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Paolo Fusar-Poli, Grazia Rutigliano, Daniel Stahl, André Schmidt, Valentina Ramella-Cravaro, Shetty Hitesh, Philip McGuire
Importance: Pretest risk estimation is routinely used in clinical medicine to inform further diagnostic testing in individuals with suspected diseases. To our knowledge, the overall characteristics and specific determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing clinical high risk (CHR) assessment are unknown. Objectives: To investigate the characteristics and determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing CHR assessment and to develop and externally validate a pretest risk stratification model...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Helen L MacLaughlin, Iain C Macdougall, Wendy L Hall, Tracy Dew, Konstantinos Mantzoukis, Jude A Oben
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of intragastric balloon (IGB) placement to achieve weight loss in obese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been reported to date. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the IGB as a weight-loss treatment among this patient population. METHODS: A prospective, single-arm, 'first in CKD' interventional study was conducted in patients with a body mass index >35 kg/m2 and CKD stages 3-4, referred for weight loss...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Alexandre Fisette, Stephanie Tobin, Léa Décarie-Spain, Khalil Bouyakdan, Marie-Line Peyot, S R Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki, Stephanie Fulton, Thierry Alquier
α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is a monoacylglycerol hydrolase that degrades the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Although complete or peripheral ABHD6 loss of function is protective against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, the role of ABHD6 in the central control of energy balance is unknown. Using a viral-mediated knockout approach, targeted endocannabinoid measures, and pharmacology, we discovered that mice lacking ABHD6 from neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH(KO)) have higher VMH 2-AG levels in conditions of endocannabinoid recruitment and fail to physiologically adapt to key metabolic challenges...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Donna M Lake, Patricia E Allen, Myrna L Armstrong
Nursing continues to face professional workforce and diversity shortage problems. This article advocates for examining an untapped resource-the consideration of applicants for nursing leadership and educational positions in civilian health care organizations. This untapped resource is highly qualified, already retired (or going to be separated) military nurse officers (MNOs) who possess extensive health care knowledge, as well as distinctive ethnicity and gender composition. Clinical educators, as part of the organizational leadership, can play an important role in assisting the MNO civilian position assimilation because they come from a structured and unique cultural environment...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
R Sousa, M R Pinho, J Delgado, M Biscoito, A R Pinto, T Dellinger, L Gouveia, D Carvalho, P Henriques
Several experimental surveys were carried out in the Northeastern Atlantic, Madeira archipelago from 1991 to 2008 to explore new fisheries resources. This study examined the selectivity of bottom and floating traps and the analysis of yield-per-recruit (YPR) and biomass-per-recruit (BPR) providing helpful insight to the management of the shrimp Plesionika narval. A total of 28,262 specimens were sampled and the analysis of length at first capture returned higher values when using floating traps indicating that these traps are more selective, exerting less pressure on the resource...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Sarah E Baum, Kari White, Kristine Hopkins, Joseph E Potter, Daniel Grossman
BACKGROUND: In November 2013, Texas implemented three abortion restrictions included in House Bill 2 (HB 2). Within six months, the number of facilities providing abortion decreased by almost half, and the remaining facilities were concentrated in large urban centers. The number of medication abortions decreased by 70% compared to the same period one year prior due to restrictions on this method imposed by HB 2. The purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the experiences of women who were most affected by the law: those who had to travel farther to reach a facility and those desiring medication abortion...
2016: PloS One
Daniele Rimini, Filippo Molinari, William Liboni, Marina Balbo, Roberta Darò, Erika Viotti, Isabel Fernandez
INTRODUCTION: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapeutic treatment resolving emotional distress caused by traumatic events. With EMDR, information processing is facilitated by eye movements (EM) during the recall of a traumatic memory (RECALL). The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ocular movements of EMDR on the hemodynamics of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups were recruited: a trial group (wEM) received a complete EMDR treatment, whereas a control group (woEM) received a therapy without EM...
