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R M Islam, R J Bell, B Billah, M B Hossain, S R Davis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) in women in Bangladesh. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1590 Bangladeshi women, aged 30-59 years, was recruited using a multistage cluster sampling technique, between September 2013 and March 2014. Urinary incontinence (UI), fecal incontinence (FI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were assessed using validated questionnaires. The weighted prevalence and the factors associated with each PFD were investigated using multivariable weighted logistic regression...
October 20, 2016: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
(no author information available yet)
'There will only be equal esteem when the Paralympic and the Olympic Games run simultaneously and the two competitions merge'.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Tiffany H Kung, Eugene T Richardson, Tarub S Mabud, Catherine A Heaney, Evaleen Jones, Jessica Evert
CONTEXT: High-income country (HIC) trainees are undertaking global health experiences in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) host communities in increasing numbers. Although the benefits for HIC trainees are well described, the benefits and drawbacks for LMIC host communities are not well captured. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the perspectives of supervising physicians and local programme coordinators from LMIC host communities who engaged with HIC trainees in the context of the latter's short-term experiences in global health...
November 2016: Medical Education
Marie E Wang, Archana B Patel, Nellie I Hansen, Lauren Arlington, Amber Prakash, Patricia L Hibberd
BACKGROUND: Possible serious bacterial infection (PBSI) is a major cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. We studied risk factors for PSBI in a large rural population in central India where facility deliveries have increased as a result of a government financial assistance program. METHODS: We studied 37,379 pregnant women and their singleton live born infants with birth weight ≥ 1.5 kg from 20 rural primary health centers around Nagpur, India, using data from the 2010-13 population-based Maternal and Newborn Health Registry supported by NICHD's Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
Brodie Parent, Ira Martopullo, Noel S Weiss, Saurabh Khandelwal, Emily E Fay, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar
Importance: Metabolic changes after maternal bariatric surgery may affect subsequent fetal development. Many relevant perinatal outcomes have not been studied in this postoperative population, and the risks associated with short operation-to-birth (OTB) intervals have not been well examined. Objective: To examine the risk for perinatal complications in women with a history of bariatric surgery (postoperative mothers [POMs]) by comparing them with mothers without operations (nonoperative mothers [NOMs]) and examining the association of the OTB interval with perinatal outcomes...
October 19, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Jin-Hui Wu, M Artoni, G C La Rocca
In optical experiments one-sided reflectionless (ORL) and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) are unusual scattering properties yet fascinating for their fundamental aspects and for their practical interest. Although these two concepts have so far remained separated from each other, we prove that the two phenomena are indeed strictly connected. We show that a CPA-ORL connection exists between pairs of points lying along lines close to each other in the 3D space-parameters of a realistic lossy atomic photonic crystal...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kimberly A Bertrand, Traci N Bethea, Lucile L Adams-Campbell, Lynn Rosenberg, Julie R Palmer
BACKGROUND: Given the disproportionately high incidence of early-onset breast cancer and aggressive subtypes such as estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors in African American (AA) women, elucidation of risk factors for early-onset of specific subtypes of breast cancer is needed. METHODS: We evaluated associations of reproductive, anthropometric, and other factors with incidence of invasive breast cancer by age at onset (<45, {greater than or equal to}45) in 57,708 AA women in the prospective Black Women's Health Study...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Mary Anne Armstrong, Debbie A Postlethwaite, Jeanne A Darbinian, Mark McCoy, Amy Law
BACKGROUND: In 2007, high-deductible plans were added to the primarily nondeductible Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) integrated health plan, which had covered 100% of device and procedure costs of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) for members regardless of prescription/visit copay amount. We hypothesized that nondeductible plans and prior LARC use decreased unintended pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if health plan design (nondeductible vs...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Shi Lu, Hong-Ling Zhang, Ya-Jun Zhang, Qing-Chun Shao
This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) among perimenopausal women in Wuhan. A cross-sectional survey was performed on 1067 women aged 40-65 years sampled in Wuhan urban area from April to October 2014. Information about demographic characteristics, menstruation, parity and UI symptoms was collected using a questionnaire. The data were evaluated by Chi-square test and multiple Logistic regression analysis. The prevalence rate of UI was 37.2%, with stress UI (32.2%) being more prevalent than urgency UI (21...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Chrispin Mandiwa, Li-Jun Shen, Yao-Hua Tian, Lu-Lu Song, Gui-Qiang Xu, Si-Yi Yang, Yuan Liang, Jing Yuan, You-Jie Wang
Little is known about the association between parity and the risk of ovarian cysts. The aim of this study was to examine the association between parity and the risk of ovarian cysts among a population of Chinese women. A total of 20 502 women aged 45-86 years from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort study completed baseline questionnaires, medical examination and provided baseline blood samples. Participants were categorized into four groups according to parity (one, two, three, and four or more live births). Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between parity and the risk of ovarian cysts...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Dries S Martens, Michelle Plusquin, Wilfried Gyselaers, Immaculata De Vivo, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Newborn telomere length sets telomere length for later life. At birth, telomere length is highly variable among newborns and the environmental factors during in utero life for this observation remain largely unidentified. Obesity during pregnancy might reflect an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes, but the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with newborn telomere length, as a mechanism of maternal obesity, on the next generation has not been addressed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
Chenchit Chayachinda, Thanapa Rekhawasin
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and the predictors of the adverse reproductive outcomes in patients who had been hospitalised with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The retrospective cohort study was conducted by contacting all the patients admitted with PID or tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) during January 2004 and December 2011. Those who were sexually active and aged 14-40 years were included. The exclusion criteria were no intention to conceive or undergoing hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral complete or partial salpingectomy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Alex King
The acceptance and provision of psychosocial cancer care in the UK is moving forward positively, aided by patient advocacy and psychologically minded healthcare policies. The unfolding challenge now is of targeting the quality and outcomes of clinical psycho-oncology services. This report outlines the clinically led development of UK-focused guidance to challenge psycho-oncology services to achieve and demonstrate their potential. It discusses how the guidance was particularly framed to encourage small, low-resource services, and outlines the potential benefits for patients...
