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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626184/tachyphylaxis-to-the-sedative-action-of-mirtazapine
#1
Georgios Papazisis, Spyridon Siafis, Dimitrios Tzachanis
BACKGROUND The pharmacological term tachyphylaxis is used to describe rapidly occurring response desensitization, a situation where the biological response to a given drug dose diminishes when it is given continuously. This pharmacological phenomenon is well observed in some drug categories such as ephedrine, nitrates, beta blockers and H2 antagonists. Mirtazapine is a widely-used antidepressant with a multimodal mechanism of action. CASE REPORT In the present case, we report rapid onset and consistent tachyphylaxis regarding the sedative action of mirtazapine in a 30-year-old female...
April 7, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601088/blocking-h1-h2-histamine-receptors-inhibits-damage-fibrosis-in-mdr2-mice-and-human-cholangiocarcinoma-tumorigenesis
#2
Lindsey Kennedy, Laura Hargrove, Jennifer Demieville, Allen Karstens, Hannah Jones, Sharon DeMorrow, Fanyin Meng, Pietro Invernizzi, Francesca Bernuzzi, Gianfranco Alpini, Steven Smith, Austin Akers, Victoria Meadows, Heather Francis
BACKGROUND: Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) patients are at risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). We have shown that: (i) histamine (HA) increases biliary hyperplasia via H1/H2 histamine receptors (HRs) and (ii) HA levels increase and mast cells (MCs) infiltrate during PSC and CCA. We aimed to examine the effects of chronic treatment with H1/H2HR antagonists on PSC and CCA. METHODS: Wild-type and Mdr2-/- mice were treated by osmotic minipumps with saline, mepyramine or ranitidine (10mg/kg BW/day) or a combination of mepyramine/ranitidine for 4 wks...
March 30, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574460/the-unexpected-role-of-calcium-activated-potassium-channels-limitation-of-no-induced-arterial-relaxation
#3
Johannes Schmid, Bettina Müller, David Heppeler, Dina Gaynullina, Mario Kassmann, Hristo Gagov, Mitko Mladenov, Maik Gollasch, Rudolf Schubert
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have shown that an NO-induced activation of vascular smooth muscle BK channels contributes to the NO-evoked dilation in many blood vessels. In vivo, NO is released continuously. NO attenuates vessel constrictions and, therefore, exerts an anticontractile effect. It is unknown whether the anticontractile effect of continuously present NO is mediated by BK channels. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study tested the hypothesis that BK channels mediate the vasodilatory effect of continuously present NO...
March 24, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524844/hyperhomocysteinemia-potentiates-diabetes-impaired-edhf-induced-vascular-relaxation-role-of-insufficient-hydrogen-sulfide
#4
Zhongjian Cheng, Xinggui Shen, Xiaohua Jiang, Huimin Shan, Maria Cimini, Pu Fang, Yong Ji, Joon Young Park, Konstantinos Drosatos, Xiaofeng Yang, Christopher G Kevil, Raj Kishore, Hong Wang
Insufficient hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) has been implicated in Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-related cardiovascular complications. We investigated the role of H2 S in T2DM and HHcy-induced endothelial dysfunction in small mesenteric artery (SMA) of db/db mice fed a high methionine (HM) diet. HM diet (8 weeks) induced HHcy in both T2DM db/db mice and non-diabetic db/+ mice (total plasma Hcy: 48.4 and 31.3 µM, respectively), and aggravated the impaired endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh), determined by the presence of eNOS inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and prostacyclin (PGI2 ) inhibitor indomethacin (INDO), in SMA from db/db mice but not that from db/+ mice...
February 14, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523851/a-novel-role-of-irbesartan-in-gastroprotection-against-indomethacin-induced-gastric-injury-in-rats-targeting-ddah-adma-and-egfr-erk-signaling
#5
Nancy N Shahin, Noha F Abdelkader, Marwa M Safar
The advent of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) as intriguing gastroprotective candidates and the superior pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics displayed by irbesartan compared to many other ARBs raised the interest to investigate its gastroprotective potential in a rat model of gastric injury. Irbesartan (50 mg/Kg) was orally administered to male Wistar rats once daily for 14 days; thereafter gastric injury was induced by indomethacin (60 mg/Kg, p.o). Irbesartan reduced gastric ulcer index, gastric acidity, and ameliorated indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal apoptotic and inflammatory aberrations, as demonstrated by hampering caspase-3, prostaglandin E2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511675/regulation-of-spontaneous-contractions-in-intact-rat-bladder-strips-and-the-effects-of-hydrogen-peroxide
#6
Mingshuai Wang, Nianzeng Xing, Liyang Wu, Wen-Chu Huang, Zhenqun Xu, Guiming Liu
Enhanced spontaneous contractions are associated with overactive bladder. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species might contribute to enhanced spontaneous contractions. We investigated the regulation of spontaneous contractions and the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in intact rat bladder strips. The spontaneous contractions were measured using a tissue bath system. The vehicle or the specific activators/blockers were applied and followed by the application of 0.003 g% H2 O2 . The basal tension, amplitude, and frequency of spontaneous contractions were quantified...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511400/internists-perceptions-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-adverse-effects-and-impact-on-prescribing-practices-results-of-a-nationwide-survey