2016: PloS One
Tae-Jin Song, Soo-Jin Cho, Won-Joo Kim, Kwang Ik Yang, Chang-Ho Yun, Min Kyung Chu
Although tension-type headache (TTH) is a frequent type of headache disorder and imposes a significant burden, there is scant information about the prevalence and impact of comorbid anxiety and depression among individuals with TTH. We investigated the prevalence and clinical impact of anxiety and depression among patients with TTH in the general population. We recruited Korean participants aged 19-69 years using a two-stage clustered random sampling method. To identify the presence of headache type, anxiety, and depression, we used a semi-structured interview using certain questionnaires...
2016: PloS One
Katharine Kripke, Karin Hatzold, Owen Mugurungi, Gertrude Ncube, Sinokuthemba Xaba, Elizabeth Gold, Kim Seifert Ahanda, Natalie Kruse-Levy, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe aims to increase circumcision coverage to 80% among 13- to 29-year-olds. However, implementation data suggest that high coverage among men ages 20 and older may not be achievable without efforts specifically targeted to these men, incurring additional costs per circumcision. Scale-up scenarios were created based on trends in implementation data in Zimbabwe, and the cost-effectiveness of increasing efforts to recruit clients ages 20-29 was examined. METHODS: Zimbabwe voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program data were used to project trends in male circumcision coverage by age into the future...
2016: PloS One
Jesse M Engreitz, Jenna E Haines, Elizabeth M Perez, Glen Munson, Jenny Chen, Michael Kane, Patrick E McDonel, Mitchell Guttman, Eric S Lander
Mammalian genomes are pervasively transcribed to produce thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). A few of these lncRNAs have been shown to recruit regulatory complexes through RNA-protein interactions to influence the expression of nearby genes, and it has been suggested that many other lncRNAs can also act as local regulators. Such local functions could explain the observation that lncRNA expression is often correlated with the expression of nearby genes. However, these correlations have been challenging to dissect and could alternatively result from processes that are not mediated by the lncRNA transcripts themselves...
October 26, 2016: Nature
Lei Dong, Wen-Mei Yu, Hong Zheng, Mignon L Loh, Silvia T Bunting, Melinda Pauly, Gang Huang, Muxiang Zhou, Hal E Broxmeyer, David T Scadden, Cheng-Kui Qu
Germline activating mutations of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (encoded by PTPN11), a positive regulator of the RAS signalling pathway, are found in 50% of patients with Noonan syndrome. These patients have an increased risk of developing leukaemia, especially juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML), a childhood myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Previous studies have demonstrated that mutations in Ptpn11 induce a JMML-like MPN through cell-autonomous mechanisms that are dependent on Shp2 catalytic activity...
