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Generalized additive models

Paul R Hunter, Annette Prüss-Ustün
BACKGROUND: Although widely accepted as being one of the most important public health advances of the past hundred years, the contribution that improving sanitation coverage can make to child health is still unclear, especially since the publication of two large studies of sanitation in India which found no effect on child morbidity. We hypothesis that the value of sanitation does not come directly from use of improved sanitation but from improving community coverage. If this is so we further hypothesise that the relationship between sanitation coverage and child health will be non-linear and that most of any health improvement will accrue as sanitation becomes universal...
2016: PloS One
Natalia A Dellabianca, Graham J Pierce, Andrea Raya Rey, Gabriela Scioscia, David L Miller, Mónica A Torres, M Natalia Paso Viola, R Natalie P Goodall, Adrián C M Schiavini
Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus c. commersonii) and Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) are two of the most common species of cetaceans in the coastal waters of southwest South Atlantic Ocean. Both species are listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN, mainly due to the lack of information about population sizes and trends. The goal of this study was to build spatially explicit models for the abundance of both species in relation to environmental variables using data collected during eight scientific cruises along the Patagonian shelf...
2016: PloS One
Ryan A Whitehead, Nicholas L Lam, Melody S Sun, Joshua Sanchez, Shahani Noor, Arden G Vanderwall, Timothy R Petersen, Hugh B Martin, Erin D Milligan
BACKGROUND: Animal models of peripheral neuropathy produced by a number of manipulations are assessed for the presence of pathologic pain states such as allodynia. Although stimulus-induced behavioral assays are frequently used and important to examine allodynia (ie, sensitivity to light mechanical touch; von Frey fiber test), other measures of behavior that reflect overall function are not only complementary to stimulus-induced responsive measures, but are also critical to gain a complete understanding of the effects of the pain model on quality of life, a clinically relevant aspect of pain on general function...
October 24, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jian Qin, Juan J de Pablo, Karl F Freed
Charged dielectric spheres embedded in a dielectric medium provide the simplest model for many-body systems of polarizable ions and charged colloidal particles. We provide a multiple scattering formulation for the total electrostatic energy for such systems and demonstrate that the polarization energy can be rapidly evaluated by an image method that generalizes the image methods for conducting spheres. Individual contributions to the total electrostatic energy are ordered according to the number of polarized surfaces involved, and each additional surface polarization reduces the energy by a factor of (a/R)(3)ϵ, where a is the sphere radius, R the average inter-sphere separation, and ϵ the relevant dielectric mismatch at the interface...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
P J Doolan, Charles-Antoine Collins-Fekete, Marta F Dias, Thomas A Ruggieri, Derek D'Souza, Joao Seco
Theoretical stopping power values were inter-compared for the Bichsel, Janni, ICRU and Schneider relative stopping power (RSP) estimation models, for a variety of tissues and tissue substitute materials taken from the literature. The RSPs of eleven plastic tissue substitutes were measured using Bragg peak shift measurements in water in order to establish a gold standard of RSP values specific to our centre's proton beam characteristics. The theoretical tissue substitute RSP values were computed based on literature compositions to assess the four different computation approaches...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jan Bressler, Thomas H Mosley, Alan Penman, Rebecca F Gottesman, Beverly Gwen Windham, David S Knopman, Lisa M Wruck, Eric Boerwinkle
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by impairment in memory, behavioral changes, and gradual loss of autonomy. Since there is a long latent period prior to diagnosis, the aim of this study was to determine whether twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association analyses of AD are associated with cognitive change in 8,320 white and 2,039 African-American middle-aged adults enrolled in the prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Ramnath Subbaraman, Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Srinath Satyanarayana, Madhukar Pai, Beena E Thomas, Vineet K Chadha, Kiran Rade, Soumya Swaminathan, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND: India has 23% of the global burden of active tuberculosis (TB) patients and 27% of the world's "missing" patients, which includes those who may not have received effective TB care and could potentially spread TB to others. The "cascade of care" is a useful model for visualizing deficiencies in case detection and retention in care, in order to prioritize interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The care cascade constructed in this paper focuses on the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), which treats about half of India's TB patients...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
J L Santiago, R Borge, F Martin, D de la Paz, A Martilli, J Lumbreras, B Sanchez
