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Drinking in the dark

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074588/care-under-the-influence
#1
Joseph J Fins, Samantha F Knowlton
A forty-year-old man is brought to the emergency room by his wife at five in the morning, two hours after he fell down the stairs at home, hitting his head and injuring his arm. He tells the ER physician that he got up to get a drink of water and tripped in the dark. His speech is slurred, and he smells strongly of alcohol. Lab results reveal elevated liver enzymes, and his blood alcohol level is 0.1. His medical history is unremarkable. When asked about his alcohol consumption, he says he usually has one or two drinks a night with dinner but that he drinks more on holidays and special occasions...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002478/the-effects-of-rilmenidine-and-perindopril-on-arousal-blood-pressure-during-24-hour-recordings-in-shr
#2
Kyungjoon Lim, Kristy L Jackson, Sandra L Burke, Geoffrey A Head
The surge in arterial pressure during arousal in the waking period is thought to be largely due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. In this study we compared in SHR the effects of chronic administration of the centrally acting sympatholytic agent rilmenidine with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril on the rate of rise and power of the surge in mean arterial pressure (MAP) that occurs with arousal associated with the onset of night. Recordings were made using radiotelemetry in 17 adult SHR before and after treatment with rilmenidine (2mg/kg/day), perindopril (1mg/kg/day) or vehicle in the drinking water for 2 weeks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998722/intermittent-access-to-a-nutritionally-complete-high-fat-diet-attenuates-alcohol-drinking-in-rats
#3
Sunil Sirohi, Arriel Van Cleef, Jon F Davis
Binge eating disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur in the presence of other psychiatric conditions. Data suggest that binge eating engages similar behavioral and neurochemical processes common to AUD, which might contribute to the etiology or maintenance of alcoholism. However, it is unclear how binge feeding behavior and alcohol intake interact to promote initiation or maintenance of AUD. We investigated the impact of binge-like feeding on alcohol intake and anxiety-like behavior in male Long Evans rats...
December 18, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986929/genetic-and-pharmacologic-manipulation-of-tlr4-has-minimal-impact-on-ethanol-consumption-in-rodents
#4
R Adron Harris, Michal Bajo, Richard L Bell, Yuri A Blednov, Florence P Varodayan, Jay Truitt, Giordano de Guglielmo, Amy W Lasek, Marian L Logrip, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Amanda J Roberts, Edward Roberts, Olivier George, Jody Mayfield, Timothy R Billiar, David J Hackam, R Dayne Mayfield, George F Koob, Marisa Roberto, Gregg E Homanics
: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a critical component of innate immune signaling and has been implicated in alcohol responses in preclinical and clinical models. Members of the Integrative Neuroscience Initiative on Alcoholism (INIA-Neuroimmune) consortium tested the hypothesis that TLR4 mediates excessive ethanol drinking using i) Tlr4 knockout (KO) rats, ii) selective knockdown of Tlr4 mRNA in mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc), and iii) injection of the TLR4 antagonist (+)-naloxone in mice...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919738/long-term-ethanol-self-administration-induces-%C3%AE-fosb-in-male-and-female-adolescent-but-not-in-adult-wistar-rats
#5
Aranza Wille-Bille, Soledad de Olmos, Leonardo Marengo, Florencia Chiner, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Early-onset ethanol consumption predicts later development of alcohol use disorders. Age-related differences in reactivity to ethanol's effects may underlie this effect. Adolescent rats are more sensitive and less sensitive than adults to the appetitive and aversive behavioral effects of ethanol, respectively, and more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of experimenter-administered binge doses of ethanol. However, less is known about age-related differences in the neural consequences of self-administered ethanol...
March 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891052/from-ethanol-to-salsolinol-role-of-ethanol-metabolites-in-the-effects-of-ethanol
#6
REVIEW
Alessandra T Peana, Michela Rosas, Simona Porru, Elio Acquas
In spite of the global reputation of ethanol as the psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, the neurobiological basis of the central effects of ethanol still presents some dark sides due to a number of unanswered questions related to both its precise mechanism of action and its metabolism. Accordingly, ethanol represents the interesting example of a compound whose actions cannot be explained as simply due to the involvement of a single receptor/neurotransmitter, a scenario further complicated by the robust evidence that two main metabolites, acetaldehyde and salsolinol, exert many effects similar to those of their parent compound...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870313/hypothalamic-specific-proopiomelanocortin-deficiency-reduces-alcohol-drinking-in-male-and-female-mice
#7
Yan Zhou, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone reduces alcohol consumption and relapse in both humans and rodents. The present study investigated whether hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons (producing beta-endorphin and melanocortins) play a role in alcohol drinking behaviors. Both male and female mice with targeted deletion of two neuronal Pomc enhancers nPE1 and nPE2 (nPE-/-), resulting in hypothalamic-specific POMC deficiency, were studied in short-access (4-h/day) drinking-in-the-dark (DID, alcohol in one bottle), intermittent access (IA, 24-hour cycles of alcohol access every other day, alcohol vs...
