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Respiratory imaging

Murad Megjhani, Kalijah Terilli, Hans-Peter Frey, Angela G Velazquez, Kevin William Doyle, Edward Sander Connolly, David Jinou Roh, Sachin Agarwal, Jan Claassen, Noemie Elhadad, Soojin Park
Purpose: Accurate prediction of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can be critical for planning interventions to prevent poor neurological outcome. This paper presents a model using convolution dictionary learning to extract features from physiological data available from bedside monitors. We develop and validate a prediction model for DCI after SAH, demonstrating improved precision over standard methods alone. Methods: 488 consecutive SAH admissions from 2006 to 2014 to a tertiary care hospital were included...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Hao-Yuan Lu, Wei Wei, Qi-Wei Chen, Qing-Gui Meng, Gao-Hua Hu, Xian-Lin Yi, Xian-Zhong Bai
Objectives: To study an uncommon life-threatening disease, spontaneous retroperitoneal and perirenal hemorrhage. Case descriptions: A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the left waist and back of 1 month duration. The renal abscess was suspected by magnetic resonance imaging before operation. The perirenal hematoma was cleaned by operation. In another case, the patient had a functional solitary left kidney compressed by a huge retroperitoneal mass and uropenia appeared...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Bita Hajian, Jan De Backer, Wim Vos, Wouter H van Geffen, Paul De Winter, Omar Usmani, Tony Cahn, Huib Am Kerstjens, Massimo Pistolesi, Wilfried De Backer
Introduction: Severe exacerbations associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that require hospitalization significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality. Definitions for exacerbations are very broad, and it is unclear whether there is one predominant underlying mechanism that leads to them. Functional respiratory imaging (FRI) with modeling provides detailed information about airway resistance, hyperinflation, and ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) mismatch during and following an acute exacerbation...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Sayaka Kazami, Shingo Nishiyama, Yuji Kimura, Hiroyasu Itoh, Hideo Tsukada
BCPP compounds have been developed as PET imaging probes for neurodegenerative diseases in the living brain.18 F-BCPP-EF identifies damaged neuronal areas based on the lack of MC-I; however, its underlying mechanisms of action and specificity for MC-I remain unclear. We herein report the effects of BCPP-BF, -EF, -EM on MC-I in respiratory chain complexes using cardiomyocyte SMP. BCPP compounds inhibited the binding of3 H-dihydrorotenone to MC-I and the proton pumping activity of MC-I in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro...
March 18, 2018: Mitochondrion
Julia Mascolo-Fortin, Dmitri Matenine, Louis Archambault, Philippe Després
BACKGROUND: Four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography allows for temporally resolved imaging with useful applications in radiotherapy, but raises particular challenges in terms of image quality and computation time. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to develop a fast and accurate 4D algorithm by adapting a GPU-accelerated ordered subsets convex algorithm (OSC), combined with the total variation minimization regularization technique (TV). METHODS: Different initialization schemes were studied to adapt the OSC-TV algorithm to 4D reconstruction: each respiratory phase was initialized either with a 3D reconstruction or a blank image...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
L J Li, Y M Liu, Y M Wang, F Zhou, H Li, X Q Xing, X D Han, L Chen, C X Zhang, J X Wang, B Liu, L J Suo, G H Yu, G Q Wang, X X Yao, Y Xiao, X L Zhu, C X Xue, X J Cui, B Cao
Objective: To explore the clinical features, etiological features and prognostic risk factors of long-term glucocorticoid users with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: A retrospective study included 100 long-term glucocorticoid users with CAP (G-CAP group) from 11 hospitals of China between January 2014 and December 2014, while 100 non-immunocompromised patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled as controls (nICH-CAP group). Characteristics including age, gender, underlying diseases, corticosteroids, symptoms, disease severity, imaging manifestations, etiology, respiratory failure, mechanical ventilation, whether the application of vasoactive drugs, antibiotics application, hospital mortality rate between the two groups were compared, and the prognostic factors of G-CAP were investigated using Logistic regression...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Thanh G Phan, Jian Chen, Shaloo Singhal, Henry Ma, Benjamin B Clissold, John Ly, Richard Beare
Background: Prognostication following hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (brain injury) is important for clinical management. The aim of this exploratory study is to use a decision tree model to find clinical and MRI associates of severe disability and death in this condition. We evaluate clinical model and then the added value of MRI data. Method: The inclusion criteria were as follows: age ≥17 years, cardio-respiratory arrest, and coma on admission (2003-2011)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ross J Thomson, Nay Aung, Mihir M Sanghvi, Jose Miguel Paiva, Aaron M Lee, Filip Zemrak, Kenneth Fung, Paul E Pfeffer, Alexander J Mackay, Tricia M McKeever, Elena Lukaschuk, Valentina Carapella, Young Jin Kim, Charlotte E Bolton, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Steffen E Petersen
BACKGROUND: Reduced lung function is common and associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, even in asymptomatic individuals without diagnosed respiratory disease. Previous studies have identified relationships between lung function and cardiovascular structure in individuals with pulmonary disease, but the relationships in those free from diagnosed cardiorespiratory disease have not been fully explored. METHODS: UK Biobank is a prospective cohort study of community participants in the United Kingdom...
