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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891052/from-ethanol-to-salsolinol-role-of-ethanol-metabolites-in-the-effects-of-ethanol
#1
REVIEW
Alessandra T Peana, Michela Rosas, Simona Porru, Elio Acquas
In spite of the global reputation of ethanol as the psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, the neurobiological basis of the central effects of ethanol still presents some dark sides due to a number of unanswered questions related to both its precise mechanism of action and its metabolism. Accordingly, ethanol represents the interesting example of a compound whose actions cannot be explained as simply due to the involvement of a single receptor/neurotransmitter, a scenario further complicated by the robust evidence that two main metabolites, acetaldehyde and salsolinol, exert many effects similar to those of their parent compound...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870313/hypothalamic-specific-proopiomelanocortin-deficiency-reduces-alcohol-drinking-in-male-and-female-mice
#2
Yan Zhou, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone reduces alcohol consumption and relapse in both humans and rodents. The present study investigated whether hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons (producing beta-endorphin and melanocortins) play a role in alcohol drinking behaviors. Both male and female mice with targeted deletion of two neuronal Pomc enhancers nPE1 and nPE2 (nPE-/-), resulting in hypothalamic-specific POMC deficiency, were studied in short-access (4-h/day) drinking-in-the-dark (DID, alcohol in one bottle), intermittent access (IA, 24-hour cycles of alcohol access every other day, alcohol vs...
November 21, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862022/binge-ethanol-consumption-increases-inflammatory-pain-responses-and-mechanical-and-cold-sensitivity-tigecycline-treatment-efficacy-shows-sex-differences
#3
Susan E Bergeson, Henry Blanton, Joseph M Martinez, David C Curtis, Caitlyn Sherfey, Brandon Seegmiller, Patrick C Marquardt, Jessica A Groot, Clayton L Allison, Christian Bezboruah, Josée Guindon
BACKGROUND: Physicians have long reported that patients with chronic pain show higher tendencies for alcohol use disorder (AUD), and AUD patients appear to have higher pain sensitivities. The goal of this study was to test 2 hypotheses: (i) binge alcohol consumption increases inflammatory pain and mechanical and cold sensitivities; and (ii) tigecycline is an effective treatment for alcohol-mediated-increased pain behaviors and sensitivities. Both female and male mice were used to test the additional hypothesis that important sex differences in the ethanol (EtOH)-related traits would be seen...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862011/effective-reduction-of-acute-ethanol-withdrawal-by-the-tetracycline-derivative-tigecycline-in-female-and-male-dba-2j-mice
#4
Joseph M Martinez, Jessica A Groot, David C Curtis, Clayton L Allison, Patrick C Marquardt, Ashley N Holmes, David S Edwards, David R M Trotter, Peter J Syapin, Deborah A Finn, Susan E Bergeson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a spectrum disorder characterized by mild to severe symptoms, including potential withdrawal signs upon cessation of consumption. Approximately five hundred thousand patients with AUD undergo clinically relevant episodes of withdrawal annually (New Engl J Med, 2003, 348, 1786). Recent evidence indicates potential for drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways as new AUD therapies. We have previously shown the immunomodulatory drugs, minocycline and tigecycline, were effective in reducing ethanol (EtOH) consumption in both the 2-bottle choice and drinking-in-the-dark paradigms...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859416/effective-reduction-in-high-ethanol-drinking-by-semisynthetic-tetracycline-derivatives
#5
Peter J Syapin, Joseph M Martinez, David C Curtis, Patrick C Marquardt, Clayton L Allison, Jessica A Groot, Carol Baby, Yazan M Al-Hasan, Ismael Segura-Ulate, Matthew J Scheible, Katy T Nicholson, Jose Luis Redondo, David R M Trotter, David S Edwards, Susan E Bergeson
BACKGROUND: New pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol use disorders (AUD) are needed. Given the complex nature of AUD, there likely exist multiple novel drug targets. We, and others, have shown that the tetracycline drugs, minocycline and doxycycline, reduced ethanol (EtOH) drinking in mice. To test the hypothesis that suppression of high EtOH consumption is a general property of tetracyclines, we screened several derivatives for antidrinking activity using the Drinking-In-the-Dark (DID) paradigm...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814792/atp1a2-contributes-modestly-to-alcohol-related-behaviors
#6
Stephanie M Gritz, Colin Larson, Richard A Radcliffe
Atp1a2 has been previously studied for anxiety, learning and motor function disorders, and fear. Since Atp1a2 has been shown to be involved in anxiety and this behavior is a known risk factor for developing alcoholism, we have been investigating Atp1a2 for its potential role in responses to alcohol. This study utilized Atp1a2 knockout mice; Atp1a2 heterozygous mice, with half the amount of protein compared to wild-type mice, were used because Atp1a2 homozygous null mice die shortly after birth. The alcohol-related behavioral experiments performed were loss of righting reflex (LORR), acute alcohol withdrawal measured by handling-induced convulsions (HIC), drinking in the dark (DID), open-field activity (OFA), and elevated plus-maze (EPM)...