The distribution of pollutants is spatially heterogeneous within urban streets making difficult to build a realistic concentration map. In this paper, a methodology based on computational fluid dynamic modeling with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach is used to compute maps of concentration for a period of several weeks. The methodology is evaluated by comparing simulation results against experimental data from two different campaigns where a large number of passive samplers deployed in an area with heavy vehicular traffic in Madrid (Spain)...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
D Brent McRoberts, Steven M Quiring, Seth D Guikema
Tropical cyclones can significantly damage the electrical power system, so an accurate spatiotemporal forecast of outages prior to landfall can help utilities to optimize the power restoration process. The purpose of this article is to enhance the predictive accuracy of the Spatially Generalized Hurricane Outage Prediction Model (SGHOPM) developed by Guikema et al. (2014). In this version of the SGHOPM, we introduce a new two-step prediction procedure and increase the number of predictor variables. The first model step predicts whether or not outages will occur in each location and the second step predicts the number of outages...
October 25, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Xi Chen, Qi Li, Xiao-Xi Kan, Ya-Jie Wang, Yu-Jie Li, Qing Yang, Hong-Bin Xiao, Ying Chen, Xiao-Gang Weng, Wei-Yan Cai, Xiao-Xin Zhu
Metastasis of breast cancer is the vital step for malignant progression. During such a process, hematogenous metastasis is an indispensable approach for the dissemination of cancer cells. A platelet, contributes to hypercoagulable state, and is also identified the crucial factor in the coagulation system for supporting metastasis. Therefore, the relationship of a platelet and a tumor cell plays a critical role in tumor cell metastasis. Consequently, inhibiting tumor cell‑induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) is recongnized as a crucial target on suppression of tumor metastasis such as aspirin (ASA)...
October 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Justice Kipkorir Rono, Erick Kimutai Cheruiyot, Jacktone Odongo Othira, Virginia Wanjiku Njuguna, Joseph Kinyoro Macharia, James Owuoche, Moses Oyier, Alex Machio Kange
The genotype and environment interaction influences the selection criteria of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes. Eight sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated at five different locations in two growing seasons of 2014. The aim was to determine the interaction between genotype and environment on cane, juice, and ethanol yield and to identify best genotypes for bioethanol production in Kenya. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Sorghum canes were harvested at hard dough stage of grain development and passed through rollers to obtain juice that was then fermented to obtain ethanol...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Adam N H Smith, Marti J Anderson
Many large, fishery-targeted predatory species have attained very high relative densities as a direct result of protection by no-take marine reserves. Indirect effects, via interactions with targeted species, may also occur for species that are not themselves targeted by fishing. In some temperate rocky reef ecosystems, indirect effects have caused profound changes in community structure, notably the restoration of predator-urchin-macroalgae trophic cascades. Yet, indirect effects on small benthic reef fishes remain poorly understood, perhaps because of behavioral associations with complex, refuge-providing habitats...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Link R Swanson
Predictive processing (PP) is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of PP seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly PP links back to Kant...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Wei Wang, Hongxian Zhou, Hong Yang, Min Cui
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different salts (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, K2SO4, KCl, KNO3, KSCN, LiCl) on freeze-thaw stability, gel strength and rheological properties of potato starch. Addition of the structure-making (salting-out) ions, such as F(-) and SO4(2-), decreased freeze-thaw stability and increased gel strength, maximal storage modulus (G') and maximal loss modulus (G″) of potato starch, due to a stronger three-dimensional network by promoting the starch retrogradation and inhibiting starch gelatinization...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Chen Wang, Ying Duan Lei, Frank Wania
Dissolved inorganic salt(s) influence the partitioning of organic compounds into the aqueous phase. This influence is especially significant in atmospheric aerosol, which usually contains large amount of ions, including sodium, ammonium, chloride, sulfate and nitrate. However, empirical data on this salt effect are very sparse. Here, the partitioning of numerous organic compounds into solutions of Na2SO4, NH4Cl and NH4NO3 was measured and compared with existing data for NaCl and (NH4)2SO4. Salt mixtures were also tested in order to establish whether the salt effect is additive...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Laura Mannocci, Jason J Roberts, David L Miller, Patrick N Halpin
As human activities expand beyond national jurisdictions to the high seas, there is increasing need to consider anthropogenic impacts to species that inhabit these waters. The current scarcity of scientific observations of cetaceans in the high seas impedes the assessment of population-level impacts of these activities. This study is directed towards an important management need in the high seas-the development of plausible density estimates to facilitate a quantitative assessment of anthropogenic impacts on cetacean populations in these waters...
