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Generalized additive models

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445982/serum-uric-acid-level-as-a-cardio-cerebrovascular-event-risk-factor-in-middle-aged-and-non-obese-chinese-men
#1
Zhi-Jun Li, Chen-Ju Yi, Jing Li, Na Tang
AIM: The role of uric acid as a risk factor for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases is controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between serum uric acid level and the risk of cardio-cerebrovascular events in middle-aged and non-obese Chinese men. METHODS: We included 3152 participants from the health examination center of Tongji Hospital from June 2007 to June 2010. Clinical examination and medical records were collected at the annual health examination...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445024/an-economic-evaluation-of-the-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-eras-multisite-implementation-program-for-colorectal-surgery-in-alberta
#2
Nguyen X. Thanh, Anderson W. Chuck, Tracy Wasylak, Jeannette Lawrence, Peter Faris, Olle Ljungqvist, Gregg Nelson, Leah M. Gramlich
BACKGROUND: In February 2013, Alberta Health Services established an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) implementation program for adopting the ERAS Society colorectal guidelines into 6 sites (initial phase) that perform more than 75% of all colorectal surgeries in the province. We conducted an economic evaluation of this initiative to not only determine its cost-effectiveness, but also to inform strategy for the spread and scale of ERAS to other surgical protocols and sites. METHODS: We assessed the impact of ERAS on patients’ health services utilization (HSU; length of stay [LOS], readmissions, emergency department visits, general practitioner and specialist visits) within 30 days of discharge by comparing pre- and post-ERAS groups using multilevel negative binomial regressions...
December 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444763/manganese-concentration-mapping-in-the-rat-brain-with-mri-pet-and-autoradiography
#3
Geoffrey J Topping, Andrew Yung, Paul Schaffer, Cornelia Hoehr, Rick Kornelsen, Piotr Kozlowski, Vesna Sossi
PURPOSE: Mn(2+) is used a contrast agent and marker for neuronal activity with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in rats and mice, but its accumulation is generally not assessed quantitatively. In this work, non-radioactive Mn and (52) Mn are injected simultaneously in rats, and imaged with MRI, positron emission tomography (PET) and autoradiography (AR). Mn distributions are compared between modalities, to assess the potential and limitations on quantification of Mn with MRI, and to investigate the potential of multimodal measurement of Mn accumulation...
April 26, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444478/the-association-between-geometry-and-wall-stress-in-emergently-repaired-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#4
Sathyajeeth S Chauhan, Carlos A Gutierrez, Mirunalini Thirugnanasambandam, Victor De Oliveira, Satish C Muluk, Mark K Eskandari, Ender A Finol
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent cardiovascular disease characterized by the focal dilation of the aorta, which supplies blood to all the organs and tissues in the systemic circulation. With the AAA increasing in diameter over time, the risk of aneurysm rupture is generally associated with the size of the aneurysm. If diagnosed on time, intervention is recommended to prevent AAA rupture. The criterion to decide on surgical intervention is determined by measuring the maximum diameter of the aneurysm relative to the critical value of 5...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444119/spatial-variability-in-adhd-related-behaviors-among-children-born-to-mothers-residing-near-the-new-bedford-harbor-superfund-site
#5
Verónica M Vieira, M Patricia Fabian, Thomas F Webster, Jonathan I Levy, Susan A Korrick
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has an uncertain etiology, with potential contributions from different risk factors such as prenatal environmental exposure to organochlorines and metals, social risk factors, and genetics. The degree to which geographic variability in ADHD is independent of, or explained by, risk factors may provide etiological insight. We investigated determinants of geographic variation in ADHD-related behaviors among children living near the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated New Bedford Harbor (NBH) Superfund site in Massachusetts...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443533/childhood-adversity-adult-stress-and-the-risk-of-major-depression-or-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-us-soldiers-a-test-of-the-stress-sensitization-hypothesis
#6
G Bandoli, L Campbell-Sills, R C Kessler, S G Heeringa, M K Nock, A J Rosellini, N A Sampson, M Schoenbaum, R J Ursano, M B Stein
BACKGROUND: The stress sensitization theory hypothesizes that individuals exposed to childhood adversity will be more vulnerable to mental disorders from proximal stressors. We aimed to test this theory with respect to risk of 30-day major depressive episode (MDE) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among new US Army soldiers. METHODS: The sample consisted of 30 436 new soldier recruits in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience (Army STARRS). Generalized linear models were constructed, and additive interactions between childhood maltreatment profiles and level of 12-month stressful experiences on the risk of 30-day MDE and GAD were analyzed...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441598/hypertension-modifies-the-short-term-effects-of-temperature-on-morbidity-of-hemorrhagic-stroke
#7
Qinzhou Wang, Cuilian Gao, Hongen Liu, Wei Li, Yuying Zhao, Guangrun Xu, Chuanzhu Yan, Hualiang Lin, Lingling Lang
BACKGROUND: This study estimated the effects of ambient temperature on hospital admissions for hemorrhagic stroke during 2004-2009 in Jinan, China, and the effect modification of hypertension status. METHODS: The exposure-response relationship between temperature and hemorrhagic stroke was firstly examined, and then the association between daily mean temperature and hemorrhagic stroke was investigated using a generalized additive model. Stratified analyses were conducted to examine the potential effect modification of hypertension...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441416/ethanol-itself-is-a-holoprosencephaly-inducing-teratogen
