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Zinc toxicity

Mizuki Ikeda, Junji Deguchi, Shota Fukushima, Ai Qingyu, Norihiro Katayama, Hajime Miura, Yasuo Oyama
Chlorothalonil, a polychlorinated aromatic fungicide, is considered non-toxic to small mammals. However, chlorothalonil inactivates sulfhydryl enzymes and depletes cellular glutathione. Chlorothalonil increases intracellular Zn2+ concentration ([Zn2+ ]i) in mammalian cells possibly because intracellular Zn2+ is released via zinc-thiol/disulfide interchange. The effects of chlorothalonil at sublethal concentrations on the cellular content of nonprotein thiols ([NPT]i) and [Zn2+ ]i were examined using flow cytometry in rat thymocytes...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Azeem Ullah, Yuxiang Zhang, Zafar Iqbal, Yaxin Zhang, Dong Wang, Jincan Chen, Ping Hu, Zhuo Chen, Mingdong Huang
Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is considered a promising alternative to conventional antibiotic approach. We have previously developed a novel PS containing five lysine amino acids, pentalysine-β-carbonylphthalocyanine Zinc (ZnPc(Lys)5 ), which in the presence of light, is highly toxic against a range of bacterial strains, including hospital isolated, drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Here, we study the effect of light fluence of the two light sources on the PACT potency of ZnPc(Lys)5 ...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Sheng Huang, Jie Gao, Jiangfeng You, Yanan Liang, Kexing Guan, Siqi Yan, Meiqi Zhan, Zhenming Yang
Aluminum (Al) toxicity in acidic soils affects crop production worldwide. C2 H2 -type zinc finger transcription factor STOP1/ART1-mediated expression of Al tolerance genes has been shown to be important for Al resistance in Arabidopsis , rice and other crop plants. Here, we identified and characterized four STOP1-like proteins (SbSTOP1a, SbSTOP1b, SbSTOP1c, and SbSTOP1d) in sweet sorghum, a variant of grain sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.). Al induced the transcription of the four SbSTOP1 genes in both time- and Al concentration-dependent manners...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Soisungwan Satarug
Cadmium (Cd) is a food-chain contaminant that has high rates of soil-to-plant transference. This phenomenon makes dietary Cd intake unavoidable. Although long-term Cd intake impacts many organ systems, the kidney has long been considered to be a critical target of its toxicity. This review addresses how measurements of Cd intake levels and its effects on kidneys have traditionally been made. These measurements underpin the derivation of our current toxicity threshold limit and tolerable intake levels for Cd...
March 10, 2018: Toxics
Laurie Galvan, Laetitia Francelle, Marie-Claude Gaillard, Lucie de Longprez, Maria-Angeles Carrillo-de Sauvage, Géraldine Liot, Karine Cambon, Lev Stimmer, Sophie Luccantoni, Julien Flament, Julien Valette, Michel de Chaldée, Gwenaelle Auregan, Martine Guillermier, Charlène Joséphine, Fanny Petit, Caroline Jan, Margot Jarrige, Noëlle Dufour, Gilles Bonvento, Sandrine Humbert, Frédéric Saudou, Philippe Hantraye, Karine Merienne, Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans, Anselme L Perrier, Nicole Déglon, Emmanuel Brouillet
The neurobiological functions of a number of kinases expressed in the brain are unknown. Here, we report new findings on DCLK3 (doublecortin like kinase 3), which is preferentially expressed in neurons in the striatum and dentate gyrus. Its function has never been investigated. DCLK3 expression is markedly reduced in Huntington's disease. Recent data obtained in studies related to cancer suggest DCLK3 could have an anti-apoptotic effect. Thus, we hypothesized that early loss of DCLK3 in Huntington's disease may render striatal neurons more susceptible to mutant huntingtin (mHtt)...
