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Zinc toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531948/an-alternative-approach-to-risk-rank-chemicals-on-the-threat-they-pose-to-the-aquatic-environment
#1
Andrew C Johnson, Rachel L Donnachie, John P Sumpter, Monika D Jürgens, Claudia Moeckel, M Gloria Pereira
This work presents a new and unbiased method of risk ranking chemicals based on the threat they pose to the aquatic environment. The study ranked 12 metals, 23 pesticides, 11 other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 13 pharmaceuticals, 10 surfactants and similar compounds and 2 nanoparticles (total of 71) of concern against one another by comparing their median UK river water and median ecotoxicity effect concentrations. To complement this, by giving an assessment on potential wildlife impacts, risk ranking was also carried out by comparing the lowest 10th percentile of the effects data with the highest 90th percentile of the exposure data...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531761/3%C3%AE-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid-confers-protection-against-znonps-induced-adversity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Hema Negi, Shilpi Khare Saikia, Ranjana Kanaujia, Satish Jaiswal, Rakesh Pandey
Despite their well reported potent risk towards human health and environment Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) find an extensive commercial usage due to their antimicrobial properties. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a natural triterpene ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid; UA) for overcoming the cytotoxic challenges of ZnONPs employing Ceanorhabditis elegans. The 24h LC50 of Zn-ONPs (<50nm TEM) was deduced as 4.75mgL(-1). UA (25μM) was observed to defend against this toxicity by attenuating Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) resulting into better survival at 2mgL(-1) in a time dependent behavior...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528650/the-role-of-intermetal-competition-and-mis-metalation-in-metal-toxicity
#3
Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Kevin J Waldron
The metals manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc are essential for almost all bacteria, but their precise metal requirements vary by species, by ecological niche and by growth condition. Bacteria thus must acquire each of these essential elements in sufficient quantity to satisfy their cellular demand, but in excess these same elements are toxic. Metal toxicity has been exploited by humanity for centuries, and by the mammalian immune system for far longer, yet the mechanisms by which these elements cause toxicity to bacteria are not fully understood...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528410/comparison-of-toxicities-of-metal-pyrithiones-including-their-degradation-compounds-and-organotin-antifouling-biocides-to-the-japanese-killifish-oryzias-latipes
#4
Madoka Ohji, Hiroya Harino
Japanese killifish Oryzias latipes were exposed to three levels (0, 1, and 10 µg l(-1)) of copper pyrithione (CuPT2), zinc pyrithione (ZnPT2), six of their degradation products, and the organotin compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) for 48 h at 20 °C. All individual fish exposed to 1 and 10 µg l(-1) of CuPT2 or 10 µg l(-1) of ZnPT2 were dead within 12 h, respectively, and at 24 h the survival rate of the fish exposed to 1 µg l(-1) of ZnPT2 was 50%. All fish exposed to 10 µg l(-1) of ZnPT2 showed morphological abnormalities in the form of vertebral deformity...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527997/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-mediated-cytotoxicity-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-and-level-of-antioxidants-in-presence-of-melatonin
#5
Sruthi S, N Millot, Mohanan Pv
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used in a variety of products and are currently being investigated for biomedical applications. However, they have the potential to interact with macromolecules like proteins, lipids and DNA within the cells which makes the safe biomedical application difficult. The toxicity of the ZnO NP is mainly attributed reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Different strategies like iron doping, polymer coating and external supply of antioxidants have been evaluated to minimize the toxic potential of ZnO NPs...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527323/revealing-the-ability-of-a-novel-polysaccharide-bioflocculant-in-bioremediation-of-heavy-metals-sensed-in-a-vibrio-bioluminescence-reporter-assay
#6
Arya Sajayan, G Seghal Kiran, S Priyadharshini, Navya Poulose, Joseph Selvin
A bioflocculant-producing bacterial strain, designated MSI021, was isolated from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra and demonstrated 94% flocculation activity in a kaolin clay suspension. MSI021 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on phylogenetic affiliation and biochemical characteristics. The purified extra-cellular bioflocculant was chemically elucidated as a polysaccharide molecule. The polysaccharide bioflocculant was stable under both acidic and alkaline conditions (pH 2.0-10.0) and temperatures up to 100 °C...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523618/the-effect-of-sewage-sludge-on-heavy-metal-concentrations-in-wheat-plant-triticum-aestivum-l
#7
Fatemeh Shahbazi, Somayeh Ghasemi, Hamid Sodaiezadeh, Kobra Ayaseh, Rasool Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi
The use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils can improve soil physical and chemical properties and soil fertility by increasing organic materials; however, the presence of heavy metals in sewage sludge is a significant problem for the quality of agricultural products and the environment. Most heavy metals, due to their inactive nature, are stable and can affect human health. This study investigates the effect of sewage sludge on the concentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, iron, and manganese in two varieties of wheat, i...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521682/repurposing-of-copper-ii-chelating-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
Valeria Lanza, Danilo Milardi, Giuseppe Di Natale, Giuseppe Pappalardo
BACKGROUND: There is mounting urgency to find new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. A large number of reviews has exhaustively described either the molecular or clinical aspects of neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD). Conversely, reports outlining how known drugs in use for other diseases can be also effective as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases are less reported. This review focuses on the current uses of some copper(II) interacting molecules as potential drug candidates in neurodegeneration...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516990/cross-talk-between-neurometals-and-amyloidogenic-proteins-at-the-synapse-and-the-pathogenesis-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
REVIEW
M Kawahara, M Kato-Negishi, K Tanaka
Increasing evidence suggests that disruption of metal homeostasis contributes to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, prion diseases, Lewy body diseases, and vascular dementia. Conformational changes of disease-related proteins (amyloidogenic proteins), such as β-amyloid protein, prion proteins, and α-synuclein, are well-established contributors to neurotoxicity and to the pathogenesis of these diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that these amyloidogenic proteins are metalloproteins that bind trace elements, including zinc, iron, copper, and manganese, and play significant roles in the maintenance of metal homeostasis...
