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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214832/the-burden-of-respiratory-disease-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-changes-in-perinatal-care-and-outcomes-in-a-decade-in-spain
#1
Fermín García-Muñoz Rodrigo, Antonio Losada Martínez, María Dolores Elorza Fernández, Julio Moreno Hernando, Josep Figueras Aloy, Máximo Vento Torres
BACKGROUND: Advances in perinatal care have led to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Much of this progress is related to the prevention and management of respiratory disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate changes in perinatal care and its influence on respiratory morbidity and mortality among VLBW infants in Spain in 2 consecutive periods (2002-2006 and 2007-2011). METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data prospectively collected of all VLBW infants included in the Spanish SEN1500 network...
February 18, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213294/a-low-cost-simplified-and-scaleable-pneumotachograph-and-face-mask-for-neonatal-mouse-respiratory-measurements
#2
Jenny J Sun, Roshan Nanu, Russell S Ray
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal respiratory disorders are a leading cause of perinatal mortality due to complications resulting from premature births and prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse, but optimal treatments for these symptoms are still unclear due to a variety of confounds and risk factors. Mouse models present an opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms and efficacy of potential treatments of these conditions with controlled variables. However, measuring respiration in newborn mice is difficult and commercial components are expensive and often require modification, creating a barrier and limiting our understanding of the short and long-term effects of birth complications on respiratory function...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213266/noninvasivepositive-pressure-ventilation-vsinvasive-mechanical-ventilation-as-first-line-therapy-for-acute-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-in-cancer-patients
#3
Nisha K Rathi, Sajid A Haque, Ron Nates, Alyssa Kosturakis, Hao Wang, Wenli Dong, Lei Feng, Rose J Erfe, Christina Guajardo, Laura Withers, Clarence Finch, Kristen J Price, Joseph L Nates
PURPOSE: The objective was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of critically ill cancer patients who received noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) vs invasive mechanical ventilation as first-line therapy for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive adult intensive care unit (ICU) cancer patients who received either conventional invasive mechanical ventilation or NIPPV as first-line therapy for hypoxemic respiratory failure...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209038/-a-comparison-of-leak-compensation-in-six-acute-care-ventilators-during-non-invasive-ventilation
#4
X S Hu, Y Wang, Z T Wang, P Yan, X G Zhang, S F Zhao, F Xie, H J Gu, L X Xie
Objective: To compare the ability of leak compensation in 6 medical ventilators during non-invasive ventilation. Methods: Six medical ventilators were selected, including 3 non-invasive ventilators (V60, Flexo and Stellar150), and 3 invasive ventilators(Avea, Servo I and BellaVist). Using a lung simulator, the ability of leak compensation was evaluated during triggering and cycling in 2 respiratory mechanics conditions (high airway resistance condition and high elastance resistance condition), and each condition was performed under 2 PEEP levels (4, and 8 cmH(2)O, 1 mmHg=0...
February 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198727/new-guidelines-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#5
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these entities were released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society in 2016. This review summarizes the recommendations contained within these guidelines and their supporting rationale. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to diagnosis of HAP and VAP, the guidelines suggest using semiquantitative cultures of noninvasively obtained respiratory samples instead of quantitative cultures of invasively obtained samples...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192893/non-invasive-ventilation-improves-respiratory-distress-in-children-with-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-a-systematic-review
#6
Yann Combret, Guillaume Prieur, Pascal LE Roux, Clément Médrinal
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a common treatment for bronchiolitis. However, consensus concerning its efficacy is lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to assess NIV effectiveness to reduce respiratory distress. Secondary objectives were to summarize the effects of NIV, identify predictive factors for failure and describe settings and applications. METHODS: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE Pubmed, PEDro, COCHRANE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Up-todate and Sudoc from 1990 to April 2015...
February 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187374/the-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-non-invasive-parameters-obtained-by-echocardiography-and-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-comparison-with-the-hemodynamic-assessment-by-the-right-heart-catheterization-in-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#7
Katarzyna Ptaszyńska-Kopczyńska, Anna Krentowska, Emilia Sawicka, Anna Skoneczny, Małgorzata Jasiewicz, Małgorzata Knapp, Włodzimierz J Musiał, Bożena Sobkowicz, Karol A Kamiński
PURPOSE: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) diagnosis requires invasive assessment by right heart catheterization (RHC), but screening and monitoring are performed using non-invasive methods: echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The aim of the study was to assess correlations between the parameters obtained in non-invasive testing and RHC in patients with PH of different etiologies. MATERIAL/METHODS: The study included 53 medical records of PH patients (32 women) aged 29-81 years...