November 21, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862022/binge-ethanol-consumption-increases-inflammatory-pain-responses-and-mechanical-and-cold-sensitivity-tigecycline-treatment-efficacy-shows-sex-differences
#8
Susan E Bergeson, Henry Blanton, Joseph M Martinez, David C Curtis, Caitlyn Sherfey, Brandon Seegmiller, Patrick C Marquardt, Jessica A Groot, Clayton L Allison, Christian Bezboruah, Josée Guindon
BACKGROUND: Physicians have long reported that patients with chronic pain show higher tendencies for alcohol use disorder (AUD), and AUD patients appear to have higher pain sensitivities. The goal of this study was to test 2 hypotheses: (i) binge alcohol consumption increases inflammatory pain and mechanical and cold sensitivities; and (ii) tigecycline is an effective treatment for alcohol-mediated-increased pain behaviors and sensitivities. Both female and male mice were used to test the additional hypothesis that important sex differences in the ethanol (EtOH)-related traits would be seen...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862011/effective-reduction-of-acute-ethanol-withdrawal-by-the-tetracycline-derivative-tigecycline-in-female-and-male-dba-2j-mice
#9
Joseph M Martinez, Jessica A Groot, David C Curtis, Clayton L Allison, Patrick C Marquardt, Ashley N Holmes, David S Edwards, David R M Trotter, Peter J Syapin, Deborah A Finn, Susan E Bergeson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a spectrum disorder characterized by mild to severe symptoms, including potential withdrawal signs upon cessation of consumption. Approximately five hundred thousand patients with AUD undergo clinically relevant episodes of withdrawal annually (New Engl J Med, 2003, 348, 1786). Recent evidence indicates potential for drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways as new AUD therapies. We have previously shown the immunomodulatory drugs, minocycline and tigecycline, were effective in reducing ethanol (EtOH) consumption in both the 2-bottle choice and drinking-in-the-dark paradigms...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859416/effective-reduction-in-high-ethanol-drinking-by-semisynthetic-tetracycline-derivatives
#10
Peter J Syapin, Joseph M Martinez, David C Curtis, Patrick C Marquardt, Clayton L Allison, Jessica A Groot, Carol Baby, Yazan M Al-Hasan, Ismael Segura-Ulate, Matthew J Scheible, Katy T Nicholson, Jose Luis Redondo, David R M Trotter, David S Edwards, Susan E Bergeson
BACKGROUND: New pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol use disorders (AUD) are needed. Given the complex nature of AUD, there likely exist multiple novel drug targets. We, and others, have shown that the tetracycline drugs, minocycline and doxycycline, reduced ethanol (EtOH) drinking in mice. To test the hypothesis that suppression of high EtOH consumption is a general property of tetracyclines, we screened several derivatives for antidrinking activity using the Drinking-In-the-Dark (DID) paradigm...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814792/atp1a2-contributes-modestly-to-alcohol-related-behaviors
#11
Stephanie M Gritz, Colin Larson, Richard A Radcliffe
Atp1a2 has been previously studied for anxiety, learning and motor function disorders, and fear. Since Atp1a2 has been shown to be involved in anxiety and this behavior is a known risk factor for developing alcoholism, we have been investigating Atp1a2 for its potential role in responses to alcohol. This study utilized Atp1a2 knockout mice; Atp1a2 heterozygous mice, with half the amount of protein compared to wild-type mice, were used because Atp1a2 homozygous null mice die shortly after birth. The alcohol-related behavioral experiments performed were loss of righting reflex (LORR), acute alcohol withdrawal measured by handling-induced convulsions (HIC), drinking in the dark (DID), open-field activity (OFA), and elevated plus-maze (EPM)...
November 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803015/rare-cause-of-acute-hepatitis-a-common-energy-drink
#12
Jennifer Nicole Harb, Zachary A Taylor, Vikas Khullar, Maryam Sattari
A previously healthy man aged 50 years presented with malaise, anorexia, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, generalised jaundice, scleral icterus and dark urine. He was not on any prescription or over-the-counter medications, but reported drinking 4-5 energy drinks daily for 3 weeks prior to presentation. Physical examination revealed jaundice and right upper quadrant abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies were remarkable for transaminitis and evidence of chronic hepatitis C infection. Ultrasound scan demonstrated an echogenic liver and diffuse gallbladder wall thickening...