#7
Jacob E Kurlander, Mark Kolbe, Joel H Rubenstein, Caroline R Richardson, Michele Heisler, Arlene Weissman, Raymond De Vries, Sameer D Saini
Background: Observational studies have linked proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with serious adverse effects. The study aimed to evaluate internists' perceptions of PPI harms and effects on prescribing. Methods: This was an online survey of a representative sample of the American College of Physicians in 2013. We queried familiarity with and concern about PPI adverse effects (1 - 7 Likert-type scales, anchored by "not at all" and "extremely"). We also asked how frequently (often, sometimes, rarely, or never) participants used any of three "de-escalation" strategies to stop or reduce PPIs because of concern about adverse effects: reducing patients' PPI dose, switching to H2 blocker, or discontinuing PPI...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411162/ensuring-safe-drug-administration-to-pediatric-patients-with-renal-dysfunction-a-multicenter-study
#8
Ryoko Harada, Kenji Ishikura, Shunsuke Shinozuka, Naoaki Mikami, Riku Hamada, Hiroshi Hataya, Yoshihiko Morikawa, Tae Omori, Hirotaka Takahashi, Yuko Hamasaki, Tetsuji Kaneko, Kazumoto Iijima, Masataka Honda
BACKGROUND: In pediatric patients, due to variations in baseline serum creatinine (Cr) reference values, renal dysfunctions sometimes go unnoticed. In addition, renally excreted drugs need dose adjustment while nephrotoxic drugs should be avoided altogether in patients with impaired renal function. However, most physicians are apparently unaware of these facts and may administer these drugs to vulnerable patients. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to all physicians and pharmacists specializing in pediatric medical care at six Tokyo metropolitan government-run hospitals in Japan...
February 6, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386716/guidelines-for-medical-management-of-nuclear-radiation-emergencies
#9
REVIEW
Velu Nair, D N Karan, C S Makhani
Management of victim of radiation injury poses a wide spectrum of challenges to the health care provider starting with the evaluation of the damage, the kind of hospitalization and treatment and the regular monitoring of the patient. Undesirable clinical outcomes are probable if prodromal stage evolves rapidly and is severe. Critical systems like neurovascular, gastrointestinal, haematopoietic and cutaneous are afflicted in Acute Radiation Syndrome. Three main elements which are essential for assessment of prognosis and selection of treatment are vomiting onset time, kinetics of depletion of lymphocyte, and chromosome abnormalities...
October 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344328/management-of-functional-dyspepsia-state-of-the-art-and-emerging-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Hiroshi Yamawaki, Seiji Futagami, Mako Wakabayashi, Noriko Sakasegawa, Shuhei Agawa, Kazutoshi Higuchi, Yasuhiro Kodaka, Katsuhiko Iwakiri
Patients with functional dyspepsia, defined in the 2016 Rome IV criteria as bothersome clinical dyspepsia symptoms, experience markedly reduced quality of life. Several etiologies have been associated with the disorder. In the Rome IV criteria, the brain-gut axis was acknowledged as an important factor in the etiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The distinct subgroups of functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), are treated differently: acid secretion inhibitors are recommended with patients with EPS, whereas prokinetic drugs as mosapride and acotiamide are recommended for patients with PDS...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305021/risk-factors-associated-with-clinically-significant-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-pediatric-emergency-department
#11
Ayse Gultekingil, Ozlem Teksam, Hayriye Hızarcıoğlu Gulsen, Burcu Berberoğlu Ates, İnci Nur Saltık-Temizel, Hülya Demir
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal bleeding is a common problem in pediatric emergency department (PED). Some of these patients can lose significant amount of blood which may lead to shock. The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors predicting clinically significant gastrointestinal (GIS) bleeding in patients presenting to PED. METHODS: This study was performed prospectively from January 1st 2013 to December 31th 2013 in patients with upper or lower GIS bleeding...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198543/exposure-to-gastric-acid-inhibitors-increases-the-risk-of-infection-in-preterm-very-low-birth-weight-infants-but-concomitant-administration-of-lactoferrin-counteracts-this-effect
#12
Paolo Manzoni, Ruben García Sánchez, Michael Meyer, Ilaria Stolfi, Lorenza Pugni, Hubert Messner, Silvia Cattani, Pasqua Maria Betta, Luigi Memo, Lidia Decembrino, Lina Bollani, Matteo Rinaldi, Maria Fioretti, Michele Quercia, Milena Maule, Elena Tavella, Alessandro Mussa, Chryssoula Tzialla, Nicola Laforgia, Fabio Mosca, Rosario Magaldi, Michael Mostert, Daniele Farina
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether exposure to inhibitors of gastric acidity, such as H2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors, can independently increase the risk of infections in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. STUDY DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) supplementation (with or without the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) vs placebo in prevention of late-onset sepsis (LOS) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants...