June 14, 2016: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185814/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-pulmonary-hypertension-in-children
#8
REVIEW
David G Ingram, Alvin V Singh, Zarmina Ehsan, Brian F Birnbaum
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common pediatric breathing disorder, affecting 1-5% of all children. Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a severe complication of OSA, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite this important relationship between OSA and PH, there is sparse literature addressing this subject in children. This review will examine the putative relationship between OSA and PH, synthesize the available literature in children, and suggest a reasonable approach, despite limited data, for clinicians...
January 11, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166828/a-psychological-intervention-to-promote-acceptance-and-adherence-to-non-invasive-ventilation-in-people-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Eleonora Volpato, Paolo Banfi, Francesco Pagnini
BACKGROUND: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) sometimes experience anxiety, depression and comorbid cognitive deficits. Rather than being merely a consequence of symptom-related physical impairments these additional problems may be part of the clinical course of the condition. The relationship between the physical and psychological aspects of the condition is illustrated by the patterns of use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV); NIV is often rejected or used inappropriately, resulting in clinical deterioration and an increase in health care costs...
February 6, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165675/intratracheal-administration-of-budesonide-surfactant-in-prevention-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Rohini Venkataraman, Majeeda Kamaluddeen, Shabih U Hasan, Helen Lee Robertson, Abhay Lodha
Despite the near universal adaptation of gentle mechanical ventilation, surfactant use and non-invasive respiratory support, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains one of the most common respiratory morbidities in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Thus, the objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-tracheal administration of budesonide-surfactant mixture in preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched for randomized clinical trials in which intra-tracheal administration of budesonide-surfactant was used to prevent BPD in infants...
February 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160237/management-of-patients-presenting-with-haemoptysis-to-a-tertiary-care-italian-emergency-department-the-florence-haemoptysis-score-flhasc
#11
Simone Vanni, Simone Bianchi, Sofia Bigiarini, Claudia Casula, Marco Brogi, Stefano Orsi, Manlio Acquafresca, Lorenzo Corbetta, Stefano Grifoni
We analysed the clinical features and diagnostic workup of patients presenting with haemoptysis to an Italian teaching hospital to derive an easy-to-use clinical score to guide risk stratification and initial management in the emergency department (ED). We retrospectively reviewed clinical records of consecutive patients with haemoptysis over 1 year. A pre-specified set of variables, including demographic data, vital signs, type of expectorate (pure blood vs. blood-streaked sputum), comorbidities, and diagnostic tests and treatments was originally registered...
February 3, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158980/early-exposure-to-hyperoxia-and-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-with-severe-traumatic-injuries
#12
Derek W Russell, David R Janz, William L Emerson, Addison K May, Gordon R Bernard, Zhiguo Zhao, Tatsuki Koyama, Lorraine B Ware
BACKGROUND: Hyperoxia is common early in the course of resuscitation of critically ill patients. It has been associated with mortality in some, but not all, studies of cardiac arrest patients and other critically ill cohorts. Reasons for the inconsistency are unclear and may depend on unmeasured patient confounders, the timing and duration of hyperoxia, population characteristics, or the way that hyperoxia is defined and measured. We sought to determine whether, in a prospectively collected cohort of mechanically ventilated patients with traumatic injuries with and without head trauma, higher maximum partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) within 24 hours of admission would be associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality...
February 3, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158267/trends-in-assisted-ventilation-and-outcome-for-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbations-a-nationwide-study
#13
Anne Pernille Toft-Petersen, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Ulla Møller Weinreich, Bodil Steen Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used for decades in treatment of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The impact of the changing use of assisted ventilation in acute exacerbations on outcomes has not been fully elucidated and we aimed to describe these changes in the Danish population and describe their consequences for mortality. METHODS: A register-based study was conducted of a cohort of 12,847 patients admitted for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) from 2004 through 2011, treated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or NIV for the first time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153465/-prevention-and-treatment-of-skin-lesions-associated-with-non-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-recommendations-of-experts
#14
M Raurell-Torredà, A Romero-Collado, M Rodríguez-Palma, M Farrés-Tarafa, J D Martí, B Hurtado-Pardos, L Peñarrubia-San Florencio, P Saez-Paredes, A M Esquinas
INTRODUCTION: In the last two decades, non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has been consolidated as an initial strategy for the management of respiratory failure in critical adult and paediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors and preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of skin lesions associated with clinical devices (LESADIC) related to NIV, as well as the most effective treatment for injuries that cannot be avoided. METHODOLOGY: Review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases of studies published in the last 10years to reach consensus through an expert panel...
