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Generalized additive models

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806845/-effectivity-of-inpatient-psychosomatic-treatment-results-of-a-naturalistic-two-year-survey-in-a-psychosomatic-service-at-a-general-hospital
#1
Juan Valdés-Stauber, Alexander Fuchs, Sören Reiner, Susanne Bachthaler
Background Hospital psychosomatic treatment matches care expectations of a modern society. Evidence of its effectiveness through investigation in different settings is of importance because of prominent role of psychotherapy in German Healthcare System. Objective First, to explore whether clinical as well as personal resources could improve significantly due to a hospital psychosomatic treatment. Second, to assess possible associations between outcome variables and other variables from the multidimensional profile of the sample...
August 14, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806692/microplastic-pollution-identified-in-deep-sea-water-and-ingested-by-benthic-invertebrates-in-the-rockall-trough-north-atlantic-ocean
#2
Winnie Courtene-Jones, Brian Quinn, Stefan F Gary, Andrew O M Mogg, Bhavani E Narayanaswamy
Microplastics are widespread in the natural environment and present numerous ecological threats. While the ultimate fate of marine microplastics are not well known, it is hypothesized that the deep sea is the final sink for this anthropogenic contaminant. This study provides a quantification and characterisation of microplastic pollution ingested by benthic macroinvertebrates with different feeding modes (Ophiomusium lymani, Hymenaster pellucidus and Colus jeffreysianus) and in adjacent deep water > 2200 m, in the Rockall Trough, Northeast Atlantic Ocean...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806613/automatic-blood-vessels-segmentation-based-on-different-retinal-maps-from-octa-scans
#3
Nabila Eladawi, Mohammed Elmogy, Omar Helmy, Ahmed Aboelfetouh, Alaa Riad, Harpal Sandhu, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
The retinal vascular network reflects the health of the retina, which is a useful diagnostic indicator of systemic vascular. Therefore, the segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a powerful method for diagnosing vascular diseases. This paper presents an automatic segmentation system for retinal blood vessels from Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) images. The system segments blood vessels from the superficial and deep retinal maps for normal and diabetic cases. Initially, we reduced the noise and improved the contrast of the OCTA images by using the Generalized Gauss-Markov random field (GGMRF) model...
August 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806586/the-new-frontier-of-strategic-alliances-in-health-care-new-partnerships-under-accountable-care-organizations
#4
Valerie A Lewis, Katherine I Tierney, Carrie H Colla, Stephen M Shortell
Accountable care organizations (ACOs) and similar reforms aim to improve coordination between health care providers; however, due to the fragmented nature of the US health care system, successful coordination will hinge in large part on the ability of health care organizations to successfully partner across organizational boundaries. Little is known about new partnerships formed under the ACO model. We use mixed methods data from the National Survey of ACOs, Medicare ACO performance data and interviews with executive leaders across 31 ACOs to examine the prevalence, characteristics, and capabilities of partnership ACOs and why and how ACO partnerships form...
May 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806420/perceptions-of-health-risks-of-cigarette-smoking-a-new-measure-reveals-widespread-misunderstanding
#5
Jon A Krosnick, Neil Malhotra, Cecilia Hyunjung Mo, Eduardo F Bruera, LinChiat Chang, Josh Pasek, Randall K Thomas
Most Americans recognize that smoking causes serious diseases, yet many Americans continue to smoke. One possible explanation for this paradox is that perhaps Americans do not accurately perceive the extent to which smoking increases the probability of adverse health outcomes. This paper examines the accuracy of Americans' perceptions of the absolute risk, attributable risk, and relative risk of lung cancer, and assesses which of these beliefs drive Americans' smoking behavior. Using data from three national surveys, statistical analyses were performed by comparing means, medians, and distributions, and by employing Generalized Additive Models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805214/the-low-populated-folding-intermediate-of-a-mutant-of-the-fyn-sh3-domain-identified-by-a-simple-model
#6
Jing Wu, Guojun Chen, Zhuqing Zhang, Ping Zhang, Tao Chen
Experimental studies indicate that the A39V/N53P/V55L Fyn SH3 domain folds from the unfolded state to the native state via a low-populated on-pathway intermediate, whereas the folding of the wildtype is two-state-like. To get insights into the biophysical basis of their different folding mechanisms, we used native-centric models with and without additional transferrable, sequence-dependent nonnative hydrophobic interactions to study the folding behaviors of the Fyn SH3 domain and its mutant. The pure native-centric model predicts that both the wildtype and the mutant fold in a two-state manner, without any detectable intermediate...