November 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803015/rare-cause-of-acute-hepatitis-a-common-energy-drink
#7
Jennifer Nicole Harb, Zachary A Taylor, Vikas Khullar, Maryam Sattari
A previously healthy man aged 50 years presented with malaise, anorexia, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, generalised jaundice, scleral icterus and dark urine. He was not on any prescription or over-the-counter medications, but reported drinking 4-5 energy drinks daily for 3 weeks prior to presentation. Physical examination revealed jaundice and right upper quadrant abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies were remarkable for transaminitis and evidence of chronic hepatitis C infection. Ultrasound scan demonstrated an echogenic liver and diffuse gallbladder wall thickening...
November 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801508/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-in-adolescent-mice-on-object-recognition-and-hippocampal-neuronal-activity
#8
Gregory Beaudet, Samuel Valable, Joanna Bourgine, Véronique Lelong-Boulouard, Laurence Lanfumey, Thomas Freret, Michel Boulouard, Eleni Paizanis
BACKGROUND: Binge drinking is popular and highly prevalent in teenagers. However, the long-term cognitive and neurobiological consequences of such practices are not yet fully understood. In this context, we therefore assessed in mice whether a chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) exposure in adolescence had long-term consequences on object discrimination and memory performances, emotional behaviors, brain activity, and morphology. METHODS: C57BL/6JRj mice were treated with either saline or ethanol (EtOH) (2 g/kg/d, i...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793544/modulation-of-ethanol-reward-sensitivity-by-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-containing-the-%C3%AE-6-subunit
#9
Melissa J Guildford, Anthony V Sacino, Andrew R Tapper
The prevalent co-abuse of nicotine and alcohol suggests a common neural mechanism underlying the actions of the two drugs. Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco, activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α6 subunit (α6* nAChRs) in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a region known to be crucial for drug reward. Recent evidence suggests that ethanol may potentiate ACh activation of these receptors as well, although whether α6* nAChR expression is necessary for behavioral effects of acute ethanol exposure is unknown...
October 8, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788780/a-single-alcohol-drinking-session-is-sufficient-to-enable-subsequent-aversion-resistant-consumption-in-mice
#10
Kelly Lei, Scott A Wegner, Ji-Hwan Yu, Jeffrey A Simms, F Woodward Hopf
Addiction is mediated in large part by pathological motivation for rewarding, addictive substances, and alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high physical and economic toll on society. Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake continues despite negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle during treatment of AUDs. Aversion-resistant drives for alcohol have been modeled in rodents, where animals continue to consume even when alcohol is adulterated with the bitter tastant quinine, or is paired with another aversive consequence...
September 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788633/light-and-water-are-not-simple-conditions-fine-tuning-of-animal-housing-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Dominik Langgartner, Sandra Foertsch, Andrea M Füchsl, Stefan O Reber
While animal housing conditions are highly controlled and standardized between different laboratories, there are still many subtle differences that unavoidably influence the host organisms and, consequently, inter-laboratory reproducibility. Here, we investigated the physiological and immunological consequences between two light-dark cycle (LDC) lengths (14h/10h versus 12h/12h LDC) and two commonly used forms of drinking water (acidified drinking water (AW) versus normal tap water (NW)) in single-housed (SH) mice...
October 27, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788147/exploring-the-lean-phenotype-of-glutathione-depleted-mice-thiol-amino-acid-and-fatty-acid-profiles
#12
Amany K Elshorbagy, Fredrik Jernerén, Cheryl L Scudamore, Fiona McMurray, Heather Cater, Tertius Hough, Roger Cox, Helga Refsum
BACKGROUND: Although reduced glutathione (rGSH) is decreased in obese mice and humans, block of GSH synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) results in a lean, insulin-sensitive phenotype. Data is lacking about the effect of BSO on GSH precursors, cysteine and glutamate. Plasma total cysteine (tCys) is positively associated with stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) activity and adiposity in humans and animal models. OBJECTIVE: To explore the phenotype, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in BSO-treated mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749610/gastrointestinal-symptoms-predictors-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
James W Varni, Robert J Shulman, Mariella M Self, Shehzad A Saeed, Ashish S Patel, Samuel Nurko, Deborah A Neigut, Miguel Saps, James P Franciosi, Jolanda M Denham, George M Zacur, Chelsea V Dark, Cristiane B Bendo, John F Pohl
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease from the perspectives of pediatric patients and parents. METHODS: The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 260 families of patients with inflammatory bowel disease...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743332/gastrointestinal-symptoms-predictors-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-patients-with-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#14
James W Varni, Robert J Shulman, Mariella M Self, Samuel Nurko, Miguel Saps, Shehzad A Saeed, Ashish S Patel, Chelsea Vaughan Dark, Cristiane B Bendo, John F Pohl
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the patient-reported multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). METHODS: The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 259 pediatric patients with functional constipation, functional abdominal pain (FAP), or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
October 14, 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717041/effects-of-gabra2-point-mutations-on-alcohol-intake-increased-binge-like-and-blunted-chronic-drinking-by-mice
#15
Emily L Newman, Georgia Gunner, Polly Huynh, Darrel Gachette, Stephen J Moss, Trevor G Smart, Uwe Rudolph, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GABRA2, the gene encoding the GABAA receptor α2-subunit in humans. Deficient GABAergic functioning is linked to impulse control disorders, intermittent explosive disorder, and to drug abuse and dependence, yet it remains unclear whether α2-containing GABAA receptor sensitivity to endogenous ligands is involved in excessive alcohol drinking. METHODS: Male wild-type (Wt) C57BL/6J and point-mutated mice rendered insensitive to GABAergic modulation by benzodiazepines (BZD; H101R), allopregnanolone (ALLO) or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC; Q241M), or high concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (S270H/L277A) at α2-containing GABAA receptors were assessed for their binge-like, moderate, or escalated chronic drinking using drinking in the dark, continuous access (CA) and intermittent access (IA) to alcohol protocols, respectively...