February 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191567/histamine-h-2-receptor-polymorphisms-myocardial-transcripts-and-heart-failure-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-and-beta-blocker-effect-on-remodeling-and-gene-expression-trial
#13
Peter J Leary, Richard A Kronmal, David A Bluemke, Peter M Buttrick, Kenneth L Jones, David P Kao, Steven M Kawut, Eric V Krieger, Joao A Lima, Wayne Minobe, David D Ralph, Ryan J Tedford, Noel S Weiss, Michael R Bristow
Myocardial H2 receptor activation contributes to heart failure (HF) in preclinical models, and H2 receptor antagonists are associated with decreased HF incidence. This study evaluated whether H2 histamine receptor (HRH2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with HF incidence and whether myocardial transcript abundance is associated with HF recovery. The association of SNPs in HRH2 with incident HF was characterized using Cox proportional hazards regression among participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122616/practice-patterns-of-medications-for-patients-with-malignant-bowel-obstruction-using-a-nationwide-claims-database-and-the-association-between-treatment-outcomes-and-concomitant-use-of-h-2-blockers-proton-pump-inhibitors-and-corticosteroids-with-octreotide
#14
Takaaki Minoura, Masato Takeuchi, Tatsuya Morita, Koji Kawakami
CONTEXT: Malignant bowel obstruction impairs the quality of life in patients with advanced cancer. Octreotide, acid-suppressing medications such as H2 -receptor antagonists (H2 -blockers) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and corticosteroids are often used in combination for symptom control. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the practice patterns of medications for patients hospitalized with malignant bowel obstruction using a large claims database in Japan. In addition, we explored the association of adding H2 -blockers/PPIs or corticosteroids to octreotide on treatment outcomes...
February 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109936/a-study-of-harmful-drug-drug-interactions-due-to-polypharmacy-in-hospitalized-patients-in-goa-medical-college
#15
Akshay Khandeparkar, Padmanabh V Rataboli
Introduction: Concomitant use of multiple drugs is often indicated to manage comorbid conditions and enhance efficacy. Such concomitant use of multiple drugs (five or more drugs) has been defined as "polypharmacy." Polypharmacy has been associated with adverse consequences such as greater healthcare costs, increased risk of adverse drug events, drug-drug interactions (DDIs), medication nonadherence, reduced functional capacity, and multiple geriatric syndromes. This study evaluated number of potential harmful DDIs due to polypharmacy...
October 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049325/effect-of-therapeutic-interchange-on-medication-reconciliation-during-hospitalization-and-upon-discharge-in-a-geriatric-population
#16
Jessica S Wang, Robert L Fogerty, Leora I Horwitz
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic interchange of a same class medication for an outpatient medication is a widespread practice during hospitalization in response to limited hospital formularies. However, therapeutic interchange may increase risk of medication errors. The objective was to characterize the prevalence and safety of therapeutic interchange. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Secondary analysis of a transitions of care study. We included patients over age 64 admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2009-2010 with heart failure, pneumonia, or acute coronary syndrome who were taking a medication in any of six commonly-interchanged classes on admission: proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2 blockers), hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023281/proton-pump-inhibitor-and-h2-blocker-associated-acute-interstitial-nephritis-in-a-renal-allograft
#17
Zeenat Yousuf Bhat, Nivin Haroon, Atul Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939039/hyperosmolarity-evokes-histamine-release-from-ileum-mucosa-by-stimulating-a-cholinergic-pathway
#18
Banqin Wang, Ning An, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Haoyi Wang, Ling Xiao, Hongwei Liu, Jingxin Li, Dongbo Zhao
Changes in extracellular osmolarity lead to alteration in cellular volume. In the study, we examined the effects of hyperosmolarity on short-circuit currents (Isc) in the rat ileum using the Ussing chamber technique. Mucosal exposure to 20 mM glucose evoked a decrease of ISC in the rat ileum, which was antagonized by the stretch-activated channel blocker GdCl3, TTX and atropine, respectively. In contrast, it was not blocked by phlorizin, a Na+ -glucose cotransporter SGLT1 inhibitor. Furthermore, the unabsorbed substances, such as sucrose, lactulose or urea, also induced a decrease of ISC in rat ileum...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925645/vitamin-b12-deficiency-recognition-and-management
#19
Robert C Langan, Andrew J Goodbred
Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia, various neuropsychiatric symptoms, and other clinical manifestations. Screening average-risk adults for vitamin B12 deficiency is not recommended. Screening may be warranted in patients with one or more risk factors, such as gastric or small intestine resections, inflammatory bowel disease, use of metformin for more than four months, use of proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2 blockers for more than 12 months, vegans or strict vegetarians, and adults older than 75 years...
September 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899441/use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-is-associated-with-depression-a-population-based-study
#20
Alice Laudisio, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi, Antonella Gemma, Silvia Giovannini, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Davide L Vetrano, Luca Padua, Roberto Bernabei, Giuseppe Zuccalà
Treatment with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) might be associated with neuropsychological side effects. We examined the association between use of PPIs and depressive symptoms in an elderly population. Mood was assessed by the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in all 344 inhabitants of Tuscania (Italy) aged 75 years and over, without exclusion criteria; depression was defined by a GDS score ≥11. Use of PPIs was associated with a higher GDS score in linear regression analysis (B = 2.43; 95% CI = 0.49-4...
January 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
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