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Generalized additive models

Martha Lappas, Harry M Georgiou, Anida Velagic, Jane C Willcox, Michael Permezel, Alexis Shub
AIMS: The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is greater in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Apolipoprotein (Apo) species have been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine if circulating levels of Apo species can predict development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous GDM. METHODS: Apo AI, Apo AII, Apo B, Apo CII, Apo CIII and Apo E levels were measured in 95 women with normal glucose tolerance, 12 weeks following an index GDM pregnancy...
March 12, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Laith Furatian, Madjid Mohseni
The 185 nm wavelength radiation generated by the conventional low pressure mercury lamp forms the basis of an advanced oxidation process (AOP) that does not require chemical addition. The photolysis of water by 185 nm photons generates the hydroxyl radical (OH) used to degrade trace organic contaminants. While AOPs in general suffer decreased efficiency in direct proportion to the concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and alkalinity (HCO3 - /CO3 2- ), acting as OH scavengers, such solutes impose an additional parasitic effect on the 185 nm AOP as absorbers of photons...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Lars Benjaminsen, Jesper Fels Birkelund
AIMS: This article analyses excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users compared to the general Danish population. The study provides an extensive control for confounding and investigates to what extent excess morbidity is explained by homelessness or other risk factors. METHODS: Data set includes administrative micro-data for 4,068,926 Danes who were 23 years or older on 1 January 2007. Nationwide data on shelter use identified 14,730 individuals as shelter users from 2002 to 2006...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Sarisa Suriyarak, Herbert Schmidt, Pierre Villeneuve, Jochen Weiss
The mechanisms of three antimicrobial rosmarinates (methyl-RE1, hexyl-RE6, and dodecyl-RE12) were investigated against Staphylococcus carnosus LTH1502. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the morphology of treated cells to gain information on potential changes in the site of action of compounds. The survival data obtained from antimicrobial activity assays were fitted to a nonlinear Weibull model to assess changes in inactivation behavior. Generally, esters became more effective with increasing length of the alkyl chain, resulting in a lower concentration for inhibition and inactivation...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Claes Ohlsson, Maria Nethander, Magnus K Karlsson, Björn E Rosengren, Eva Ribom, Dan Mellström, Liesbeth Vandenput
The adrenal-derived hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) are the most abundant circulating hormones and their levels decline substantially with age. Many of the actions of DHEAS are considered to be mediated through metabolism into androgens and estrogens in peripheral target tissues. The predictive value of serum DHEA and DHEAS for the likelihood of falling is unknown. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the associations between baseline DHEA and DHEAS levels and incident fall risk in a large cohort of older men...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Ryan R Kerney, James Hanken, David C Blackburn
Direct-developing amphibians form limbs during early embryonic stages, as opposed to the later, often postembryonic limb formation of metamorphosing species. Limb patterning is dramatically altered in direct-developing frogs, but little attention has been given to direct-developing salamanders. We use expression patterns of two genes, sox9 and col2a1, to assess skeletal patterning during embryonic limb development in the direct-developing salamander Plethodon cinereus. Limb patterning in P. cinereus partially resembles that described in other urodele species, with early formation of digit II and a generally anterior-to-posterior formation of preaxial digits...
March 12, 2018: Evolution & Development
Rodrigo Antunes Lima, Lisbeth Runge Larsen, Anna Bugge, Lars Bo Andersen
PURPOSE: The current investigation aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between physical fitness and academic performance over 3 years in adolescents. A secondary aim was to determine to what extent waist circumference mediated the association between physical fitness and academic performance. METHODS: For the current study, 1020 students from first grade [mean age: 7.87 (0.34) y] to fifth grade [mean age: 11.87 (0.37) y] were monitored annually for 3 years (2010-2013)...