March 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Abeer A Alm-Eldeen, Thoria Donia, Salma Alzahaby
Heavy metals are the most dangerous hazards affecting aquatic biota in Egypt specially the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, which is an important species in commercial fisheries. Some areas were not fully studied to screen the hazards that may affect this economic fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential hazards of heavy metals on O. niloticus in Al-Gharbiya Governorate in the Middle delta of Egypt. Water and fish samples were collected from Al-Qased canal, Kafr El-Zayaat Nile, El-Maash canal in Al-Gharbiya Governorate plus a reference site which is a fish farm at the Faculty of Agriculture, Damietta University, Damitta Governorate, Egypt...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Muhammad Saleem Asghar, Naureen Aziz Qureshi, Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Saleem Khan, Muhammad Shakeel, Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry
Various applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) can increase pollution in aquatic environments. Consequently, pollution can cause toxicity in fish as indicated by oxidative stress, hematotoxicity, and changes in gill and liver histology. Selenium is known for its antioxidant potential in scavenging the free radicals generated during ZnO NP-induced oxidative stress. This study tested the ameliorative role of selenium against ZnO NP-induced toxicity in freshwater fish Catla catla. Four groups of replicated fish, representing control, selenium-treated, ZnO NP-treated, and ZnO NPs+selenium-treated, were used in this study...
March 12, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Tímea Kollár, Eszter Kása, Árpád Ferincz, Béla Urbányi, Zsolt Csenki-Bakos, Ákos Horváth
The effect of seven heavy metals on the motility parameter of zebrafish sperm was tested in order to develop an in vitro toxicological test system as an alternative to live animal testing. In vitro test systems are currently preferred in ecotoxicology due to their practical and ethical advantages and fish sperm can be a suitable model. A number of studies had been carried out previously on this topic, but the described methods had not been standardized in numerous aspects (donor species, measured endpoint, etc...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Arun Bahadur Gurung, Bishwarjit Mayengbam, Atanu Bhattacharjee
Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key enzyme belonging to cytochrome P450 pathway of arachidonic acid cascade is a novel therapeutic drug target against atherosclerosis. The enzyme breaks down epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EETs) to dihydroxy-eicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and reduces beneficial cardiovascular properties of EETs. Thus, the present work is aimed at identification of potential leads as sEH inhibitors which will sustain the beneficial properties of EETs in vivo. PubChem and ZINC databases were screened for drug-like compounds based on Lipinski's rule of five and in silico toxicity filters...
March 6, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Momchil Paunov, Lyubka Koleva, Andon Vassilev, Jaco Vangronsveld, Vasilij Goltsev
A comparative study of the effects of exposure to high Cd2+ (50 µM) and excess Zn2+ (600 µM) on photosynthetic performance of hydroponically-grown durum wheat seedlings was performed. At day 8, Cd and Zn were added to the nutrient solution. After 7-days exposure, the chosen concentrations of both metals resulted in similar relative growth rate (RGR) inhibitions of about 50% and comparable retardations of the CO₂ assimilation rates (about 30%) in the second developed leaf of wheat seedlings. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence indicated that both metals disturbed photosynthetic electron transport processes which led to a 4- to 5-fold suppression of the efficiency of energy transformation in Photosystem II...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Visnja Orescanin, Robert Kollar, Karlo Nad, Ivan Halkijevic, Marin Kuspilic
The purpose of this study was development of the optimal conditions for the inertization of the polluted marine sediments using groundwater treatment sludge highly enriched in iron and aluminum. For that purpose fine-grained sediment (>85% clay and silt fraction) highly enriched in copper and zinc was amended with the waste sludge (from 10% to 50%). The sample with the optimum percentage of the waste sludge was further subjected the thermal treatment at 200-800°C. The efficiency of the treatment was determined by the leaching tests and toxicity testing using Hordeum vulgare L...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Uttam Garg, Ada Munar, Clinton Frazee
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressant that is used in renal, liver, and heart transplantation. Due to its narrow therapeutic range, monitoring of MPA levels is essential to avoid toxicity and organ rejection. Although immunoassays are available for the determination of MPA, due to their higher specificity, mass spectrometry methods are preferred. In this unit, we describe a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method utilizing positive ionization electrospray and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for the quantification of levels of MPA and its conjugate MPA glucuronide (MPAG)...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Toxicology
Jinfeng Tang, Minhua Su, Hongguo Zhang, Tangfu Xiao, Yu Liu, Yifan Liu, Lezhang Wei, Christian Ekberg, Britt-Marie Steenari
Fly ash commonly accumulates a significant amount of heavy metals and most of these heavy metals are toxic and easily leached out to the environment, posing risks to human health. Thus, fly ash has been classified as a type of hazardous waste and requires proper treatment before disposal in specific landfill sites for hazardous waste. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process developed to recover copper and zinc performed in pilot scale close to industrial scale followed by a landfill compliance leaching test of the ash residue is evaluated...
