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Generalized additive models

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531151/an-ensemble-spatiotemporal-model-for-predicting-pm2-5-concentrations
#1
Lianfa Li, Jiehao Zhang, Wenyang Qiu, Jinfeng Wang, Ying Fang
Although fine particulate matter with a diameter of <2.5 μm (PM2.5) has a greater negative impact on human health than particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μm (PM10), measurements of PM2.5 have only recently been performed, and the spatial coverage of these measurements is limited. Comprehensively assessing PM2.5 pollution levels and the cumulative health effects is difficult because PM2.5 monitoring data for prior time periods and certain regions are not available. In this paper, we propose a promising approach for robustly predicting PM2...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530679/polymorphisms-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-and-overeating-the-intermediary-role-of-endophenotypic-risk-factors
#2
C Davis, K Patte, C Zai, J L Kennedy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxytocin (OXT) is an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide with strong links to affiliative and prosocial behaviors, and the management of stress. Increases in OXT also tend to decrease food intake, especially of sweet carbohydrates. The social correlates of low OXT levels mesh with the social deficits and stress proneness identified in interpersonal models of overeating, as well as the increased appetite for highly palatable foods typically seen in chronic overeaters...
May 22, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530527/health-care-costs-associated-with-addition-titration-and-switching-antihypertensive-medications-after-first-line-treatment-results-from-a-commercially-insured-sample
#3
Kalyani B Sonawane Deshmukh, Jingjing Qian, Kimberly B Garza, Bradley M Wright, Peng Zeng, Cecilia M Ganduglia Cazaban, Richard A Hansen
BACKGROUND: Treatment modifications are necessary for addressing issues related to efficacy and tolerance of first-line monotherapy, but they increase the economic burden on patients and their health plans. Understanding the differences in costs between alternative treatment modification strategies, if any, can serve as a guideline for clinical decision making and for designing cost-containment strategies. OBJECTIVE: To compare the health care utilization costs between (a) addition (i...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530515/cost-effectiveness-of-strategies-to-increase-cervical-screening-uptake-at-first-invitation-strategic
#4
Apostolos Tsiachristas, Matthew Gittins, Henry Kitchener, Alastair Gray
Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase cervical cancer screening uptake at first invitation (STRATEGIC trial). Methods We performed an economic analysis alongside the STRATEGIC trial, comparing each of seven novel interventions for improving cervical screening uptake with control general practices in Greater Manchester and Grampian (United Kingdom). A template was developed to measure the intervention costs. Trial estimates of screening uptake were combined with data from the literature to estimate healthcare costs of each intervention...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530002/cohort-restriction-based-on-prior-enrollment-examining-potential-biases-in-estimating-cancer-and-mortality-risk
#5
Susan M Shortreed, Eric Johnson, Carolyn M Rutter, Aruna Kamineni, Karen J Wernli, Jessica Chubak
Electronic health records and administrative databases provide rich, longitudinal data for health-related research. These data cover large, diverse populations creating excellent research opportunities, but have limitations. In particular, information is available only for individuals who are enrolled in a particular health system; thus, studies often exclude individual's with short enrollment history. Such cohort restriction may cause selection bias in absolute risk estimates for the full enrollee population...
August 2016: Observational Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529539/jiangtang-decoction-ameliorate-diabetic-nephropathy-through-the-regulation-of-pi3k-akt-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-in-kk-ay-mice
#6
Jin-Ni Hong, Wei-Wei Li, Lin-Lin Wang, Hao Guo, Yong Jiang, Yun-Jia Gao, Peng-Fei Tu, Xue-Mei Wang
BACKGROUND: Jiangtang decoction (JTD) is a China patented drug which contains Euphorbia humifusa Willd, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Astragalus mongholicus Bunge, Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, and Coptis chinensis Franch. For decades, it has also been used clinically to treat diabetic nephropathy (DN) effectively; however, the associated mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the protective efficacy of JTD in DN and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529399/modeling-high-school-timetabling-with-bitvectors
#7
Emir Demirović, Nysret Musliu
High school timetabling (HSTT) is a well known and wide spread problem. The problem consists of coordinating resources (e.g. teachers, rooms), times, and events (e.g. lectures) with respect to various constraints. Unfortunately, HSTT is hard to solve and just finding a feasible solution for simple variants of HSTT has been proven to be NP-complete. We propose a new modeling approach for HSTT using bitvectors in which constraint costs of the general HSTT can be calculated using bit operations. This model allows efficient computation of constraint costs making it useful when implementing HSTT algorithms...