August 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805169/the-prevalence-of-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviours-among-college-students-a-meta-analysis
#7
P Mortier, P Cuijpers, G Kiekens, R P Auerbach, K Demyttenaere, J G Green, R C Kessler, M K Nock, R Bruffaerts
BACKGROUND: Adolescence and young adulthood carry risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviours (STB). An increasing subpopulation of young people consists of college students. STB prevalence estimates among college students vary widely, precluding a validated point of reference. In addition, little is known on predictors for between-study heterogeneity in STB prevalence. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified 36 college student samples that were assessed for STB outcomes, representing a total of 634 662 students [median sample size = 2082 (IQR 353-5200); median response rate = 74% (IQR 37-89%)]...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804930/gaussian-covariance-graph-models-accounting-for-correlated-marker-effects-in-genome-wide-prediction
#8
C A Martínez, K Khare, S Rahman, M A Elzo
Several statistical models used in genome-wide prediction assume uncorrelated marker allele substitution effects, but it is known that these effects may be correlated. In statistics, graphical models have been identified as a useful tool for covariance estimation in high-dimensional problems and it is an area that has recently experienced a great expansion. In Gaussian covariance graph models (GCovGM), the joint distribution of a set of random variables is assumed to be Gaussian and the pattern of zeros of the covariance matrix is encoded in terms of an undirected graph G...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804929/factors-moderating-the-relative-effectiveness-of-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy-in-clients-using-smoking-cessation-services
#9
Neil Walker, Heather Gainforth, Vasiliki Kiparoglou, Hayley Robinson, Hugo van Woerden, Robert West
AIMS: To assess how far the greater effectiveness of varenicline over nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is moderated by characteristics of the smokers or setting in clinical practice. DESIGN: We used observational data from 22,472 treatment episodes between 2013 and 2016 from smoking cessation services in England to assess whether differences between varenicline and NRT were moderated by a set of smoker and setting characteristics: these included level of social deprivation, age, gender, ethnic group, nicotine dependence, and treatment context...
August 13, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804524/mechanism-of-secondary-recrystallization-of-goss-grains-in-grain-oriented-electrical-steel
#10
Yasuyuki Hayakawa
Since its invention by Goss in 1934, grain-oriented (GO) electrical steel has been widely used as a core material in transformers. GO exhibits a grain size of over several millimeters attained by secondary recrystallization during high-temperature final batch annealing. In addition to the unusually large grain size, the crystal direction in the rolling direction is aligned with <001>, which is the easy magnetization axis of α-iron. Secondary recrystallization is the phenomenon in which a certain very small number of {110}<001> (Goss) grains grow selectively (about one in 10(6) primary grains) at the expense of many other primary recrystallized grains...
2017: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803913/synthetic-rescue-couples-nadph-generation-to-metabolite-overproduction-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#11
Siavash Partow, Patrick B Hyland, Radhakrishnan Mahadevan
Engineering the redox cofactor metabolism is known to be a key challenge in developing a platform strain for biosynthesis of valuable products. Hence, general strategies for manipulation of co-factor metabolism in industrially relevant hosts are of significance. Here, we demonstrate an improvement in α-ketoglutarate (AKG) production in S. cerevisiae using a novel approach based on synthetic rescue. Here, we first perturb the cytosolic NADPH metabolism via deletion of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (ZWF1)...
August 10, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803586/genetic-evaluation-and-selection-response-for-growth-in-meat-type-quail-through-random-regression-models-using-b-spline-functions-and-legendre-polynomials
#12
L F M Mota, P G M A Martins, T O Littiere, L R A Abreu, M A Silva, C M Bonafé
The objective was to estimate (co)variance functions using random regression models (RRM) with Legendre polynomials, B-spline function and multi-trait models aimed at evaluating genetic parameters of growth traits in meat-type quail. A database containing the complete pedigree information of 7000 meat-type quail was utilized. The models included the fixed effects of contemporary group and generation. Direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, considered as random, were modeled using B-spline functions considering quadratic and cubic polynomials for each individual segment, and Legendre polynomials for age...
August 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803437/geographic-variation-in-chinese-children-forced-vital-capacity-and-its-association-with-long-term-exposure-to-local-pm10-a-national-cross-sectional-study
#13
Hai-Jun Wang, Qin Li, Yuming Guo, Jie-Yun Song, Zhiqiang Wang, Jun Ma
The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between Chinese children's forced vital capacity (FVC) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10). The FVC data of 71,763 children aged 7 to 18 was collected from 2010 Chinese National Survey on Students' Construction and Health (CNSSCH). The local annual average concentration of PM10, relative humidity, ambient temperature, and other air pollutant data of 30 cities was collected from China Meteorological Administration and Ministry of Environment Protection of China...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802202/a-thermosensitive-drug-delivery-system-prepared-by-blend-electrospinning
#14
Heyu Li, Kailin Liu, Qingqing Sang, Gareth R Williams, Junzi Wu, Haijun Wang, Jianrong Wu, Li-Min Zhu
In this study, the thermosensitive polymer poly(di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PDEGMA) was synthesized and electrospun into fibers by blending with ethyl cellulose (EC). Fibers were additionally prepared loaded with ketoprofen (KET) as a model drug. Smooth cylindrical fibers could generally be observed by electron microscopy, although there were some beads and fused fibers visible in the KET-loaded materials. KET was found to be amorphously distributed in the fibers on the basis of X-ray diffraction data...
