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Jean-Marc Vrigneaud, John McGrath, Alan Courteau, Rosie Pegg, Alberto Sanchez-Pastor Gomis, Angela Camacho, Gary Martin, Nils Schramm, François Brunotte
We evaluated the performance characteristics of a prototype preclinical PET scanner available as an easy clippable assembly that can dock to an MRI system. The single ring version of the PET system consists of 8 detectors, each of which comprises a 12 × 12 silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) array coupled with a dual layer of offset scintillation crystals to measure depth of interaction. The crystal arrays have 29 × 29 (30 × 30 for the outer layer) 4 mm long LYSO crystals (6 mm for the outer layer). The ring diameter is 119...
May 15, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ciprian Catana, Harald H Quick, Habib Zaidi
Whole-body hybrid PET/MR imaging has been used since its introduction in 2010 in clinical and research settings for diagnosis, staging and restaging, assessment of response to treatment and radiation therapy planning. However, the quantitative potential of PET/MRI is challenged by the lack of reliable and accurate MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) owing to the lack of direct relationship between MRI signal, reflecting proton density and relaxation time properties, and electron density, which is linked to photon attenuation properties of biological tissues...
May 14, 2018: Medical Physics
René M Winter, Sara Leibfarth, Holger Schmidt, Kerstin Zwirner, David Mönnich, Stefan Welz, Nina F Schwenzer, Christian la Fougère, Konstantin Nikolaou, Sergios Gatidis, Daniel Zips, Daniela Thorwarth
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Functional PET/MRI has great potential to improve radiotherapy planning (RTP). However, data integration requires imaging with radiotherapy-specific patient positioning. Here, we investigated the feasibility and image quality of radiotherapy-customized PET/MRI in head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients using a dedicated hardware setup. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten HNC patients were examined with simultaneous PET/MRI before treatment, with radiotherapy and diagnostic scan setup, respectively...
May 7, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Barbara K Geist, Pascal Baltzer, Barbara Fueger, Martina Hamboeck, Thomas Nakuz, Laszlo Papp, Sazan Rasul, Lalith Kumar Shiyam Sundar, Marcus Hacker, Anton Staudenherz
BACKGROUND: A method was developed to assess the kidney parameters glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) from 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) concentration behavior in kidneys, measured with positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Twenty-four healthy adult subjects prospectively underwent dynamic simultaneous PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Time activity curves (TACs) were obtained from the dynamic PET series, with the guidance of MR information...
May 9, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Guozhu Hou, Xiaoqing Li, Bo Hou, Weixun Zhou, Wuying Cheng
A 17-year-old adolescent boy with a history of hypoproteinemia underwent Ga-NEB PET/MRI to evaluate possible lymphatic disorders suggested by FDG PET/CT imaging. The images revealed multiple lesions with increased Ga-NEB uptake and high signal on T2-weighted images, consistent with likely lymphatic disorder. Histopathological examination from biopsied specimen confirmed lymphangioma.
May 7, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Seyed Hossein Nozadi, Samuel Kadoury, The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Early identification of dementia in the early or late stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is crucial for a timely diagnosis and slowing down the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Positron emission tomography (PET) is considered a highly powerful diagnostic biomarker, but few approaches investigated the efficacy of focusing on localized PET-active areas for classification purposes. In this work, we propose a pipeline using learned features from semantically labelled PET images to perform group classification...
2018: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
H Chaibi, R Nourine
Background: One of the challenges of PET/MRI combined systems is to derive an attenuation map to correct the PET image. For that, the pseudo-CT image could be used to correct the attenuation. Until now, most existing scientific researches construct this pseudo-CT image using the registration techniques. However, these techniques suffer from the local minima of the non-rigid deformation energy function which leads to unsatisfactory results. Objective: We propose in this paper a new approach for the generation of a pseudo-CT image from an MR image...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Mattijs Elschot, Kirsten M Selnæs, Håkon Johansen, Brage Krüger-Stokke, Helena Bertilsson, Tone F Bathen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of including bone in DIXON-based attenuation correction for 18 F-fluciclovine Positron Emission Tomography (PET) / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of primary and recurrent prostate cancer. Methods: 18 F-fluciclovine PET data from two PET/MRI studies - one for staging of high-risk prostate cancer (28 patients) and one for diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer (81 patients) - were reconstructed with a 4-compartment (reference) and 5-compartment attenuation map...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Cristina Lois, Ivan Gonzalez, David Izquierdo-Garcia, Nicole R Zurcher, Paul Wilkens, Marco L Loggia, Jacob M Hooker, Herminia Diana Rosas
Huntington's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative genetic disorder that causes progressive motor dysfunction, emotional disturbances, and cognitive impairment. Unfortunately, there is no treatment to cure or slow down the progression of the disease. Neuroinflammation is one hallmark of Huntington's disease and modulation of neuroinflammation has been suggested as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. The relationship between neuroinflammation markers and the disease pathology is still poorly understood...
May 2, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Vincenzo Cuccurullo, Giuseppe Danilo Di Stasio, Luigi Mansi
Natural history of prostate cancer (PCa) is extremely variable, as it ranges from indolent and slow growing tumors to highly aggressive histotypes. Genetic background and environmental factors co-operate to the genesis and clinical manifestation of the tumor and include among the others race, family, specific gene variants (i.e., BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations), acute and chronic inflammation, infections, diet and drugs. In this scenario, remaining actual the clinical interest of bone scan (BS) in detecting skeletal metastases, an important role in diagnostic imaging may be also carried out by, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI), which combine morphological information provided by CT and MRI with functional and metabolic data provided by PET acquisitions...