2018: PloS One
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Panagiotis Misthos, Maria Chorti, Vlasios Skopas, Alexandra Nakou, Napoleon Karagianidis, Achilleas Lioulias, Vasiliki Filaditaki
Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) is a developmental anomaly of the lung parenchyma, characterized by a decrease in the number and size of airways, alveoli and vessels. We present a case of a 31-year-old patient with a history of chronic productive cough and frequent respiratory infections, who was referred for investigation of abnormal chest x-ray. The combination of chest computed tomography (CT) and bronchoscopy set the diagnosis of left pulmonary hypoplasia and the patient was treated surgically with a left pneumonectomy...
January 29, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Soojin Park, Murad Megjhani, Hans-Peter Frey, Edouard Grave, Chris Wiggins, Kalijah L Terilli, David J Roh, Angela Velazquez, Sachin Agarwal, E Sander Connolly, J Michael Schmidt, Jan Claassen, Noemie Elhadad
To develop and validate a prediction model for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using a temporal unsupervised feature engineering approach, demonstrating improved precision over standard features. 488 consecutive SAH admissions from 2006 to 2014 to a tertiary care hospital were included. Models were trained on 80%, while 20% were set aside for validation testing. Baseline information and standard grading scales were evaluated: age, sex, Hunt Hess grade, modified Fisher Scale (mFS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Hiroaki Murata, Kenzou Koyama, Yasunobu Takezawa, Yasunori Nishigaki
The present study reports a rare case of radiation recall pneumonitis attributed to ifosfamide that was used as a single antitumor agent for a recurrent malignant soft tissue tumor, arising from the chest wall. A 74-year-old man, who had a mass in his right upper chest wall, underwent surgical excision under the diagnosis of chronic expanding hematoma. He was referred to the present hospital with a recurrent tumor as the excised tumor was diagnosed as undifferentiated high-grade sarcoma. The extension of the tumor following previous surgery was aggressive and the tumor margins were unclear on magnetic resonance imaging...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Hyun Jik Kim, Young Hun Seo, Sujin An, Ara Jo, Ick Chan Kwon, Sehoon Kim
Rationale: Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) provides an important mechanism for resisting infectious pathogens within the respiratory tract, and accordingly, the in situ analysis of H2 O2 generation in real time provides a valuable tool for assessing immune response. Methods: In this study, we applied a chemiluminescent nanoparticle-based real-time imaging approach to noninvasive evaluation of the Duox2-mediated H2 O2 generation after viral infection, and assessed its usefulness for analytical purposes in mouse nasal mucosa...
2018: Theranostics
Joshua J Todd, Muslima S Razaqyar, Jessica W Witherspoon, Tokunbor A Lawal, Ami Mankodi, Irene C Chrismer, Carolyn Allen, Mary D Meyer, Anna Kuo, Monique S Shelton, Kim Amburgey, Dmitriy Niyazov, Pierre Fequiere, Carsten G Bönnemann, James J Dowling, Katherine G Meilleur
The ryanodine receptor 1-related congenital myopathies ( RYR1 -RM) comprise a spectrum of slow, rare neuromuscular diseases. Affected individuals present with a mild-to-severe symptomatology ranging from proximal muscle weakness, hypotonia and joint contractures to scoliosis, ophthalmoplegia, and respiratory involvement. Although there is currently no FDA-approved treatment for RYR1- RM, our group recently conducted the first clinical trial in this patient population (NCT02362425). This study aimed to characterize novel RYR1 variants with regard to genetic, laboratory, muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and clinical findings...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jungeun Won, Guillermo L Monroy, Pin-Chieh Huang, Roshan Dsouza, Malcolm C Hill, Michael A Novak, Ryan G Porter, Eric Chaney, Ronit Barkalifa, Stephen A Boppart
Pneumatic otoscopy to assess the mobility of the tympanic membrane (TM) is a highly recommended diagnostic method of otitis media (OM), a widespread middle ear infection characterized by the fluid accumulation in the middle ear. Nonetheless, limited depth perception and subjective interpretation of small TM displacements have challenged the appropriate and efficient examination of TM dynamics experienced during OM. In this paper, a pneumatic otoscope integrated with low coherence interferometry (LCI) was adapted with a controlled pressure-generating system to record the pneumatic response of the TM and to estimate middle ear pressure (MEP)...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Naoya Sakamoto, Kyohei Tsuchiya, Mayu Hikone
We report the case of a 47-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who was referred to our hospital for acute dyspnea. The radiologic findings revealed consolidation with a cavity in the left upper lobe of the lung. Blood/sputum cultures detected Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite intensive care, the patient died from respiratory failure. Autopsy revealed multiple small necrotizing cavities that had coalesced. Although P. aeruginosa is a known causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in patients with structural lung disease, the radiologic findings were non-specific...