July 25, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802018/characterization-of-two-catalase-peroxidase-encoding-genes-in-fusarium-verticillioides-reveals-differential-responses-to-in-vitro-versus-in-planta-oxidative-challenges
#15
Shan Gao, Scott E Gold, Anthony E Glenn
Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are a superfamily of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-degrading enzymes believed to be horizontally acquired by ancient Ascomycota from bacteria. Subsequent gene duplication resulted in two KatG paralogs in ascomycetes: the widely distributed intracellular KatG1 group, and the phytopathogen-dominated extracellular KatG2 group. To functionally characterize FvCP01 (KatG1) and FvCP02 (KatG2) in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, single and double gene deletion mutants were examined in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801732/evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-alopecia-areata-and-viral-antigen-exposure
#16
Christopher T Richardson, Matthew S Hayden, Elaine S Gilmore, Brian Poligone
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring alopecia with T-cell infiltration at the affected hair follicle. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the potential link between hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen exposure and AA. METHODS: Two pediatric patients with AA following hepatitis B vaccination were identified in a general dermatology clinic. A bioinformatics analysis and an electronic medical record (EMR) database query were performed at the University of Rochester Medical Center to identify patients with AA, coexisting viral infections, vaccinations, or interferon (IFN) therapy in order to determine if the presence of AA and these conditions was higher than in AA patients without these associated conditions or therapy...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801265/fluoxetine-coupled-with-zinc-in-a-chronic-mild-stress-model-of-depression-providing-a-reservoir-for-optimum-zinc-signaling-and-neuronal-remodeling
#17
Nesreen Nabil Omar, Reham Fathy Tash
BACKGROUND: Recently, depression has been envisioned as more than an alteration in neurotransmitters centered around receptor signaling pathways. Consequently, the precise mechanisms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant drugs such as fluoxetine are being revisited. Zinc is a trace element that has been long implicated in the psychopathology and therapy of depression. Zinc has been found to be sequestered and dispensed during stress and inflammation through a family of proteins called metallothioneins (MTs)...
August 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801104/n-alcohol-length-governs-shift-in-lo-ld-mixing-temperatures-in-synthetic-and-cell-derived-membranes
#18
Caitlin E Cornell, Nicola L C McCarthy, Kandice R Levental, Ilya Levental, Nicholas J Brooks, Sarah L Keller
A persistent challenge in membrane biophysics has been to quantitatively predict how membrane physical properties change upon addition of new amphiphiles (e.g., lipids, alcohols, peptides, or proteins) in order to assess whether the changes are large enough to plausibly result in biological ramifications. Because of their roles as general anesthetics, n-alcohols are perhaps the best-studied amphiphiles of this class. When n-alcohols are added to model and cell membranes, changes in membrane parameters tend to be modest...
August 9, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800962/contacting-co-culture-of-human-retinal-microvascular-endothelial-cells-alters-barrier-function-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#19
H Skottman, J Muranen, H Lähdekorpi, E Pajula, K Mäkelä, L Koivusalo, A Koistinen, H Uusitalo, K Kaarniranta, K Juuti-Uusitalo
Here we evaluated the effects of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hREC) on mature human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The hESC-RPE cells (Regea08/017, Regea08/023 or Regea11/013) and hREC (ACBRI 181) were co-cultured on opposite sides of transparent membranes for up to six weeks. Thereafter barrier function, small molecule permeability, localization of RPE and endothelial cell marker proteins, cellular fine structure, and growth factor secretion of were evaluated...
August 8, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799262/the-regulation-of-regulation-il-10-increases-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-cells-but-impairs-their-immunosuppressive-activity-in-murine-models-with-schistosomiasis-japonica-or-asthma
#20
Lei He, Sha Zhou, Qianqian Qi, Ying Chi, Jifeng Zhu, Zhipeng Xu, Xuefeng Wang, Jason Hoellwarth, Feng Liu, Xiaojun Chen, Chuan Su
CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in maintaining immune homeostasis. Interleukin 10 (IL-10), a cytokine with anti-inflammatory capacities, also has a critical role in controlling immune responses. In addition, it is well known that production of IL-10 is one of suppression mechanisms by Tregs. However, the action of IL-10 on Tregs themselves remains insufficiently understood. In this study, by using a Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum)-infected murine model, we show that the elevated IL-10 contributed to Treg induction but impaired their immunosuppressive function...
August 11, 2017: Immunology
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