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Meena Kishore Sakharkar, Karthic Rajamanickam, Ramesh Chandra, Haseeb A Khan, Abdullah S Alhomida, Jian Yang
Background: Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is a major problem in cattle production which causes substantial economic loss. BRD has multifactorial aetiologies, is multi-microbial, and several of the causative pathogens are unknown. Consequently, primary management practices such as metaphylactic antimicrobial injections for BRD prevention are used to reduce the incidence of BRD in feedlot cattle. However, this poses a serious threat in the form of development of antimicrobial resistance and demands an urgent need to find novel interventions that could reduce the effects of BRD drastically and also delay/prevent bacterial resistance...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
T Tomasi, A Volpato, W A B Pereira, L H Debastiani, N B Bottari, V M Morsch, M R C Schetinger, M L R Leal, G Machado, A S Da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether injectable zinc and copper affect host immune responses and antioxidant status of newborn calves. For this study, 19 newborn calves were divided into two groups. The control group consisted of 10 animals; and the treated group consisted of nine animals that received copper edetate (Cu-ed) and zinc edetate (Zn-ed) subcutaneously at the first day of life at doses of 0.3 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg respectively. Blood and faecal samples were collected for laboratory analyses (seric biochemistry, proteinogram, antioxidant enzymes and parasitological examination) on days 10, 20 and 30 after birth...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Ioannis Arsenakis, Filip Boyen, Freddy Haesebrouck, Dominiek G D Maes
This study was conducted in a commercial 1000-sow herd facing recurrent exudative epidermitis (EE) outbreaks during the nursery period and assessed the efficacy of autogenous vaccination in controlling such outbreaks. The vaccine was produced using three Staphylococcus hyicus isolates recovered from affected pigs shortly before the onset of the study. All of those isolates were positive for the exh B gene, which encodes the exfoliative toxin type B (ExhB). From four consecutive farrowing batches of sows, two batches were vaccinated (V) against S hyicus at five and two weeks before farrowing, and two sow batches remained non-vaccinated (NV)...
March 29, 2018: Veterinary Record
Devin B Holman, Edouard Timsit, Calvin W Booker, Trevor W Alexander
Beef cattle in North America that are deemed to be at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are frequently administered a metaphylactic antibiotic injection to control the disease. Cattle may also receive in-feed antimicrobials to prevent specific diseases and ionophores to improve growth and feed efficiency. Presently, attempts to evaluate the effects that these medications have on antibiotic resistance in the bovine nasopharyngeal microbiota have been focused on culturable bacteria that are associated with BRD...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Andrew L Webb, L Brent Selinger, Eduardo N Taboada, G Douglas Inglis
Campylobacter jejuni was longitudinally isolated from beef cattle housed in four confined feeding operations (CFOs) in Southern Alberta, Canada, over 18 months. All of the cattle were administered a variety of antimicrobial agents (AMAs) nontherapeutically and metaphylactically during their time in the CFOs. In total, 7,966 C. jejuni isolates were recovered from cattle. More animals were colonized by the bacterium after >60 days in the CFO (interim) than were individuals upon entry at the CFO (arrival). Subtyping and resistance to seven AMAs were determined for 1,832 (23...
April 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
V Krömker, S Leimbach
Animal-friendly, economical, resource-saving milk production provides the basis for sustained consumer acceptance. Bovine mastitis plays a decisive role in the dairy industry-disturbing animal health and welfare and causing considerable economic losses on the other hand. Currently, antimicrobial treatment is indispensable to keep bovine udder health, animal welfare and economic aspects in balance. On the contrary, emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an urgent matter of particular public interest, and as a consequence, antimicrobial usage (AMU) in production livestock is a critically discussed subject...
August 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Andrea Luppi
Intestinal infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important disease in swine resulting in significant economic losses. Knowledge about the epidemiology, the diagnostic approach and methods of control are of fundamental importance to tackle the disease. The ETEC causing neonatal colibacillosis mostly carry the fimbriae F4 (k88), F5 (k99), F6 (987P) or F41, while the ETEC of post-weaning diarrhoea carry the fimbriae F4 (k88) and F18. These fimbriae adhere to specific receptors on porcine intestinal brush border epithelial cells (enterocytes), starting the process of enteric infection...
2017: Porcine Health Management
J Berman, D Francoz, J Dubuc, S Buczinski
BACKGROUND: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a major problem in veal calf rearing units. The objective of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the effectiveness of tildipirosin as a metaphylactic treatment in veal calves on the number of BRD treatments, lung consolidation on thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) and average daily gain (ADG). A total of 209 veal calves from a pre-weaning fattening unit were randomly allocated to receive one of two treatments (tildipirosin 4 mg/kg, subcutaneously, n = 109; placebo 0...
June 14, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
K M Abell, M E Theurer, R L Larson, B J White, M Apley
The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of antimicrobials approved for parenteral metaphylactic use in feeder and stocker calves on morbidity and mortality for bovine respiratory disease with the use of a mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis. An initial literature review was conducted in April 2016 through Pubmed, Agricola, and CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau) for randomized controlled trials for metaphylaxis antimicrobial administered parentally to incoming feedlot or stocker calves within 48 h of arrival...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
A G V Teixeira, J A A McArt, R C Bicalho
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two metaphylactic approaches (long acting antibiotic injected once at 10 days of life or twice at 10 and 35 days of life) on the prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), otitis and mortality in high-risk group-housed pre-weaned Holstein heifer calves. The antibiotic of choice for the metaphylactic approach was a long acting macrolide (tildipirosin) administered subcutaneously at the base of the neck at a dose of 1 mL per 45 kg body weight. A clinical trial was carried out on one dairy farm with random allocation of newborn calves to one of three treatments: (1) control (CTR); (2) one injection at 10 days of life (M1); and (3) two injections at 10 and 35 days of life (M2)...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
Jasmin Walter, Christoph Seeh, Kerstin Fey, Ulrich Bleul, Nikolaus Osterrieder
Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM) is a severe manifestation of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infection. Prevention and treatment of EHM during EHV-1 outbreaks is critical, but no reliable and tested specific medication is available. Due to the thromboischemic nature of EHM and due to the fact that EHV-1 entry in cells is blocked by heparin, it was hypothesized that this compound may be useful in reduction of EHM incidence and severity. Therefore, during an acute EHV-1 outbreak with the neuropathogenic G2254/D752 Pol variant, metaphylactic treatment with heparin to prevent EHM was initiated...