March 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Sarah Mousseau, Annie Lapointe, Jocelyn Gravel
BACKGROUND: The CellScope Oto® is a smartphone otoscope attachment allowing physicians to share diagnostic-quality images of the ears. Our primary objective was to evaluate the residents' accuracy in diagnosing acute otitis media in children using the CellScope Oto® attachment compared to traditional otoscope. METHODS: A randomized crossover controlled trial was performed at a single, tertiary care, pediatric emergency department. Participants were a convenience sample of preschool children, consulting for fever and respiratory symptoms...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
A J Ullmann, J M Aguado, S Arikan-Akdagli, D W Denning, A H Groll, K Lagrou, C Lass-Flörl, R E Lewis, P Munoz, P E Verweij, A Warris, F Ader, M Akova, M C Arendrup, R A Barnes, C Beigelman-Aubry, S Blot, E Bouza, R J M Brüggemann, D Buchheidt, J Cadranel, E Castagnola, A Chakrabarti, M Cuenca-Estrella, G Dimopoulos, J Fortun, J-P Gangneux, J Garbino, W J Heinz, R Herbrecht, C P Heussel, C C Kibbler, N Klimko, B J Kullberg, C Lange, T Lehrnbecher, J Löffler, O Lortholary, J Maertens, O Marchetti, J F Meis, L Pagano, P Ribaud, M Richardson, E Roilides, M Ruhnke, M Sanguinetti, D C Sheppard, J Sinkó, A Skiada, M J G T Vehreschild, C Viscoli, O A Cornely
The European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the European Respiratory Society Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on diagnosis and management of aspergillosis. Of the numerous recommendations, a few are summarized here. Chest computed tomography as well as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with suspicion of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA) are strongly recommended. For diagnosis, direct microscopy, preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Federico Vilaplana Grosso, Stacy Tinkler, Mario Sola, Margaret Miller, Hock Gan Heng
A 2-year-old Boer doe was presented with respiratory distress and severe inspiratory dyspnea. Cervical and thoracic radiographs revealed a marked retropharyngeal soft tissue mass effect, several mineralized pharyngeal and retropharyngeal structures, and a pulmonary mass. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a severely enlarged right medial retropharyngeal lymph node, which caused laryngeal compression, leading to upper airway obstruction. Multiple cervical and thoracic lymph nodes, and the pulmonary mass had an irregular layered/laminated pattern of mineralization...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Heather M Young, Fumin Guo, Rachel L Eddy, Geoffrey Maksym, Grace Parraga
Ventilation heterogeneity is a hallmark finding in obstructive lung disease and may be evaluated using a variety of methods including multiple-breath gas-washout and pulmonary imaging. Such methods provide an opportunity to better understand the relationships between structural and functional abnormalities in the lungs, and their relationships with important clinical outcomes. We measured ventilation heterogeneity and respiratory impedance in 100 subjects (50 asthmatics, 22 ex-smokers and 28 COPD), using oscillometry and hyperpolarized3 He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and determined their relationships with quality-of-life scores and disease control/exacerbations...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Yojiro Makino, Yoshihisa Shimada, Masaru Hagiwara, Masatoshi Kakihana, Jinho Park, Naohiro Kajiwara, Tatsuo Ohira, Norihiko Ikeda
OBJECTIVES: Emphysema is one of the main causes of respiratory complications in patients operated on for lung cancer. We have used three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) for surgical simulations, as well as for depicting emphysematous areas as low attenuation areas (LAAs) and visual scores based on the Goddard classification (Goddard score), which is a visual scale of the area of vascular disruption and LAA for each lung field. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the 3D CT function for assessing emphysema severity and its association with respiratory complications...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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