January 30, 2017: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149576/duration-of-antibiotic-therapy-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#15
REVIEW
Gabor Zilahi, Mary Aisling McMahon, Pedro Povoa, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
There are certain well defined clinical situations where prolonged therapy is beneficial, but prolonged duration of antibiotic therapy is associated with increased resistance, medicalising effects, high costs and adverse drug reactions. The best way to decrease antibiotic duration is both to stop antibiotics when not needed (sterile invasive cultures with clinical improvement), not to start antibiotics when not indicated (treating colonization) and keep the antibiotic course as short as possible. The optimal duration of antimicrobial treatment for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is unknown, however, there is a growing evidence that reduction in the length of antibiotic courses to 7-8 days can minimize the consequences of antibiotic overuse in critical care, including antibiotic resistance, adverse effects, collateral damage and costs...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146296/nasal-intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation-nippv-versus-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-ncpap-for-preterm-neonates-after-extubation
#16
REVIEW
Brigitte Lemyre, Peter G Davis, Antonio G De Paoli, Haresh Kirpalani
BACKGROUND: Previous randomised trials and meta-analyses have shown that nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is a useful method for providing respiratory support after extubation. However, this treatment sometimes 'fails' in infants, and they may require endotracheal re-intubation with its attendant risks and expense. Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) can augment NCPAP by delivering ventilator breaths via nasal prongs. Older children and adults with chronic respiratory failure benefit from NIPPV, and the technique has been applied to neonates...
February 1, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145212/-when-is-a-venous-blood-gas-analysis-sufficient-in-the-emergency-department
#17
J A J M van Exsel, S O Simons, C Kramers, Y F Heijdra
Blood gas analysis plays an important role in the initial assessment of a patient in the emergency ward. We present three different patient cases to illustrate when to opt for a venous or an arterial blood gas analysis. Arterial punctures are more painful and carry a higher risk of complications compared to venous punctures. It is possible to use a venous blood gas to screen for acute acid/base disturbances. Ventilatory compensation or anion gap cannot be calculated reliably with a venous blood gas. On the other hand, the diagnosis diabetic keto-acidosis can be made with a venous blood gas; this mode of sampling can also be used for lactate measurement at the emergency department as an independent prognostic marker for mortality...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141516/a-versatile-noise-performance-metric-for-electrical-impedance-tomography-algorithms
#18
Fabian Braun, Martin Proenca, Josep Sola, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Andy Adler
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging technology for real-time monitoring of patients under mechanical ventilation. EIT has the potential to offer continuous medical monitoring while being non-invasive, radiation-free and low-cost. Due to their ill-posedness, image reconstruction typically uses regularization, which implies a hyperparameter controlling the trade-off between noise rejection and resolution or other accuracies. In order to compare reconstruction algorithms, it is common to choose hyperparameter values such that the reconstructed images have equal noise performance (NP), i...
January 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137487/inspiratory-muscle-training-during-rehabilitation-in-successfully-weaned-hypercapnic-patients-with-copd
#19
Dominic Dellweg, Karina Reissig, Ekkehard Hoehn, Karsten Siemon, Peter Haidl
BACKGROUND: This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) added to rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who remain hypercapnic and use non-invasive ventilation after successful weaning. METHODS: Patients received rehabilitation and were randomized to inspiratory muscle or sham training for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was distance walked within 6 min. Secondary outcomes were inspiratory muscle strength, endurance, lung function, and blood gas levels...
February 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137226/management-of-status-asthmaticus-in-children
#20
Kam-Lun E Hon, Alexander K C Leung
BACKGROUND: Status asthmaticus is an acute exacerbation of asthma that is persistent and intractable and remains unresponsive to initial treatment with bronchodilators and systemic corticosteroids and that can result in hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and secondary respiratory failure. METHOD: We reviewed treatment and recent patents on management of status asthmaticus. CONCLUSIONS: Supplemental oxygen should be given to maintain an oxygen saturation of ≥92% in room air...
30, 2017: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
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