, Daniel Ruiz-Perez, Qiang Wu, Cem Turam, Davide Scozzi, Tsuyoshi Takahashi, Hannah P Luehmann, Varun Puri, G R Scott Budinger, Alexander S Krupnick, Alexander V Misharin, Kory J Lavine, Yongjian Liu, Andrew E Gelman, Ankit Bharat, Daniel Kreisel
Ischemia-reperfusion injury, a form of sterile inflammation, is the leading risk factor for both short-term mortality following pulmonary transplantation and chronic lung allograft dysfunction. While it is well recognized that neutrophils are critical mediators of acute lung injury, processes that guide their entry into pulmonary tissue are not well understood. Here, we found that CCR2+ classical monocytes are necessary and sufficient for mediating extravasation of neutrophils into pulmonary tissue during ischemia-reperfusion injury following hilar clamping or lung transplantation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780738/effect-of-rapid-maxillary-expansion-on-glenoid-fossa-and-condyle-fossa-relationship-in-growing-patients-megp-study-protocol-for-a-controlled-clinical-trial
#10
Mona Sayegh Ghoussoub, Khaldoun Rifai, Robert Garcia, Ghassan Sleilaty
Aims and Objectives: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthodontic nonsurgical procedure aiming at increasing the width of the maxilla by opening mainly the intermaxillary suture in patients presenting a transverse maxillary skeletal deficiency. The objectives of the current prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study are to evaluate the hypothesis that RME in growing patients will result in radiographic changes at the level of interglenoid fossa distance, condyle-fossa relationship, and nasal cavity widths compared to the group who received no treatment initially and served as untreated control...
March 2018: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780501/a-bi-terminal-protein-ligation-strategy-to-probe-chromatin-structure-during-dna-damage
#11
Sinan Kilic, Iuliia Boichenko, Carolin C Lechner, Beat Fierz
The cellular response to DNA damage results in a signaling cascade that primes chromatin for repair. Combinatorial post-translational modifications (PTMs) play an important role in this process by altering the physical properties of chromatin and recruiting downstream factors. One key signal integrator is the histone variant H2A.X, which is phosphorylated at a C-terminal serine (S139ph), and ubiquitylated within its N-terminal tail at lysines 13 and 15 (K13/15ub). How these PTMs directly impact chromatin structure and thereby facilitate DNA repair is not well understood...
April 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779433/age-differences-in-the-neural-response-to-negative-feedback
#12
Holly J Bowen, Cheryl L Grady, Julia Spaniol
Affective processing is one domain that remains relatively intact in healthy aging. Investigations into the neural responses associated with reward anticipation have revealed that older and younger adults recruit the same midbrain reward regions, but other evidence suggests this recruitment may differ depending on the valence (gain, loss) of the incentive cue. The goal of the current study was to examine functional covariance during gain and loss feedback in younger and healthy older adults. A group of 15 older adults (mean age = 68...
May 21, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778278/new-evidence-of-a-rhythmic-priming-effect-that-enhances-grammaticality-judgments-in-children
#13
Alexander Chern, Barbara Tillmann, Chloe Vaughan, Reyna L Gordon
Musical rhythm and the grammatical structure of language share a surprising number of characteristics that may be intrinsically related in child development. The current study aimed to understand the potential influence of musical rhythmic priming on subsequent spoken grammar task performance in children with typical development who were native speakers of English. Participants (ages 5-8 years) listened to rhythmically regular and irregular musical sequences (within-participants design) followed by blocks of grammatically correct and incorrect sentences upon which they were asked to perform a grammaticality judgment task...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778217/the-inflammasome-regulation-of-nitric-oxide-and-antimicrobial-host-defence
#14
Rajalaksmy A Ramachandran, Christopher Lupfer, Hasan Zaki
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signalling molecule that plays diverse physiological functions including antimicrobial host defence. During microbial infection, NO is synthesized by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), which is expressed by host immune cells through the recognition of microbial pattern molecules. Therefore, sensing pathogens or their pattern molecules by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are located at the cell surface, endosomal and phagosomal compartment, or in the cytosol, is key in inducing iNOS and eliciting antimicrobial host defence...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777563/cognitive-and-functional-deficits-in-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia-as-a-function-of-the-presence-and-history-of-psychosis
#15
Christopher R Bowie, Michael W Best, Colin Depp, Brent T Mausbach, Thomas L Patterson, Ann E Pulver, Philip D Harvey
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder overlap considerably. Schizophrenia is a primary psychotic disorder, whereas approximately half of people with bipolar disorder will experience psychosis. In this study, we examined the extent to which cognitive and functional impairments are related to the presence and history of psychosis across the two disorders. METHOD: A total of 633 participants with bipolar disorder I, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder were recruited for a study on the genetics of cognition and functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia...
