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Pulmonary imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921655/fast-dynamic-ventilation-mri-of-hyperpolarized-129-xe-using-spiral-imaging
#1
Ozkan Doganay, Tahreema N Matin, Anthony Mcintyre, Brian Burns, Rolf F Schulte, Fergus V Gleeson, Daniel Bulte
PURPOSE: To develop and optimize a rapid dynamic hyperpolarized (129) Xe ventilation (DXeV) MRI protocol and investigate the feasibility of capturing pulmonary signal-time curves in human lungs. THEORY AND METHODS: Spiral k-space trajectories were designed with the number of interleaves Nint  = 1, 2, 4, and 8 corresponding to voxel sizes of 8 mm, 5 mm, 4 mm, and 2.5 mm, respectively, for field of view = 15 cm. DXeV images were acquired from a gas-flow phantom to investigate the ability of Nint  = 1, 2, 4, and 8 to capture signal-time curves...
September 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920094/convolutional-auto-encoder-for-image-denoising-of-ultra-low-dose-ct
#2
Mizuho Nishio, Chihiro Nagashima, Saori Hirabayashi, Akinori Ohnishi, Kaori Sasaki, Tomoyuki Sagawa, Masayuki Hamada, Tatsuo Yamashita
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to validate a patch-based image denoising method for ultra-low-dose CT images. Neural network with convolutional auto-encoder and pairs of standard-dose CT and ultra-low-dose CT image patches were used for image denoising. The performance of the proposed method was measured by using a chest phantom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standard-dose and ultra-low-dose CT images of the chest phantom were acquired. The tube currents for standard-dose and ultra-low-dose CT were 300 and 10 mA, respectively...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919731/sensitization-to-aspergillus-fumigatus-as-a-risk-factor-for-bronchiectasis-in-copd
#3
Stephanie Everaerts, Katrien Lagrou, Adriana Dubbeldam, Natalie Lorent, Kristina Vermeersch, Erna Van Hoeyveld, Xavier Bossuyt, Lieven J Dupont, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Wim Janssens
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap presents a possible clinical phenotype of COPD, but it is unclear why it develops in a subset of patients. We hypothesized that sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus (A fum) is associated with bronchiectasis in COPD and occurs more frequently in vitamin D-deficient patients. METHODS: This observational study investigated sensitization to A fum in an outpatient clinical cohort of 300 COPD patients and 50 (ex-) smoking controls...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918971/-pulmonary-nocardiosis-with-cerebral-abscesses-mimicking-metastatic-lung-cancer-three-cases-and-a-review-of-literature
#4
A Fourrier, M Kerjouan, C Piau, P A Lentz, C Ricordel, H Léna, R Corre, B Desrues, S Jouneau
Nocardiosis is an infectious disease with wide range of clinical features, which can eventually lead to death. The agent responsible belongs to the genus Nocardia that includes about fifty different species. Nocardiosis occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts. We report here three cases of disseminated nocardiosis misdiagnosed initially as cerebral metastatic lung cancer. These patients, including two immunocompetent hosts, presented with both pulmonary and cerebral lesions. In all three patients, the diagnosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion sequence, apparent diffusion coefficient reconstruction and neurosurgical cerebral biopsies...
September 14, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918444/left-atrial-volume-computed-by-3d-rotational-angiography-best-predicts-atrial-fibrillation-recurrence-after-circumferential-pulmonary-vein-isolation
#5
Teresa Strisciuglio, Giuseppe Di Gioia, Sofia Chatzikyriakou, Etel Silva Garcia, Emanuele Barbato, Peter Geelen, Tom De Potter
Left atrium (LA) size is a well-studied predictor of atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Yet, there is still little agreement on the best imaging technique to size the LA, and on the most appropriate sizing parameter. Volumetric assessment of LA with three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA LA volume index) might be a valid alternative to the commonly used transthoracic echocardiography (TTE LA volume index). The aim of our study was to investigate whether LA volume by 3DRA at the time of PVI is able to predict the risk of atrial fibrillation recurrence...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918422/the-modern-art-of-reading-computed-tomography-images-of-the-lungs-quantitative-ct
#6
Felix J F Herth, Miranda Kirby, Jered Sieren, Jonas Herth, Joshua Schirm, Susan Wood, Maren Schuhmann
Lung diseases are increasing in prevalence and overall burden worldwide. To stem the tide, more and more national and international guidelines are recommending the use of various diagnostic algorithms that are disease specific. There is growing consensus among the respiratory community that although patient histories and lung function testing are the minimum required for clinical examinations, these tests alone are not sufficient for disease characterization. Therefore, the use of computed tomography (CT) imaging is increasing used in clinical decision making for lung diseases...