October 18, 2016: Future Oncology
Masaki Ogawa, Yoshio Matsuda, Akihito Nakai, Masako Hayashi, Shoji Sato, Shigeki Matsubara
OBJECTIVES: Placental weight (PW) and fetal/placental weight ratio (F/P) have been considered to be useful parameters for understanding the pathophysiology of fetal growth. However, there have been no standard data on PW and F/P in Asian populations. This study was conducted to establish nomograms of PW and F/P in the Japanese population and to clarify characteristics of PW and F/P in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Included in the study were 79,590 Japanese cases: 58,871 vaginal and 20,719 cesarean deliveries at obstetrical facilities (2001-2002) and registered to the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology Database...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
S Longhi
Parity-time (PT) symmetry is one of the most important accomplishments in optics over the past decade. Here the concept of PT mode-locking (ML) of a laser is introduced, in which active phase-locking of cavity axial modes is realized by asymmetric mode coupling in a complex time crystal. PT ML shows a transition from single- to double-pulse emission as the PT symmetry breaking point is crossed. The transition can show a turbulent behavior, depending on a dimensionless modulation parameter that plays the same role as the Reynolds number in hydrodynamic flows...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Dengchu Guo, Jing Xiao, Huijun Li, Liangwei Dong
We address two types of two-dimensional (2D) localized solitons in Kerr media with an imprinted quasi-one-dimensional lattice featuring a parity-time (PT) symmetry. Solitary waves originating from the edges of the Bloch bands are stable in their entire existence domains. Purely nonlinear multipeaked states propagate stably in wide parameter windows. Both types of nonlinear waves exist in the finite bandgaps of the corresponding linear system and, cross-continuously, the Bloch band (continuous spectrum) sandwiched between (or neighboring) them...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Vedat Hamuryudan, Haner Direskeneli, Ihsan Ertenli, Murat Inanc, Yasar Karaaslan, Fahrettin Oksel, Suleyman Ozbek, Salih Pay, Ender Terzioglu, Dilara Balkan Tezer, Basak Hacibedel, Nurullah Akkoc
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the annual cost of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Turkey by obtaining real-world data directly from patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, RA patients from the rheumatology outpatient clinics of 10 university hospitals were interviewed with a standardised questionnaire on RA-related healthcare care costs. RESULTS: The study included 689 RA patients (565 females) with a mean age of 51.2±13.2 years and mean disease duration of 9...
September 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Clare Barnett, Christine Hagemann, Jürgen Dinger, Thai Do Minh, Klaas Heinemann
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the real-use contraceptive effectiveness of the combined oral contraceptive containing dienogest and estradiol valerate (DNG/EV) and whether DNG/EV compared to other combined oral contraceptives (oCOC) has a negative effect on return to fertility. METHODS: Transatlantic, prospective, non-interventional cohort study conducted in the USA and seven European countries with two main exposure groups and one exposure subgroup: new users of DNG/EV and other COC (oCOC), particularly levonorgestrel-containing COCs (LNG)...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Yu Sun Bin, Christine L Roberts, Michael C Nicholl, Natasha Nassar, Jane B Ford
BACKGROUND: Recent population-wide changes in perinatal risk factors may affect rates of breech presentation at birth, and have implications for the provision of breech services and training in breech management. AIMS: To investigate whether changes in maternal and pregnancy characteristics explain the observed trend in breech presentation at term. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All singleton term (≥37 week) births in New South Wales during 2002-2012 were identified through birth and associated hospital records...
October 17, 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
M J Davies, A R Rumbold, J L Marino, K Willson, L C Giles, M J Whitrow, W Scheil, L J Moran, J G Thompson, M Lane, V M Moore
OBJECTIVE: To assess the contribution of maternal factors to major birth defects after in vitro fertilisation (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and natural conception. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study in South Australia for the period January 1986 to December 2002. SETTING: A whole of population study. POPULATION: A census of all IVF and ICSI linked to registries for births, pregnancy terminations, and birth defects (diagnosed before a child's fifth birthday)...
October 17, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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