May 18, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516732/diadenosine-tetraphosphate-ap4a-an-e-coli-alarmone-or-a-damage-metabolite
#10
Dragana Despotović, Alexander Brandis, Alon Savidor, Yishai Levin, Laura Fumagalli, Dan S Tawfik
Under stress, metabolism is changing: specific up- or down-regulation of proteins and metabolites occurs as well as side-effects. Distinguishing specific stress-signaling metabolites (alarmones) from side-products (damage metabolites) is not trivial. One example is diadenosine tetraphosphate, Ap4A - a side-product of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases found in all domains of life. The earliest observations suggested that Ap4A serves as an alarmone for heat stress in E. coli. However, despite 50 years of research, the signaling mechanisms associated with Ap4A remain unknown...
May 18, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511044/bentonite-modified-with-zinc-enhances-aflatoxin-b1-adsorption-and-increase-survival-of-fibroblasts-3t3-and-epithelial-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cells-caco-2
#11
Janaína Nones, Anita Solhaug, Gunnar Sundstøl Eriksen, Domingos Lusitâneo Pier Macuvele, Anicleto Poli, Cíntia Soares, Andrea Gonçalves Trentin, Humberto Gracher Riella, Jader Nones
Bentonites are commonly used as feed additives to reduce the bioavailability and thus the toxicity of aflatoxins by adsorbing the toxins in the gastrointestinal tract. Aflatoxins are particular harmful mycotoxins mainly found in areas with hot and humid climates. They occur in food and feedstuff as a result of fungal contamination before and after harvest. The aim of this study was to modify Brazilian bentonite clay by incorporation of zinc (Zn) ions in order to increase the adsorption capacity and consequently reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509652/risk-assessment-of-zinc-oxide-a-cosmetic-ingredient-used-as-a-uv-filter-of-sunscreens
#12
Kyu-Bong Kim, Young Woo Kim, Seong Kwang Lim, Tae Hyun Roh, Du Yeon Bang, Seul Min Choi, Duck Soo Lim, Yeon Joo Kim, Seol-Hwa Baek, Min-Kook Kim, Hyo-Seon Seo, Min-Hwa Kim, Hyung Sik Kim, Joo Young Lee, Sam Kacew, Byung-Mu Lee
Zinc oxide (ZnO), an inorganic compound that appears as a white powder, is used frequently as an ingredient in sunscreens. The aim of this review was to examine the toxicology and risk assessment of ZnO based upon available published data. Recent studies on acute, sub-acute, and chronic toxicities of ZnO indicated that this compound is virtually non-toxic in animal models. However, it was reported that ZnO nanoparticles (NP) (particle size, 40 nm) induced significant changes in anemia-related hematologic parameters and mild to moderate pancreatitis in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at 536...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509393/nmea-a-novel-efflux-transporter-specific-for-nucleobases-and-nucleosides-contributes-to-metal-resistance-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#13
Sofia Balaska, Vassilios Myrianthopoulos, Martha Tselika, Dimitris G Hatzinikolaou, Emmanuel Mikros, George Diallinas
Through Minos transposon mutagenesis we obtained A. nidulans mutants resistant to 5-fluorouracil due to insertions into the upstream region of the uncharacterized gene nmeA, encoding a Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporter. Minos transpositions increased nmeA transcription, which is otherwise extremely low under all conditions tested. To dissect the function of NmeA we used strains overexpressing or genetically lacking the nmeA gene. Strains overexpressing NmeA are resistant to toxic purine analogues, but also, to cadmium, zinc and borate, whereas an isogenic nmeAΔ null mutant exhibits increased sensitivity to these compounds...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507557/exogenous-glutathione-enhances-mercury-tolerance-by-inhibiting-mercury-entry-into-plant-cells
#14
Yeon-Ok Kim, Hyeun-Jong Bae, Eunjin Cho, Hunseung Kang
Despite the increasing understanding of the crucial roles of glutathione (GSH) in cellular defense against heavy metal stress as well as oxidative stress, little is known about the functional role of exogenous GSH in mercury (Hg) tolerance in plants. Here, we provide compelling evidence that GSH contributes to Hg tolerance in diverse plants. Exogenous GSH did not mitigate the toxicity of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), or zinc (Zn), whereas application of exogenous GSH significantly promoted Hg tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco, and pepper...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503169/cytotoxicity-intestinal-transport-and-bioavailability-of-dispersible-iron-and-zinc-supplements
#15
Hyeon-Jin Kim, Song-Hwa Bae, Hyoung-Jun Kim, Kyoung-Min Kim, Jae Ho Song, Mi-Ran Go, Jin Yu, Jae-Min Oh, Soo-Jin Choi