September 16, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918335/modern-diagnosis-of-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#7
Aileen Kharat, Anne-Lise Hachulla, Stéphane Noble, Frédéric Lador
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) should be suspected in patients presenting persistent dyspnea three months after a pulmonary embolism or in patients presenting with acute pulmonary embolism and suggestive images on the CT-scan. For these patients, a specific diagnostic work-up should be performed. First step consists of the ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scan which is a good screening test due to its high sensitivity and high negative predictive value. Pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard approach for the confirmation of the diagnosis and pre-surgical evaluation of CTEPH...
September 9, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917584/pneumatoceles-in-pediatric-blunt-trauma-common-and-benign
#8
Lindsey B Armstrong, David P Mooney
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic pneumatoceles are reported to be rare in children and to have an uncertain clinical significance. We report a single institution series of traumatic pneumatoceles to better define their frequency and clinical significance. METHODS: After obtaining approval from the IRB, data were extracted from the trauma registry of a level 1 pediatric trauma center on children diagnosed with a pulmonary contusion (International Classification of Diseases-9th edition diagnosis codes: 861...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917138/pulmonary-venous-anomalies-causing-misdiagnosis-of-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations
#9
Cheng Ting Lin, Stefan Loy Zimmerman, Sally Elizabeth Mitchell, Elliot K Fishman
PURPOSE: To investigate pulmonary venous anomaly as a cause of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) misdiagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed adult patients within a 7.5-year period with CT scans initially diagnosed with PAVM and subsequent conventional pulmonary angiograms. RESULTS: Pulmonary arteriography showed no PAVM on arterial phase for 10 out of 99 patients, comprising the misdiagnosed group. Four misdiagnosed patients had pulmonary venous anomalies and six had nodular lesions on CT...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915902/development-and-clinical-application-of-radiomics-in-lung-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Bojiang Chen, Rui Zhang, Yuncui Gan, Lan Yang, Weimin Li
Since the discovery of X-rays at the end of the 19(th) century, medical imageology has progressed for 100 years, and medical imaging has become an important auxiliary tool for clinical diagnosis. With the launch of the human genome project (HGP) and the development of various high-throughput detection techniques, disease exploration in the post-genome era has extended beyond investigations of structural changes to in-depth analyses of molecular abnormalities in tissues, organs and cells, on the basis of gene expression and epigenetics...
September 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914116/defining-a-core-outcome-set-for-adolescent-and-young-adult-patients-with-a-spinal-deformity
#11
Marinus de Kleuver, Sayf S A Faraj, Roderick M Holewijn, Niccole M Germscheid, Raphael D Adobor, Mikkel Andersen, Hans Tropp, Benny Dahl, Heli Keskinen, Anders Olai, David W Polly, Miranda L van Hooff, Tsjitske M Haanstra
Background and purpose - Routine outcome measurement has been shown to improve performance in several fields of healthcare. National spine surgery registries have been initiated in 5 Nordic countries. However, there is no agreement on which outcomes are essential to measure for adolescent and young adult patients with a spinal deformity. The aim of this study was to develop a core outcome set (COS) that will facilitate benchmarking within and between the 5 countries of the Nordic Spinal Deformity Society (NSDS) and other registries worldwide...
September 15, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912884/towards-translational-immunopet-mr-imaging-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-the-humanised-monoclonal-antibody-jf5-detects-aspergillus-lung-infections-in-vivo
#12
Genna Davies, Anna-Maria Rolle, Andreas Maurer, Philipp R Spycher, Claudia Schillinger, Djamschid Solouk-Saran, Mike Hasenberg, Juliane Weski, Jesper Fonslet, Adrien Dubois, Frederic Boschetti, Franck Denat, Matthias Gunzer, Martin Eichner, Lauren S Ryder, Mikael Jensen, Roger Schibli, Bernd J Pichler, Stefan Wiehr, Christopher R Thornton
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening lung disease of hematological malignancy or bone marrow transplant patients caused by the ubiquitous environmental fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Current diagnostic tests for the disease lack sensitivity as well as specificity, and culture of the fungus from invasive lung biopsy, considered the gold standard for IPA detection, is slow and often not possible in critically ill patients. In a previous study, we reported the development of a novel non-invasive procedure for IPA diagnosis based on antibody-guided positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (immunoPET/MRI) using a [(64)Cu]DOTA-labeled mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb), mJF5, specific to Aspergillus...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912165/holistic-care-of-complicated-tuberculosis-in-healthcare-settings-with-limited-resources
#13
Trevor Duke, Sharon Kasa Tom, Harry Poka, Henry Welch
In recent years, most of the focus on improving the quality of paediatric care in low-income countries has been on improving primary care using the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, and improving triage and emergency treatment in hospitals aimed at reducing deaths in the first 24 hours. There has been little attention paid to improving the quality of care for children with chronic or complex diseases. Children with complicated forms of tuberculosis (TB), including central nervous system and chronic pulmonary TB, provide examples of acute and chronic multisystem paediatric illnesses that commonly present to district-level and second-level referral hospitals in low-income countries...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911787/pulmonary-embolism-severity-assessment-and-prognostication
#14
Deisy Barrios, Raquel Morillo, Roger D Yusen, David Jiménez
For patients who have acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE), risk of short-term death and adverse outcomes should drive the initial treatment decisions. Practice guidelines recommend that patients who have a high-risk of PE-related death and adverse outcomes, determined by the presence of haemodynamic instability (i.e., shock or hypotension), should receive systemically administered thrombolytic therapy. Intermediate-high risk patients might benefit from close observation, and some should undergo escalation of therapy beyond standard anticoagulation, particularly if haemodynamic deterioration occurs...