October 26, 2016: Nature
Fernando J Martinez, David Mannino, Nancy Kline Leidy, Karen G Malley, Elizabeth D Bacci, R Graham Barr, Russ P Bowler, MeiLan K Han, Julia F Houfek, Barry Make, Catherine A Meldrum, Stephen Rennard, Byron Thomashow, John Walsh, Barbara P Yawn
OBJECTIVE: Develop a method for identifying undiagnosed COPD requiring treatment with currently available therapies (FEV1 <60% predicted and/or exacerbation risk). METHODS: Multi-site, cross-sectional, case-control study in U.S. pulmonary and primary care clinics that recruited subjects from primary care settings. CASES: COPD and ≥ 1 exacerbation past year or FEV1 <60% predicted without exacerbation past year. CONTROLS: No COPD or mild COPD (FEV1 ≥ 60% predicted, no exacerbation past year)...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Mylène Bilodeau-Mercure, Pascale Tremblay
OBJECTIVES: To explore age differences in speech production in relation to orofacial physiology. DESIGN: Cross-sectional quasi-experimental group study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Physically and cognitively healthy volunteers recruited from the community (N = 30), including 15 young (18-39) and 15 older (66-85) adults. MEASUREMENTS: Accuracy and speech rate were calculated during the production of sequences of syllables containing oral vowels, nasal vowels, or both...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Philip W Chiu, Anthony Y Teoh, Vivien W Wong, Hon Chi Yip, Shannon M Chan, Simon K Wong, Enders K Ng
Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) is technically challenging. Da Vinci Robotic system could improve surgical dissection with additional degree of freedom from robotic arms. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and safety of performing MIE using Da Vinci Robotic system among patients with esophageal cancers. From 2009 to 2013, consecutive patients with esophageal cancers who received robotic-assisted MIE were recruited. We excluded tumors with suspected invasion to adjacent organs. Preoperative staging included EUS, CT thorax and abdomen and bronchoscopy...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Cynthia Huang-Pollock, Zvi Shapiro, Hilary Galloway-Long, Alex Weigard
In contrast to historical conceptualizations that framed psychological disorders as distinct, categorical conditions, it is now widely understood that co- and multi-morbidities between disorders are extensive. As a result, there has been a call to better understand the dimensional liabilities that are common to and influence the development of multiple psychopathologies, as supported and exemplified by the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework. We use a latent variable SEM approach to examine the degree to which working memory deficits represent a cognitive liability associated with the development of common and discrete dimensions of psychopathology...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Kai Lin, Leng Meng, Jeremy D Collins, Varun Chowdhary, Michael Markl, James C Carr
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that heart deformation analysis (HDA) is able to discriminate regional myocardial motion patterns on the left ventricle (LV). Totally 21 healthy volunteers (15 men and 6 women) without documented cardiovascular diseases were recruited. Cine MRI was performed on those subjects at four-chamber, two-chamber, and short-axis views. The variations of segmental myocardial motion indices of the LV, which were measured with the HDA tool, were investigated. Regional displacement, velocity, strain and strain rate were compared between lateral wall and septal wall using t tests...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Simran Chahal, Kanchan Vohra, Ashit Syngle
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. Autonomic neuropathy is a risk factor for cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Sudomotor dysfunction is well established in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and reflects small fibre neuropathy, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and peripheral sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. However, the relationship between sudomotor dysfunction and PAD remains unexplored...
October 25, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Mohammad Z Zailaie
It is widely believed that the loss of the epidermal melanocytes in vitiligo is basically due to excessive oxidative stress. Previous research work described abnormal elevation of the absolute concentration of the epidermal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo. Based on this finding, our primary research objective was to use this feature as a screening marker in individuals at a great risk of developing vitiligo. Ninety-six patients of non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) of varying durations, skin phototypes, and treatment modalities (psoralen UVA-, narrow band UVB-treated) were recruited for this study...
October 25, 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
Simona Mancini, René-Marc Mège, Benoit Sarels, Pierre-Olivier Strale
We present a phenomenological model intended to describe at the protein population level the formation of cell-cell junctions by the local recruitment of homophilic cadherin adhesion receptors. This modeling may have a much wider implication in biological processes since many adhesion receptors, channel proteins and other membrane-born proteins associate in clusters or oligomers at the cell surface. Mathematically, it consists in a degenerate reaction-diffusion system of two partial differential equations modeling the time-space evolution of two cadherin populations over a surface: the first one represents the diffusing cadherins and the second one concerns the fixed ones...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Stephen Robert Puntis, Jorun Rugkåsa, Tom Burns
PURPOSE: Providing good continuity of care to patients is considered a vital component of community mental health services, but there is limited evidence that it is associated with good outcomes. We measured service use and a multidimensional concept of continuity of care in 323 patients who were to be discharged from hospital following compulsory treatment for psychosis to investigate the association between continuity and rehospitalisation. METHODS: We conducted a 36-month prospective cohort study of the patients recruited to the Oxford Community Treatment Order Trial (OCTET)...
October 25, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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