March 10, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Meiyan Wang, Dan Meng, Peng Zhang, Xiangxing Wang, Gang Du, Charles Brennan, Shiming Li, Chi-Tang Ho, Hui Zhao
Aging and oxidative-related events are closely associated with the oxidative damages induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS). The phytochemicals nobiletin (NBT) and tangeretin (TAN), and their 5-demethylated derivatives 5-demethylnobiletin (5-DN) and 5-demethyltangeretin (5-DT) are the representative polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) compounds found in aged citrus peel. Although the health benefits from PMFs due to their antioxidant activities have been well documented, a systematic assessment regarding the antioxidation process of PMFs is still lack of attention...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jesse Tanguay, Ian A Cunningham
PURPOSE: Single-photon-counting (SPC) and spectroscopic x-ray detectors are under development in academic and industry laboratories for medical imaging applications. The spatial resolution of SPC and spectroscopic x-ray detectors is an important design criterion. The purpose of this article is to extend the cascaded systems approach to include a description of the spatial resolution of SPC and spectroscopic x-ray imaging detectors. METHODS: A cascaded systems approach was used to model reabsorption of characteristic x rays Coulomb repulsion, and diffusion in SPC and spectroscopic x-ray detectors...
March 11, 2018: Medical Physics
Aaron L Sarvet, Melanie M Wall, Katherine M Keyes, Mark Olfson, Magdalena Cerdá, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: Self-medication with drugs or alcohol is commonly reported among adults with mood or anxiety disorders, and increases the risk of developing substance use disorders. Medical marijuana laws (MML) may be associated with greater acceptance of the therapeutic value of marijuana, leading individuals to self-medicate. METHODS: The study utilized data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005). Participants were sampled from households in the general population and included adults with a mood or anxiety disorder in the past 12 months (n = 7418), and the subset of those who used marijuana and no other drug (n = 314)...
March 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Paolo Ruzza, Rosa Maria Vitale, Rohanah Hussain, Alessia Montini, Claudia Honisch, Alice Pozzebon, Charlotte S Hughes, Barbara Biondi, Pietro Amodeo, GianPietro Sechi, Giuliano Siligardi
BACKGROUND: Lysozyme is a widely distributed enzyme present in a variety of tissue and body fluids. Human and hen egg white lysozyme are used as validated model to study protein folding and stability and to understand protein misfolding and aggregation. We recently found that ceftriaxone, a β-lactam antibiotic able to overcome the blood-brain barrier, successfully eliminated the cellular toxic effects of misfolded proteins as Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein and α-synuclein. To further understand the anti-amyloidogenic properties of ceftriaxone, we studied its activity towards lysozyme aggregation with the aim to investigate a possible chaperone-like activity of this molecule...
March 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jessica L Markham, Matt Hall, James C Gay, Jessica L Bettenhausen, Jay G Berry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Readmissions burden the health care system. Despite increasing attention to readmission rates, little is known about the duration and cost of readmissions. The objective of this study was to assess, nationally, the length of stay (LOS) and costs for 30-day readmissions in children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 30-day readmissions by using the 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database. We used generalized linear mixed effects models adjusted for important clinical and demographic factors to assess LOS and cost for index admissions, readmissions, and the episode of care (index admission plus readmission)...
March 9, 2018: Pediatrics
Mariana Terra, Marine Oberkampf, Catherine Fayolle, Pierre Rosenbaum, Camille Guillerey, Gilles Dadaglio, Claude Leclerc
A growing number of observations has suggested that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) play a critical role in tumor biology. In patients, infiltration of tumors by pDC generally correlates with a poor prognosis, suggesting that pDC may play an important role in the host-tumor relationship. Here we analyze the influence of pDC in solid tumor development using two different tumor models: TC-1 and B16-OVA. Phenotypic and functional gene profiling analysis of tumor-associated pDC showed that the tumor microenvironment affected their activation status and ability to produce cytokines and chemokines...