#8
Mingi Hong, Robert S Krauss
Ethanol is a teratogen, inducing a variety of structural defects in developing humans and animals that are exposed in utero. Mechanisms of ethanol teratogenicity in specific defects are not well understood. Oxidative metabolism of ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase or cytochrome P450 2E1 has been implicated in some of ethanol's teratogenic effects, either via production of acetaldehyde or competitive inhibition of retinoic acid synthesis. Generalized oxidative stress in response to ethanol may also play a role in its teratogenicity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440982/-intelligence-quotient-loss-in-mexican-pottery-artisan-s-children
#9
Daniel Estrada-Sánchez, Bret Ericson, Cuauhtémoc Arturo Juárez-Pérez, Guadalupe Aguilar-Madrid, Lina Hernández, Sandra Gualtero, Jack Caravanos
BACKGROUND: In Mexico, artisans frequently use lead oxide or greta in order to produce utensils, which are destined to preparation and storage of food and drinks. Additionally, the risk of lead poisoning of artisans and their families is greater than in general population, and within these families, children are the most susceptible to lead poisoning. The aim of this study was to estimate IQ loss in Mexican children from potter families exposed to lead. METHODS: Lead concentrations in soil were determined in 19 potter's homes that functioned as pottery workshops in seven Mexican states between 2009 and 2012...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440047/mental-illness-in-bariatric-surgery-a-cohort-study-from-the-portal-network
#10
David Fisher, Karen J Coleman, David E Arterburn, Heidi Fischer, Ayae Yamamoto, Deborah R Young, Nancy E Sherwood, Connie Mah Trinacty, Kristina H Lewis
OBJECTIVE: To compare bariatric surgery outcomes according to preoperative mental illness category. METHODS: Electronic health record data from several US healthcare systems were used to compare outcomes of four groups of patients who underwent bariatric surgery in 2012 and 2013. These included the following: people with (1) no mental illness, (2) mild-to-moderate depression or anxiety, (3) severe depression or anxiety, and (4) bipolar, psychosis, or schizophrenia spectrum disorders...
May 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439921/impact-of-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-intermittent-hypoxia-on-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-regulation
#11
Andrew E Beaudin, Xavier Waltz, Patrick J Hanly, Marc J Poulin
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, a consequence attributed in part to chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) resulting from repetitive apnoeas during sleep. Although findings from experimental animal, and human, models have shown that IH is detrimental to vascular regulation, the severity of IH used in many of these animal studies (e.g. inspired fraction of oxygen (FI O2 ) = 2-3%; oxygen desaturation index (ODI) = 120 events h(-1) ) is considerably greater than that observed in the majority of patients with OSA...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439757/when-is-higher-level-cognitive-control-needed-for-locomotor-tasks-among-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Inbal Maidan, Hagar Bernad-Elazari, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Anat Mirelman
Turning has been implicated as a complex task that requires both motor and cognitive resources. Accumulating evidence shows that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) require more steps and more time to complete a turn, however, the role of the prefrontal cortex during turning is not clear. Forty nine patients with PD without freezing of gait (mean age 71.7 ± 1.0 years; 67% men, disease duration 9.7 ± 1.3 years) performed motor and cognitive tests. Prefrontal activation, specifically in Brodmann area 10 (BA10), during turning and usual walking was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
April 24, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439188/next-generation-sequencing-reveals-high-prevalence-of-brca1-and-brca2-variants-of-unknown-significance-in-early-onset-breast-cancer-in-african-american-women
#13
Luisel Ricks-Santi, J Tyson McDonald, Bert Gold, Michael Dean, Nicole Thompson, Muneer Abbas, Bradford Wilson, Yasmine Kanaan, Tammey J Naab, Georgia Dunston
BACKGROUND: Variants of unknown significance (VUSs) have been identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and account for the majority of all identified sequence alterations. Notably, VUSs occur disproportionately in people of African descent hampering breast cancer (BCa) management and prevention efforts in the population. Our study sought to identify and characterize mutations associated with increased risk of BCa at young age. METHODS: In our study, the spectrum of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 was enumerated in a cohort of 31 African American women of early age at onset breast cancer, with a family history of breast or cancer in general and/or with triple negative breast cancer...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438638/adenosine-a2a-receptor-modulates-neuroimmune-function-through-th17-retinoid-related-orphan-receptor-gamma-t-ror%C3%AE-t-signaling-in-a-btbr-t-itpr3-tf-j-mouse-model-of-autism
#14
Mushtaq A Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Sabry M Attia, Saleh A Bakheet, Raish Mohammad, Sheikh F Ahmad
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal social interactions, repetitive behaviors that impair social communication, and circumscribed interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) inbred mice are generally used as a model for ASD, as they show repetitive behaviors and social deficits that resemble signs of ADS in humans. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are considered as potential targets in the treatment of immune, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 5826 (SCH) and agonist CGS 21680 (CGS) on behavior (self-grooming), hot plate test results, and expression levels of IL-17A(+), RORγt(+), Foxp3(+), and IL-10(+) in CD4(+) T spleen cells in BTBR and C57BL/6 (B6) mice...