March 3, 2018: Waste Management
Edyta Andrulewicz-Botulińska, Róża Wiśniewska, Malgorzata M Brzóska, Joanna Rogalska, Anna Galicka
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal that damages bone tissue by affecting its mineral and organic components. The organic matrix is mainly (90%) composed of collagen, which determines the biomechanical strength of bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) supplementation (30 or 60 mg l-1 ) under moderate and relatively high exposure to Cd (5 and 50 mg l-1 ) on collagen in the rat tibia proximal epiphysis and diaphysis (regions abundant in trabecular and cortical bone, respectively). Significant decrease in collagen type I biosynthesis was found in both regions of the tibia in Cd-treated rats, whereas the supplementation with Zn provided significant protection against this effect...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Nivya James, K Ramanathan
Targeting ErbB family of receptors is an important therapeutic option, because of its essential role in the broad spectrum of human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, in the present work, considerable effort has been made to develop an inhibitor against HER family proteins, by combining the use of pharmacophore modelling, docking scoring functions, and ADME property analysis. Initially, a five-point pharmacophore model was developed using known HER family inhibitors. The generated model was then used as a query to screen a total of 468,880 compounds of three databases namely ZINC, ASINEX, and DrugBank...
March 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Akop Yepremyan, Arshad Mehmood, Samantha Brewer, Madalyn M Barnett, Benjamin G Janesko, Giridhar Akkaraju, Eric E Simanek, Kayla N Green
Interests in inorganic applications of triazines is growing. In this report, metal complexes of copper(II), nickel(II), and zinc(II) and a novel class of chelates comprising a triazine ring substituted with a hydrazine group and pyralozone are evaluated using spectrophotometric methods, single crystal X-ray diffractometry, and electrochemistry. Complexes with copper(II) include a single chelate and two chloride atoms to satisfy a trigonal bipryamidal coordination sphere. The nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes are comprised of two chelating groups that adopt an octahedral geometry around the metal ion...
2018: RSC Advances
Yusuf Saibu, Ankur Jamwal, Renfei Feng, Derek Peak, Som Niyogi
We utilized micro X-ray fluorescence imaging (μ-XFI) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μ-XANES), which are both synchrotron-based techniques to investigate Zn distribution profile, its co-localization patterns with Ca, S, and Fe and speciation in the gills of rainbow trout (RBT). Fish (~100 g) were exposed to acutely toxic levels of waterborne Zn alone and in combination with waterborne Cd or Cu for 24 h (each at 1 × 96 h LC50 ). Gill sections were prepared and analyzed at the VESPERS beamline of the Canadian Light Source...
March 1, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
E S Barysheva
The effects of essential (I, Se, and Zn) and toxic (Pb and Cd) trace elements on the thyroid function were studied experimentally. The protective effects of iodine, zinc, and selenium on thyroid tissue and antithyroid effects of toxic trace elements promoting a decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones (T3 , T4 ) and imbalance of pituitary hormones (TSH) were detected. Addition of toxic trace elements to the ration of experimental rats led to their accumulation in the thyroid (0.051 μg/g Pb and 0.190 μg/g Cd)...
March 2, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Parvaneh Ghaderi-Shekhi Abadi, Farshad H Shirazi, Mohammad Joshaghani, Hamid R Moghimi
Different sunscreens are employed to prevent photo damage (cancer, inflammation, etc.), including ZnO. ZnO is safe when applied as micro-size particle. To overcome some visual problems of ZnO micro-size particles, this sunscreen has been introduced as nano-size particles. Unfortunately, ZnO nanoparticles have raised some health concerns, due to Zn+2 release. On the other hand, it has been shown that ZnO metallic lattice change by metal doping decreases its solubility and toxicity. Therefore, we have decided here to develop new ZnO metallic lattice to reduce its cytotoxicity...
February 27, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Anastasia N Ezemaduka, Yanchun Lv, Yunbiao Wang, Jingbo Xu, Xiujun Li
Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are ubiquitous stress proteins that are able to protect the cells against cellular insults from temperature, heavy metal etc. However, the molecular chaperone roles of sHSPs in enhancing growth and adaptation under combined temperature and metal stresses in Escherichia coli cells have been poorly understood. Here, we analyze the function of recombinant AgsA, a small heat shock protein from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under combined temperature and zinc stress in E...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
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