October 12, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
J W Angell, D H Grove-White, H J Williams, J S Duncan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical success of whole-flock systemic tilmicosin and enhanced biosecurity in eliminating active contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) from sheep flocks. Thirty flocks in the UK were randomly allocated to receive either treatment as usual (as per the farmer's normal routine) or whole-flock treatment with tilmicosin, together with isolation and extended treatment of clinically affected individuals and isolation and treatment of purchased sheep during the study period...
September 24, 2016: Veterinary Record
K S Jackson, G E Carstens, L O Tedeschi, W E Pinchak
Methods to improve accuracy of preclinical detection of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are needed to reduce the economic impact of this disease, improve animal welfare, and promote more judicious use of antimicrobials in beef cattle. The objectives of this study were to retrospectively characterize time-series deviations in DMI and feeding behavior patterns preceding the display of observed clinical symptoms associated with BRD and to identify those feeding behavior traits that would be most predictive of BRD...
April 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Anthony W Confer, Timothy A Snider, Jared D Taylor, Marie Montelongo, Nicholas J Sorensen
OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical disease and lung lesions in calves experimentally inoculated with Histophilus somni 5 days after metaphylactic administration of tildipirosin or tulathromycin. ANIMALS Twenty-four 3-month-old Holstein and Holstein-crossbreed steers. PROCEDURES: Calves were randomly allocated to 3 groups of 8 calves. On day 0, calves in group 1 received tildipirosin (4 mg/kg, SC), calves in group 2 received tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg, SC), and calves in group 3 received isotonic saline (0...
April 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
M Lava, B Pardon, G Schüpbach-Regula, K Keckeis, P Deprez, A Steiner, M Meylan
The objective of this survey was to determine herd level risk factors for mortality, unwanted early slaughter, and metaphylactic application of antimicrobial group therapy in Swiss veal calves in 2013. A questionnaire regarding farm structure, farm management, mortality and antimicrobial use was sent to all farmers registered in a Swiss label program setting requirements for improved animal welfare and sustainability. Risk factors were determined by multivariable logistic regression. A total of 619 veal producers returned a useable questionnaire (response rate=28...
April 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Enrico Fiore, Leonardo Armato, Massimo Morgante, Michele Muraro, Matteo Boso, Matteo Gianesella
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tulathromycin as a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) metaphylactic treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot cattle in an intensive livestock production farm. One hundred beef cattle, immediately after housing, were divided in 2 equal groups: 50 animals with metaphylactic treatment against BRD (treated group; tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW) and 50 animals with placebo treatment (control group). Rumen fluid samples were collected from each animal by rumenocentesis in 3 periods: 1 d (T1), 8 d (T8), and 15 d (T15) after treatment...
January 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
S Al-Shahrani, V Naidoo
BACKGROUND: Florfenicol, a commonly used veterinary antibiotic, was reported to have caused a severe drop in egg hatchability following its off-label use on a broiler breeder farm in South Africa. According to the pharmacovigilance report, hatchability dropped by 80 % for up to a week following a five day course at 10 mg/kg (both males and females treated metaphylactically) to manage an Escherichia coli infection. While mammalian toxicity studies indicate the potential for early embryonic death in utero or testicular damage, no literature is available on the avian toxicity of florfenicol...
2015: BMC Veterinary Research
Samuel E Ives, John T Richeson
Despite research and increased availability of antimicrobials, the prevalence and challenges associated with BRD in stocker and feedlot operations remain. Preconditioned calves can better handle the transition from the origin ranch to the feedlot, yet there is incentive for buyers to purchase high-risk cattle at a reduced cost, and this is influenced by the proven efficacy and availability of antimicrobial metaphylaxis. The poor sensitivity of current BRD field diagnostic methods, typical pathogenesis of BRD, and labor issues are additional reasons to use metaphylaxis...
November 2015: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Antonio Bosco, Laura Rinaldi, Giovanna Cappelli, Anastasios Saratsis, Lucio Nisoli, Giuseppe Cringoli
Five controlled field trials were conducted in southern Italy to evaluate the effect of metaphylactic treatment strategies of toltrazuril and diclazuril for the control of coccidiosis in water buffaloes naturally infected by Eimeria spp. The 5 farms were divided into two types (A and B) according to their management system (individual or collective breeding of buffalo calves). In the farms of type A (no. 3), the buffalo calves were bred in individual boxes from the birth to the 7th/8th week of age and then transferred to concrete based pens; in the farms of type B (no...
September 15, 2015: Veterinary Parasitology
Heidi Larsen Enemark, Jan Dahl, Jörg Matthias Dehn Enemark
In this multicentric, randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled field study, the effect of treatment with toltrazuril (Baycox(®) Bovis, Bayer) on oocyst excretion, diarrhoea score and weight gain was studied in Danish dairy herds with confirmed history of eimeriosis (coccidiosis) and prevalence of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 - 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis...
August 2015: Parasitology Research
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