April 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438026/intramuscular-lorazepam-for-status-epilepticus-in-children-with-complex-medical-and-physical-disabilities
#15
Peter N Johnson, Anna Nguyen, Stephen B Neely, Michael Johnson
BACKGROUND: A protocol was developed to achieve status epilepticus (SE) resolution: step 1, intramuscular (IM) lorazepam; step 2, repeat IM lorazepam; step 3, rectal diazepam. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to identify the number of patients with SE resolution after step 1. Secondary objectives included categorization of mean number of IM doses per episode and patient factors associated with SE resolution. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients <21 years old with complex medical and physical disabilities admitted over 5 years...
April 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437093/a-pathogen-specific-cargo-delivery-platform-based-on-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#16
Bastian Ruehle, Daniel L Clemens, Bai-Yu Lee, Marcus A Horwitz, Jeffrey I Zink
We present a synthetic approach to a highly pathogen-selective detection and delivery platform based on the in-teraction of an antibody nanovalve with a tetrasaccharide from the O-Antigen of the lipopolysaccharide of Francisella tularensis bacteria, a Tier 1 Select Agent of bioterrorism. Different design considerations are explored, and proof-of-concept for highly pathogen-specific cargo release from mesoporous silica nanoparticles is demonstrated by comparisons of the release of a signal transducer and model drug by LPS from Francisella tularensis vs...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436881/modulating-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-neuronal-firing-for-visual-prostheses-a-kalman-filter-based-strategy
#17
Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly
Developing visual prostheses that target inner brain structures along the visual pathway represent a new hope for patients with completely damaged early visual pathway sites. One of the major challenges in the development of subcortical and cortical visual prostheses is tuning electrical stimulation that could optimally induce desired visual percepts. In this paper, we propose a Kalman filter-based strategy that could be used to identify electrical stimulation patterns that mimic a specific visual input for thalamic visual prostheses...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436829/modelling-the-effect-of-combined-antimicrobials-a-base-model-for-multiple-hurdles
#18
M Anastasiadi, R J W Lambert
Combining antimicrobials to reduce microbial growth and to combat the potential impact of antimicrobial resistance is an important subject both in foods and in pharmaceutics. Modelling of combined treatments designed to reduce or eliminate microbial contamination in foods (microbiological predictive modelling) has become commonplace. Two main reference models are used to analyse mixtures: the Bliss Independence and the Loewe reference models (LRM). By using optical density to analyse the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila, Cronobacter sakazakii and Escherichia coli in combined NaCl/NaCl (a mock combination experiment) and combined NaCl/KCl experiments, previous models for combined antimicrobials in foods, based on the Bliss approach, were shown to be inconsistent and that models based on the LRM more applicable...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436450/definition-of-fractal-topography-to-essential-understanding-of-scale-invariance
#19
Yi Jin, Ying Wu, Hui Li, Mengyu Zhao, Jienan Pan
Fractal behavior is scale-invariant and widely characterized by fractal dimension. However, the cor-respondence between them is that fractal behavior uniquely determines a fractal dimension while a fractal dimension can be related to many possible fractal behaviors. Therefore, fractal behavior is independent of the fractal generator and its geometries, spatial pattern, and statistical properties in addition to scale. To mathematically describe fractal behavior, we propose a novel concept of fractal topography defined by two scale-invariant parameters, scaling lacunarity (P) and scaling coverage (F)...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436391/prediction-of-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-disease-with-longitudinal-measures-and-time-to-event-data
#20
Kan Li, Wenyaw Chan, Rachelle S Doody, Joseph Quinn, Sheng Luo
BACKGROUND: Identifying predictors of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is critically important for AD prevention and targeted treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare various clinical and biomarker trajectories for tracking progression and predicting conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to probable AD. METHODS: Participants were from the ADNI-1 study. We assessed the ability of 33 longitudinal biomarkers to predict time to AD conversion, accounting for demographic and genetic factors...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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