2017: Annals of Operations Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528939/aga-white-paper-training-and-implementation-of-endoscopic-image-enhancement-technologies
#8
Neil Gupta, Joel V Brill, Marcia Canto, Daniel DeMarco, Brian M Fennerty, Loren Laine, David Lieberman, Charles Lightdale, Elizabeth Montgomery, Robert Odze, Douglas Rex, Prateek Sharma, Jeffrey L Tokar, Michael L Kochman
Endoscopic image-enhancement technologies provide opportunities to visualize normal and abnormal tissues within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in a manner that complements conventional white light endoscopic imaging. The additional information that is obtained enables the endoscopist to better identify, delineate, and characterize lesions and can facilitate targeted biopsies or, in some cases, eliminate the need to send samples for histologic analysis. Some of these technologies have been available for more than a decade, but despite this fact, there is limited use of these technologies by endoscopists...
June 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527093/income-disparities-in-healthcare-use-remain-after-controlling-for-healthcare-need-evidence-from-swedish-register-data-on-psoriasis-and-psoriatic-arthritis
#9
Sofia Löfvendahl, Anna Jöud, Ingemar F Petersson, Elke Theander, Åke Svensson, Katarina Steen Carlsson
We used a southern Swedish cohort of psoriasis (PSO) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients and population-based referents (N = 57,800) to investigate the influence of socioeconomic and demographic factors on the probability of healthcare use and on healthcare costs when controlling for need as measured by PSO/PsA and common additional morbidities such as diabetes, depression and myocardial infarction. People with PSO/PsA were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Skåne Healthcare Register 1998-2007. Resource use and costs for years 2008-2011 were retrieved from the Skåne Healthcare Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, and socioeconomic data were retrieved from Statistics Sweden...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526881/biosorption-performance-of-encapsulated-candida-krusei-for-the-removal-of-copper-ii
#10
Chi Him Jim Luk, Joanne Yip, Chun Wah Marcus Yuen, Siu Kwong Pang, Kim Hung Lam, Chi Wai Kan
The use of microorganisms in biosorption is one of the most promising ways to remove trace amounts of heavy metal ions. Nevertheless, the enhancement of the successful removal of heavy metal ions by using different combinations of biosorbents is not generally guaranteed which leaves room to explore the application of the technique. In this study, the performance of free and immobilized forms of a yeast strain, Candida krusei (C. krusei), and calcium alginate (CaAlg) are evaluated for their ability to remove copper(II)...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526260/relationships-between-school-start-time-sleep-duration-and-adolescent-behaviors
#11
Kyla L Wahlstrom, Aaron T Berger, Rachel Widome
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were 2-fold: (1) to examine how high school start times relate to adolescent sleep duration, and (2) to test associations between sleep duration and mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors in teens. DESIGN: This study examines selected questions from survey data collected between 2010 and 2013 high school students. SETTING: Respondents included more than 9000 students in grades 9 to 12 in 8 high schools in 5 school districts across the United States...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525859/the-association-between-ambient-inhalable-particulate-matter-and-the-disease-burden-of-respiratory-disease-an-ecological-study-based-on-ten-year-time-series-data-in-tianjin-china
#12
Qiang Zeng, Ziting Wu, Guohong Jiang, Xiaoyin Wu, Pei Li, Yang Ni, Xiuqin Xiong, Xinyan Wang, Parasat, Guoxing Li, Xiaochuan Pan
There is limited evidence available worldwide about the quantitative relationship between particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10µm (PM10) and years of life lost (YLL) caused by respiratory diseases (RD), especially regarding long-term time series data. We investigated the quantitative exposure-response association between PM10 and the disease burden of RD. We obtained the daily concentration of ambient pollutants (PM10, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide), temperature and relative humidity data, as well as the death monitoring data from 2001 to 2010 in Tianjin...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525627/geographic-patterns-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-children-of-nurses-health-study-ii-women
#13
Kate Hoffman, Marc G Weisskopf, Andrea L Roberts, Raanan Raz, Jaime E Hart, Kristen Lyall, Elin M Hoffman, Francine Laden, Verónica M Vieira
Data indicate that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence may be increasing and varies geographically. We investigated associations between residential location and ASD in the children of Nurses' Health Study II women in order to generate hypotheses about social and environmental factors related to etiology or diagnosis. Analyses included 13,507 children born from 1989-1999 (486 with ASD). We explored relationships between ASD and residential location at both birth and age 6 years (i.e. closer to average diagnosis age)...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524924/a-theoretical-study-on-the-mechanistic-highlights-behind-the-br%C3%A3-nsted-acid-dependent-mer-fac-isomerization-of-homoleptic-carbenic-iridium-complexes-for-pholeds
#14
Tobias Setzer, Christian Lennartz, Andreas Dreuw
Recently, a successful Brønsted-acid mediated geometric isomerization of the meridional homoleptic carbenic iridium(iii) complexes tris-(N-phenyl,N-methyl-benzimidazol-2-yl)iridium(iii) (1) and tris-(N-phenyl,N-benzyl-benzimidazol-2-yl)iridium(iii) (2) into their facial form has been reported. In the present work the pronounced acid-dependency of this particular isomerization procedure is revisited and additional mechanistic pathways are taken into account. Moreover, the acid-induced material decomposition is addressed...