October 24, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Marcus von Nordheim, Michel Boinay, Remo Leisi, Christoph Kempf, Carlos Ros
Cutthroat trout virus (CTV) is a non-pathogenic fish virus belonging to the Hepeviridae family, and it is distantly related to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Here, we report the development of an efficient cell culture system where CTV can consistently replicate to titers never observed before with a hepevirus. By using the rainbow trout gill (RTGill-W1) cell line, CTV reaches 10(10) geq/mL intracellularly and 10⁸ geq/mL extracellularly within 5-6 days in culture. We additionally established a qPCR system to investigate CTV infectivity, and developed a specific antibody directed against the viral capsid protein encoded by ORF2...
October 20, 2016: Viruses
Nancy M Heddle, Richard J Cook, Donald M Arnold, Yang Liu, Rebecca Barty, Mark A Crowther, P J Devereaux, Jack Hirsh, Theodore E Warkentin, Kathryn E Webert, David Roxby, Magdalena Sobieraj-Teague, Andrea Kurz, Daniel I Sessler, Priscilla Figueroa, Martin Ellis, John W Eikelboom
Background Randomized, controlled trials have suggested that the transfusion of blood after prolonged storage does not increase the risk of adverse outcomes among patients, although most of these trials were restricted to high-risk populations and were not powered to detect small but clinically important differences in mortality. We sought to find out whether the duration of blood storage would have an effect on mortality after transfusion in a general population of hospitalized patients. Methods In this pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial conducted at six hospitals in four countries, we randomly assigned patients who required a red-cell transfusion to receive blood that had been stored for the shortest duration (short-term storage group) or the longest duration (long-term storage group) in a 1:2 ratio...
October 24, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Zhiyuan Yao, Tingting Dong, Guo Zheng, Jinzhong Fu, Shuqiang Li
Endemism, which is typically high on islands and in caves, has rarely been studied in the cave entrance ecotone. We investigated the endemism of the spider genus Uthina at cave entrances. Totally 212 spiders were sampled from 46 localities, from Seychelles across Southeast Asia to Fiji. They mostly occur at cave entrances but occasionally appear at various epigean environments. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from COI and 28S genes suggested that Uthina was grouped into 13 well-supported clades. We used three methods, the Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP) model, the Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP) method, and the general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) model, to investigate species boundaries...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
H Tanaka, T Hamatsu, K Mori
Potential fecundity models of walleye or Alaska pollock Gadus chalcogrammus in the Pacific waters off Hokkaido, Japan, were developed. They were compared using a generalized linear model with using either standard body length (LS ) or total body mass (MT ) as a main covariate along with Fulton's condition factor (K) and mean diameter of oocytes (DO ) as additional potential covariates to account for maternal conditions and maturity stage. The results of model selection showed that MT was a better single predictor of potential fecundity (FP ) than LS ...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
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