April 2018: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Gregory P Barton, Lauren Vildberg, Kara Goss, Niti Aggarwal, Marlowe Eldridge, Alan B McMillan
BACKGROUND: Cardiac metabolic changes in heart disease precede overt contractile dysfunction. However, metabolism and function are not typically assessed together in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to develop a cardiac positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) stress test to assess the dynamic relationship between contractile function and metabolism in a preclinical model. METHODS: Following an overnight fast, healthy pigs (45-50 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Felix Nensa, Fabian Bamberg, Christoph Rischpler, Leon Menezes, Thorsten D Poeppel, Christian la Fougère, Dietrich Beitzke, Sazan Rasul, Christian Loewe, Konstantin Nikolaou, Jan Bucerius, Andreas Kjaer, Matthias Gutberlet, Niek H Prakken, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Riemer H J A Slart, Stephan G Nekolla, Martin L Lassen, Bernd J Pichler, Thomas Schlosser, Alexis Jacquier, Harald H Quick, Michael Schäfers, Marcus Hacker
Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have both been used for decades in cardiovascular imaging. Since 2010, hybrid PET/MRI using sequential and integrated scanner platforms has been available, with hybrid cardiac PET/MR imaging protocols increasingly incorporated into clinical workflows. Given the range of complementary information provided by each method, the use of hybrid PET/MRI may be justified and beneficial in particular clinical settings for the evaluation of different disease entities...
May 2, 2018: European Radiology
Serge Desarnaud, Charles Mellerio, Franck Semah, Agathe Laurent, Elisabeth Landre, Bertrand Devaux, Catherine Chiron, Vincent Lebon, Francine Chassoux
The original version of this article has added numbers in the text which are unnecessary. Correct line should be: "We also performed PET/MRI based surgical resections in an increasing number of MRI negative/ doubtful cases with favourable outcome."
April 28, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Mei Liu, Yichun Wang, Mengting Li, Hongyan Feng, Qingyao Liu, Chunxia Qin, Yongxue Zhang, Xiaoli Lan
The study aimed to investigate the feasibility of noninvasive monitoring of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transduced with the tyrosinase reporter gene for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with photoacoustic imaging (PAI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) in vitro and in vivo. MSCs were transduced with a lentivirus carrying a tyrosinase reporter gene. After transduction, the rate of 18 F-5-fluoro-N-(2-[diethylamino]ethyl)picolinamide (18 F-5-FPN) uptake was measured...
April 27, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Mariarosaria Incoronato, Anna Maria Grimaldi, Carlo Cavaliere, Marianna Inglese, Peppino Mirabelli, Serena Monti, Umberto Ferbo, Emanuele Nicolai, Andrea Soricelli, Onofrio Antonio Catalano, Marco Aiello, Marco Salvatore
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine if functional parameters extracted from the hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) correlate with the immunohistochemical markers of breast cancer (BC) lesions, to assess their ability to predict BC subtype. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the institution's Ethics Committee, and all patients provided written informed consent. A total of 50 BC patients at diagnosis underwent PET/MRI before pharmacological and surgical treatment...
April 25, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
T Beyer, R Hicks, C Brun, G Antoch, L S Freudenberg
BACKGROUND: Hybrid PET/CT and PET/MRI are increasingly important technologies in the evaluation of malignancy and require cooperation between radiologists and specialists in molecular imaging. The aim of our study was to probe the mindsets of radiological and nuclear medicine professionals in regard to current hybrid imaging practice and to assess relevant training aspirations and perceived shortfalls, particularly amongst young professionals. In this context, we initiated an international survey on "Hybrid Imaging Training"...
April 26, 2018: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Karen Gauvain, Maria Rosana Ponisio, Amy Barone, Michael Grimaldi, Ephraim Parent, Hayden Leeds, Manu Goyal, Joshua Rubin, Jonathan McConathy
Background: Noninvasively predicting early response to therapy in recurrent pediatric brain tumors provides a challenge. 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18 F]fluoro-L-phenylalanine (18 F-FDOPA) PET/MRI has not been previously studied as a tool to evaluate early response to antiangiogenic therapy in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of using 18 F-FDOPA PET/MRI to assess response to bevacizumab in children with relapsed brain tumors. Materials and Methods: Six patients with recurrent gliomas (5 low-grade, 1 high-grade) planned to undergo treatment with bevacizumab were enrolled...
March 2018: Neuro-oncology Practice
Ismini C Mainta, Thomas Zilli, Jean-Christophe Tille, Thomas De Perrot, Jean-Paul Vallée, Franz Buchegger, Valentina Garibotto, Raymond Miralbell
PURPOSE: Tumor hypoxia is associated with radioresistance and poor prognosis after radiation therapy for prostate cancer (PCa). In this prospective pilot study, we assessed the ability of 18 F-misonidazole (18 F-MISO) positron emission tomography (PET)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect hypoxia in high-grade PCa patients who were candidates for curative radiation therapy, and we evaluated 18 F-MISO PET-MRI modulation after 3 months of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (nADT)...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
B Beuthien-Baumann
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a procedure in nuclear medicine, which is applied predominantly in oncological diagnostics. In the form of modern hybrid machines, such as PET computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) it has found wide acceptance and availability. The PET procedure is more than just another imaging technique, but a functional method with the capability for quantification in addition to the distribution pattern of the radiopharmaceutical, the results of which are used for therapeutic decisions...
April 19, 2018: Der Radiologe
Jingfeng Zhang, Yanyuan Li, Yilei Zhao, Jianjun Qiao
Superficial solid masses are common conditions in clinical practice, however, some of which can be easily diagnosed and others would be difficult. Although imaging of superficial masses is not always characteristic, it would be helpful to give a definitive diagnosis or narrow a differential diagnosis. Crossing-section imaging can depicture the masses directly, find some pathognomonic signs and demonstrate their relationship with adjacent structures, which can provide decision support for clinician's reference...
March 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
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