March 9, 2018: Cancer Research
Tamires Rocha Falcão, Aurigena Antunes de Araújo, Luiz Alberto Lira Soares, Rhayanne Thaís de Moraes Ramos, Isabelle Cristinne Ferraz Bezerra, Magda Rhayanny Assunção Ferreira, Manoel André de Souza Neto, Maria Celeste Nunes Melo, Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo, Andreza Conceição Véras de Aguiar Guerra, Juliana Silva de Medeiros, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo Guerra
BACKGROUND: This study showed phytochemical composition and evaluates the anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of crude extract (CE) and fractions from E. uniflora Linn leaves. METHODS: Polyphenols present in crude extract (CE), in aqueous fraction (AqF), and ethyl acetate (EAF) treated fractions from E. uniflora Linn leaves were shown by chromatographic analysis in order to conduct a phytochemical characterization. Antibacterial activity was evaluated based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined using the agar dilution method...
March 9, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Bircan Erbas, Toril Mørkve Knudsen, Christer Janson, Roy M Nilsen, Simone Accordini, Bryndis Benediktdottir, Julia Dratva, Joachim Heinrich, Debbie Jarvis, Benedcite Leynaert, Melanie C Matheson, Dan Norbäck, Francisco G Real, Chantal Raherison-Semjen, Simona Villani, S C Dharmage, C Svanes
BACKGROUND: Despite extensive knowledge of smoking effects on respiratory disease, there is no study including all age windows of exposure among ever smokers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects from smoking exposure in utero, early childhood, adolescence and adulthood on respiratory health outcomes in adult male and female ever smokers. METHODS: Respiratory health outcomes were assessed in 10,610 participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) I who reported a history of ever smoking by questionnaire...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Research
Amika K Sood, Matthew J Kesic, Michelle L Hernandez
Electronic cigarettes (EC) have been rapidly growing in popularity among youth and adults in the US over the last decade. This increasing prevalence is partially driven by the ability to customize devices, flavors, and nicotine content and the general notion that EC are harmless, particularly in comparison to conventional cigarettes (CC). In vitro and in vivo murine models have demonstrated a number of harmful biological effects of e-liquids (EL) and their aerosols. However, limited clinical data exists on whether these effects translate into detrimental long-term outcomes in humans...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
N Zhao, L Mi, X J Zhang, M Y Xu, H Y Yu, Z W Liu, X J Liu, G C Guan, W Gao, J K Wang
MicroRNA 711 (miR-711) levels in the heart change dynamically after myocardial infarction (MI). As peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) can upregulate miR-711 in adipocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, this study examined the precise mechanism of PPARγ-mediated miR-711 upregulation and its role in the heart in the early stages after MI. In a rat model of MI induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses revealed increased PPARγ expression in cardiomyocyte nuclei after MI...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Carlos Conte, Araceli López
The new models for understanding persons with disabilities and their needs come with an expansion of their rights. This article discusses the new approaches, the changes produced in recent years, and the upcoming challenges posed by the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), which, in Argentina, is on equal par with the Constitution. Additionally, the article mentions the incorporation of the World Health Organization's new multi-dimensional classifcation of disability, which takes into account the impairments suffered by persons along with any limitations on their activities and constraints on participation...
July 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Samson Bamidele Olorunju, Onoja Matthew Akpa, Rotimi Felix Afolabi
BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent depression is common and often persists into adulthood with negative implications for school performances, peer relationship and behavioural functioning. The Child Depression Inventory (CDI) has been used to assess depression among adolescents in many countries including Nigeria but it is uncertain if the theoretical structure of CDI appropriately fits the experiences of adolescents in Nigeria. This study assessed varying theoretical modelling structure of the CDI in a population of apparently healthy adolescents in Benue state, Nigeria...
2018: PloS One
Pavel Payne, Lukas Geyrhofer, Nicholas H Barton, Jonathan P Bollback
Herd immunity, a process in which resistant individuals limit the spread of a pathogen among susceptible hosts has been extensively studied in eukaryotes. Even though bacteria have evolved multiple immune systems against their phage pathogens, herd immunity in bacteria remains unexplored. Here we experimentally demonstrate that herd immunity arises during phage epidemics in structured and unstructured Escherichia coli populations consisting of differing frequencies of susceptible and resistant cells harboring CRISPR immunity...
March 9, 2018: ELife
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