September 8, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910912/-percutaneous-catheterization-for-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-a-retrospective-case-series
#15
X Y Li, H Y He, X Tang, R Wang, C Y Zhang, S Q Wang, B Sun, Z H Tong
Objective: To review the experience of percutaneous catheterization for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) by respiratory intensivists at a single institution. Methods: A retrospective review of 87 patients undergoing percutaneous catheterization for ECMO in Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from November 2009 to January 2017. Subject demographics, type of support, cannulation configuration, types of cannulas, use of imaging modalities, and complications were recorded and summarized...
September 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906034/small-airway-disease-a-different-phenotype-of-early-stage-copd-associated-with-biomass-smoke-exposure
#16
Dongxing Zhao, Yumin Zhou, Changbin Jiang, Zhuxiang Zhao, Fang He, Pixin Ran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic exposure to biomass smoke (BS) can significantly compromise pulmonary function and lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To determine whether BS exposure induces a unique phenotype of COPD from an early stage, with different physiopathological features compared with COPD associated with smoking (cigarette-smoke (CS) COPD), we assessed the physiopathology of early COPD associated with BS exposure (BS COPD) by incorporating spirometry, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging, bronchoscopy and pathological examinations...
September 14, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905655/inverted-takotsubo-syndrome-in-androctonus-australis-scorpion-envenomation
#17
Fekri Abroug, Islem Ouanes, Mezri Maatouk, Mondher Golli, Lamia Ouanes-Besbes
CONTEXT: The nature of scorpion-related cardiomyopathy is still a matter of debate where specific toxin-induced cardiomyopathy, ischemic, or catecholaminergic cardiomyopathy is advocated as well. We report two cases of Takotsubo syndrome following envenomation by Androctonus australis, bringing new evidence for the fundamental role of catecholamines in the pathogenesis of this cardiomyopathy. Case 1: A woman aged 36 presented with pulmonary edema and shock following scorpion envenomation...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905390/validation-of-the-gatortail-method-for-accurate-sizing-of-pulmonary-vessels-from-3d-medical-images
#18
Walter G O'Dell, Anne K Gormaley, David A Prida
PURPOSE: Detailed characterization of changes in vessel size is crucial for the diagnosis and management of a variety of vascular diseases. Because clinical measurement of vessel size is typically dependent on the radiologist's subjective interpretation of the vessel borders, it is often prone to high inter- and intra-user variability. Automatic methods of vessel sizing have been developed for two-dimensional images but a fully three-dimensional (3D) method suitable for vessel sizing from volumetric X-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging has heretofore not been demonstrated and validated robustly...
September 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905224/the-outcome-and-risk-factors-for-recurrence-and-extended-hospitalization-of-secondary-spontaneous-pneumothorax
#19
Yoshitaro Saito, Yohei Suzuki, Ryo Demura, Hideki Kawai
PURPOSE: Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) is difficult to treat by itself and due to its association with serious underlying diseases. It has a high rate of recurrence and often requires extended hospitalization. Therefore, we evaluated the outcome and risk factors associated with recurrence and extended hospitalization. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 61 patients with SSP, and evaluated the patients' characteristics, underlying diseases, introduction of home oxygen therapy, Brinkman index, and X-ray imaging findings to determine the risk factors for recurrence and extended hospitalization...
September 13, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902766/future-cardiac-events-in-patients-with-ischemic-ecg-changes-during-adenosine-infusion-as-a-myocardial-stress-agent-and-normal-cardiac-scan
#20
Hamid Amer, Khalid Niaz, Jun Hatazawa, Ahmed Gasmelseed, Hussain Al Samiri, Maram Al Othman, Mai Al Hammad
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the prognostic importance of adenosine-induced ischemic ECG changes in patients with normal single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion images (MPI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of 765 patients undergoing adenosine MPI between January 2013 and January 2015. Patients with baseline ECG abnormalities and/or abnormal scan were excluded. RESULTS: Overall, 67 (8...
September 11, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
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