May 19, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524731/german-taxi-drivers-experience-and-expression-of-driving-anger-are-the-driving-anger-scale-and-the-driving-anger-expression-inventory-valid-measures
#15
Stefan Brandenburg, Michael Oehl, Kristin Seigies
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was twofold: firstly, we wanted to examine whether the original Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the original Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) apply to German professional taxi drivers as these scales have previously been given to professional and particularly to non-professional drivers in different countries. Secondly, we wanted to examine possible differences in driving anger experience and expression between professional German taxi drivers and non-professional German drivers...
May 19, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524714/consumption-patterns-of-nightlife-attendees-in-munich-a-latent-class-analysis
#16
Tessa-Virginia Hannemann, Ludwig Kraus, Daniela Piontek
BACKGROUND: The affinity for substance use among patrons of nightclubs has been well established. With novel psychoactive substances (NPS) quickly emerging on the European drug market, trends, and patterns of use are potentially changing. OBJECTIVES: (1) The detection of subgroups of consumers in the electronic dance music scene of a major German metropolitan city, (2) describing the consumption patterns of these subgroups, (3) exploring the prevalence and type of NPS consumption in this population at nightlife events in Munich...
May 19, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524085/present-food-shopping-habits-in-the-spanish-adult-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
María Achón, María Serrano, Ángela García-González, Elena Alonso-Aperte, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras
Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile...
May 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523560/stem-cell-technology-for-epi-genetic-brain-disorders
#18
Renzo J M Riemens, Edilene S Soares, Manel Esteller, Raul Delgado-Morales
Despite the enormous efforts of the scientific community over the years, effective therapeutics for many (epi)genetic brain disorders remain unidentified. The common and persistent failures to translate preclinical findings into clinical success are partially attributed to the limited efficiency of current disease models. Although animal and cellular models have substantially improved our knowledge of the pathological processes involved in these disorders, human brain research has generally been hampered by a lack of satisfactory humanized model systems...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522908/detection-and-characterization-of-murine-colitis-and-carcinogenesis-by-molecularly-targeted-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound
#19
Markus Brückner, Jan Heidemann, Tobias M Nowacki, Friederike Cordes, Jörg Stypmann, Philipp Lenz, Faekah Gohar, Andreas Lügering, Dominik Bettenworth
AIM: To study mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the assessment of murine colitis and carcinogenesis. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were challenged with 3% dextran sodium-sulfate (DSS) for three, six or nine days to study the development of acute colitis. Ultrasound was performed with and without the addition of unspecific contrast agents. MAdCAM-1-targeted contrast agent was used to detect and quantify MAdCAM-1 expression...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522837/age-related-penetrance-of-the-c9orf72-repeat-expansion
#20
Natalie A Murphy, Karissa C Arthur, Pentti J Tienari, Henry Houlden, Adriano Chiò, Bryan J Traynor
A pathogenic hexanucleotide repeat expansion within the C9orf72 gene has been identified as the major cause of two neurodegenerative syndromes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). This mutation is known to have incomplete penetrance, with some patients developing disease in their twenties and a small portion of carriers surviving to their ninth decade without developing symptoms. Describing penetrance by age among C9orf72 carriers and identifying parameters that alter onset age are essential to better understanding this locus and to enhance predictive counseling...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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