Iron or zinc deficiency is one of the most important nutritional disorders which causes health problem. However, food fortification with minerals often induces unacceptable organoleptic changes during preparation process and storage, has low bioavailability and solubility, and is expensive. Nanotechnology surface modification to obtain novel characteristics can be a useful tool to overcome these problems. In this study, the efficacy and potential toxicity of dispersible Fe or Zn supplement coated in dextrin and glycerides (SunActive Fe(TM) and SunActive Zn(TM)) were evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity, intestinal transport, and bioavailability, as compared with each counterpart without coating, ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500914/limitations-of-experiments-performed-in-artificially-made-oecd-standard-soils-for-predicting-cadmium-lead-and-zinc-toxicity-towards-organisms-living-in-natural-soils
#16
Mateusz Sydow, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Nina Cedergreen, Mikołaj Owsianiak
Development of comparative toxicity potentials of cationic metals in soils for applications in hazard ranking and toxic impact assessment is currently jeopardized by the availability of experimental effect data. To compensate for this deficiency, data retrieved from experiments carried out in standardized artificial soils, like OECD soils, could potentially be tapped as a source of effect data. It is, however, unknown whether such data are applicable to natural soils where the variability in pore water concentrations of dissolved base cations is large, and where mass transfer limitations of metal uptake can occur...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499260/metal-toxicity-affects-predatory-stream-invertebrates-less-than-other-functional-feeding-groups
#17
Matthias Liess, Nadine V Gerner, Ben J Kefford
Ecosystem effects of heavy metals need to be identified for a retrospective risk assessment, and potential impacts need to be predicted for a prospective risk assessment. In this study, we established a strong correlation between the toxic pressure of dissolved metals and invertebrate species. We compiled available data from a wide geographical range of Australian streams that were contaminated with heavy metals [mainly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] and the corresponding invertebrate communities. Heavy metal toxicity is positively related to the proportion of predators within the invertebrate community, represented by the predatorratio, with an effect threshold range of 2...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492331/high-throughput-screening-to-identify-potent-and-specific-inhibitors-of-microbial-sulfate-reduction
#18
Hans K Carlson, Mark Russell Mullan, Lorraine A Mosqueda, Steven Chen, Michelle R Arkin, John D Coates
The selective perturbation of complex microbial ecosystems to predictably influence outcomes in engineered and industrial environments remains a grand challenge for geomicrobiology. In some industrial ecosystems, such as oil reservoirs, sulfate reducing microorganisms (SRM) produce hydrogen sulfide which is toxic, explosive and corrosive. Despite the economic cost of sulfidogenesis, there has been minimal exploration of the chemical space of possible inhibitory compounds, and very little work has quantitatively assessed the selectivity of putative souring treatments...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491857/administration-of-zinc-against-arsenic-induced-nephrotoxicity-during-gestation-and-lactation-in-rat-model
#19
Davood Nasiry Zarrin Ghabaee, Fereshteh Talebpour Amiri, Amir Esmaeelnejad Moghaddam, Ali Reza Khalatbary, Mehryar Zargari
BACKGROUND: Free radicals production by toxicity of arsenic (Ar) is most important in the nephrotoxicity. There is accumulating evidence that zinc (Zn), has anti-oxidant properties. OBJECTIVES: The aim of present study was to evaluate protective and ameliorative effects of Zn against Ar-induced nephrotoxicity in rat pups during gestation and lactation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four adult pregnant wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6)...
March 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489956/the-role-of-chlorogenic-acid-supplementation-in-anemia-and-mineral-disturbances-induced-by-4-tert-octylphenol-toxicity
#20
Khaled M M Koriem, Mahmoud S S Arbid, Nawal E Gomaa
4-tert-octylphenol (OP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that causes harmful effects to human health. Chlorogenic acid is the major dietary polyphenol present in various foods and beverages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective role of chlorogenic acid in anemia and mineral disturbance occurring in OP toxicity in rats. Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four equal groups (8 rats/group) as follows. The first (control) group was treated daily with an oral dose of 1 ml saline for two weeks...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
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