November 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706910/sweetened-ethanol-drinking-during-social-isolation-enhanced-intake-resistance-to-genetic-heterogeneity-and-the-emergence-of-a-distinctive-drinking-pattern-in-adolescent-mice
#16
J B Panksepp, E D Rodriguez, A E Ryabinin
With its ease of availability during adolescence, sweetened ethanol ('alcopops') is consumed within many contexts. We asked here whether genetically based differences in social motivation are associated with how the adolescent social environment impacts voluntary ethanol intake. Mice with previously described differences in sociability (BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, FVB/NJ and MSM/MsJ strains) were weaned into isolation or same-sex pairs (postnatal day, PD, 21), and then given continuous access to two fluids on PDs 34-45: one containing water and the other containing an ascending series of saccharin-sweetened ethanol (3-6-10%)...
October 5, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693436/the-effect-of-varenicline-on-binge-like-ethanol-consumption-in-mice-is-%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-independent
#17
Omkar L Patkar, Arnauld Belmer, Josephine R Tarren, Joan Y Holgate, Selena E Bartlett
BACKGROUND: Our laboratory has previously shown that the smoking-cessation agent varenicline, an agonist/partial agonist of α4β2*, α3β4*, α3β2*, α6β2* (* indicates the possibility of additional subunits) and α7 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), reduces ethanol consumption in rats only after long-term exposure (12 weeks). As compounds having partial agonistic activity on α3β4* nAChRs were shown to decrease ethanol consumption in rodents, we assessed here the involvement of the β4 subunit in the effect of varenicline in the reduction of short- and long-term binge-like ethanol drinking in mice...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688945/kappa-opioid-receptors-differentially-regulate-low-and-high-levels-of-ethanol-intake-in-female-mice
#18
Ashlee Van't Veer, Karen L Smith, Bruce M Cohen, William A Carlezon, Anita J Bechtholt
INTRODUCTION: Studies in laboratory animals and humans indicate that endogenous opioids play an important role in regulating the rewarding value of various drugs, including ethanol (EtOH). Indeed, opioid antagonists are currently a front-line treatment for alcoholism in humans. Although roles for mu- and delta-opioid receptors have been characterized, the contribution of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) is less clear. There is evidence that changes in KOR system function can decrease or increase EtOH drinking, depending on test conditions...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680749/identification-of-pyrogallol-in-the-ethyl-acetate-soluble-part-of-coffee-as-the-main-contributor-to-its-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitory-activity
#19
Sari Honda, Toshiya Masuda
In this study, ethyl acetate-soluble parts of hot-water extracts from roasted coffee beans were found to demonstrate potent xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition. The XO inhibitory activities and chlorogenic lactone contents (chlorogenic lactones have previously been identified as XO inhibitors in roast coffee) were measured for ethyl acetate-soluble parts prepared from coffee beans roasted to three different degrees. Although chlorogenic lactone contents decreased with higher degrees of roasting, the XO inhibitory activity did not decrease...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662369/effects-of-adolescent-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-on-the-expression-of-endocannabinoid-signaling-related-proteins-in-the-spleen-of-young-adult-rats
#20
Francisco Javier Pavón, Eva María Marco, Mariam Vázquez, Laura Sánchez, Patricia Rivera, Ana Gavito, Virginia Mela, Francisco Alén, Juan Decara, Juan Suárez, Elena Giné, José Antonio López-Moreno, Julie Chowen, Fernando Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Antonia Serrano, María Paz Viveros
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents and alcohol is known to modulate the expression of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown whether this pattern may have short-term consequences on the ECS in the spleen. To address this question, we examined the plasma concentrations of metabolic and inflammatory signals and the splenic ECS in early adult rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence. A 4-day drinking in the dark (DID) procedure for 4 weeks was used as a model of intermittent forced-alcohol administration (20%, v/v) in female and male Wistar rats, which were sacrificed 2 weeks after the last DID session...
2016: PloS One
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