November 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801508/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-in-adolescent-mice-on-object-recognition-and-hippocampal-neuronal-activity
#13
Gregory Beaudet, Samuel Valable, Joanna Bourgine, Véronique Lelong-Boulouard, Laurence Lanfumey, Thomas Freret, Michel Boulouard, Eleni Paizanis
BACKGROUND: Binge drinking is popular and highly prevalent in teenagers. However, the long-term cognitive and neurobiological consequences of such practices are not yet fully understood. In this context, we therefore assessed in mice whether a chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) exposure in adolescence had long-term consequences on object discrimination and memory performances, emotional behaviors, brain activity, and morphology. METHODS: C57BL/6JRj mice were treated with either saline or ethanol (EtOH) (2 g/kg/d, i...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793544/modulation-of-ethanol-reward-sensitivity-by-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-containing-the-%C3%AE-6-subunit
#14
Melissa J Guildford, Anthony V Sacino, Andrew R Tapper
The prevalent co-abuse of nicotine and alcohol suggests a common neural mechanism underlying the actions of the two drugs. Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco, activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α6 subunit (α6* nAChRs) in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a region known to be crucial for drug reward. Recent evidence suggests that ethanol may potentiate ACh activation of these receptors as well, although whether α6* nAChR expression is necessary for behavioral effects of acute ethanol exposure is unknown...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788780/a-single-alcohol-drinking-session-is-sufficient-to-enable-subsequent-aversion-resistant-consumption-in-mice
#15
Kelly Lei, Scott A Wegner, Ji-Hwan Yu, Jeffrey A Simms, F Woodward Hopf
Addiction is mediated in large part by pathological motivation for rewarding, addictive substances, and alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high physical and economic toll on society. Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake continues despite negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle during treatment of AUDs. Aversion-resistant drives for alcohol have been modeled in rodents, where animals continue to consume even when alcohol is adulterated with the bitter tastant quinine, or is paired with another aversive consequence...
September 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788633/light-and-water-are-not-simple-conditions-fine-tuning-of-animal-housing-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Dominik Langgartner, Sandra Foertsch, Andrea M Füchsl, Stefan O Reber
While animal housing conditions are highly controlled and standardized between different laboratories, there are still many subtle differences that unavoidably influence the host organisms and, consequently, inter-laboratory reproducibility. Here, we investigated the physiological and immunological consequences between two light-dark cycle (LDC) lengths (14h/10h versus 12h/12h LDC) and two commonly used forms of drinking water (acidified drinking water (AW) versus normal tap water (NW)) in single-housed (SH) mice...
October 27, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788147/exploring-the-lean-phenotype-of-glutathione-depleted-mice-thiol-amino-acid-and-fatty-acid-profiles
#17
Amany K Elshorbagy, Fredrik Jernerén, Cheryl L Scudamore, Fiona McMurray, Heather Cater, Tertius Hough, Roger Cox, Helga Refsum
BACKGROUND: Although reduced glutathione (rGSH) is decreased in obese mice and humans, block of GSH synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) results in a lean, insulin-sensitive phenotype. Data is lacking about the effect of BSO on GSH precursors, cysteine and glutamate. Plasma total cysteine (tCys) is positively associated with stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) activity and adiposity in humans and animal models. OBJECTIVE: To explore the phenotype, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in BSO-treated mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749610/gastrointestinal-symptoms-predictors-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
James W Varni, Robert J Shulman, Mariella M Self, Shehzad A Saeed, Ashish S Patel, Samuel Nurko, Deborah A Neigut, Miguel Saps, James P Franciosi, Jolanda M Denham, George M Zacur, Chelsea V Dark, Cristiane B Bendo, John F Pohl
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease from the perspectives of pediatric patients and parents. METHODS: The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 260 families of patients with inflammatory bowel disease...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743332/gastrointestinal-symptoms-predictors-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-patients-with-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#19
James W Varni, Robert J Shulman, Mariella M Self, Samuel Nurko, Miguel Saps, Shehzad A Saeed, Ashish S Patel, Chelsea Vaughan Dark, Cristiane B Bendo, John F Pohl
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the patient-reported multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). METHODS: The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 259 pediatric patients with functional constipation, functional abdominal pain (FAP), or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
October 14, 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717041/effects-of-gabra2-point-mutations-on-alcohol-intake-increased-binge-like-and-blunted-chronic-drinking-by-mice
#20
Emily L Newman, Georgia Gunner, Polly Huynh, Darrel Gachette, Stephen J Moss, Trevor G Smart, Uwe Rudolph, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GABRA2, the gene encoding the GABAA receptor α2-subunit in humans. Deficient GABAergic functioning is linked to impulse control disorders, intermittent explosive disorder, and to drug abuse and dependence, yet it remains unclear whether α2-containing GABAA receptor sensitivity to endogenous ligands is involved in excessive alcohol drinking. METHODS: Male wild-type (Wt) C57BL/6J and point-mutated mice rendered insensitive to GABAergic modulation by benzodiazepines (BZD; H101R), allopregnanolone (ALLO) or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC; Q241M), or high concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (S270H/L277A) at α2-containing GABAA receptors were assessed for their binge-like, moderate, or escalated chronic drinking using drinking in the dark, continuous access (CA) and intermittent access (IA) to alcohol protocols, respectively...
November 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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