May 18, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777436/fatigue-related-risk-management-in-the-emergency-department-a-focus-group-study
#16
Pierre Bérastégui, Mathieu Jaspar, Alexandre Ghuysen, Anne-Sophie Nyssen
Fatigue has major implications on both patient safety and healthcare practitioner's well-being. Traditionally, two approaches can be used to reduce fatigue-related risk: reducing the likelihood of a fatigued operator working (i.e. fatigue reduction), or reducing the likelihood that a fatigued operator will make an error (i.e. fatigue proofing). Recent progress mainly focussed on fatigue reduction strategies such as reducing work hours. Yet it has to be recognized that such approach has not wholly overcome the experience of fatigue...
May 18, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777379/the-effects-of-a-video-based-education-in-women-with-newly-diagnosed-breast-cancer-in-singapore
#17
May Leng Tan, Kim Hua Lee, Wei Sean Yong, Cheryl Rodgers
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an educational video among women who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer on knowledge, anxiety, and satisfaction with their surgical decision. METHODS: A pre-post-test design was used to evaluate knowledge, anxiety, and satisfaction levels with decision-making regarding surgery among women with breast cancer. A purposive sampling strategy was implemented to compare outcomes of newly diagnosed breast cancer women who received standard of care that included breast care nurse counseling sessions and written materials to women who received standard of care plus a supplement educational video...
May 18, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776897/reach-and-acceptability-of-a-mobile-reminder-strategy-and-facebook-group-intervention-for-weight-management-in-less-advantaged-adolescents-insights-from-the-pralimap-in%C3%A3-s-trial
#18
Laura Saez, Johanne Langlois, Karine Legrand, Marie-Hélène Quinet, Edith Lecomte, Abdou Y Omorou, Serge Briançon
BACKGROUND: Although information and communication technology interventions appear to be a promising means of reducing the health inequality gap in overweight and obesity prevention, research on information and communication technology interventions is lacking outside the Anglo-Saxon world. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the reach and acceptability of 2 information and communication technology interventions delivered as part of a French nutritional program: an SMS text messaging (short message service, SMS) attendance-reminder for collective sessions strategy and a Facebook challenge group...
May 18, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776849/immune-factors-in-deep-vein-thrombosis-initiation
#19
REVIEW
Ivan Budnik, Alexander Brill
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major origin of morbidity and mortality. While DVT has long been considered as blood coagulation disorder, several recent lines of evidence demonstrate that immune cells and inflammatory processes are involved in DVT initiation. Here, we discuss these mechanisms, in particular, the role of immune cells in endothelial activation, and the immune cascades leading to expression of adhesion receptors on endothelial cells. We analyze the specific recruitment and functional roles of different immune cells, such as mast cells and leukocytes, in DVT...
May 15, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775409/transactivation-domain-of-p53-regulates-dna-repair-and-integrity-in-human-ips-cells
#20
Ramaswamy Kannappan, Saidulu Mattapally, Pooja A Wagle, Jianyi Zhang
The role of p53 transactivation domain (p53-TAD), a multifunctional and dynamic domain, on DNA repair and retaining DNA integrity in human iPS cells has never been studied. p53-TAD was knocked out in iPS cells using CRISPR/Cas9 and was confirmed by DNA sequencing. p53-TAD KO cells were characterized by: accelerated proliferation, decreased population doubling time, and unaltered Bcl2, BBC3, IGF1R, Bax and altered Mdm2, p21, and PIDD transcripts expression. In p53-TAD KO cells p53 regulated DNA repair proteins XPA, DNA polH and DDB2 expression were found to be reduced compared to p53-WT cells...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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