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Mitochondria AND alpha lipoic acid

Ge Song, Zhigang Liu, Luanfeng Wang, Renjie Shi, Chuanqi Chu, Man Xiang, Qi Tian, Xuebo Liu
Acrylamide (ACR) is a chronic neurotoxin that is generated in high-starch foods during heat processing. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is an antioxidant that occurs in most plants and animals. The objective of this study was to reveal the mechanism of ACR-triggered neurotoxicity and identify the protective role of LA in SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, LA restored ACR-stimulated depletion of glutathione content and mitochondrial membrane potential, moderated the activation of inflammatory pathways, and recovered the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
Bo Zhou, Min Wen, Xin Lin, Yun-Hua Chen, Yun Gou, Yong Li, Yi Zhang, Hong-Wei Li, Lei Tang
The precise mechanisms underlying neuronal injury in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not yet fully elucidated; however, evidence from the in vitro and in vivo PD models suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a major role in PD pathogenesis. Alpha lipoamide, a neutral amide derivative of the lipoic acid, is a better cofactor for mitochondrial dehydrogenase with a stronger protective effect on mitochondria than lipoic acid. Identification of these protective effects of alpha lipoamide on mitochondria, together with the evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in PD, we speculate that alpha lipoamide may exert a protective effect in PD by regulating the mitochondrial function...
May 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Oliver T Phillipson
The motor deficits which characterise the sporadic form of Parkinson's disease arise from age-related loss of a subset of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Although motor symptoms respond to dopamine replacement therapies, the underlying disease process remains. This review details some features of the progressive molecular pathology and proposes deployment of a combination of nutrients: R-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, ubiquinol, melatonin (or receptor agonists) and vitamin D3, with the collective potential to slow progression of these features...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
Hala F Abd-Ellah, Nadia R A Abou-Zeid
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) against cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced pancreatic toxicity in rats. Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four equal groups. Group I treated orally (per os, p.o.) with vehicles and served as control; Group II received α-LA (100 mg/kg b.w. /day, p.o.) for 21 days; Group III received CsA (25 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.) for 21 days; and Group IV received α-LA 1 hr before oral treatment by CsA for 21 days. Histological examination of the pancreas of CsA-treated rats showed marked changes represented by wide interlobular septae that contained congested blood vessels, cytoplasmic vacuolation of some acinar cells, and distortion of the other cells...
March 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
Yu-Peng Huang, Hong-Yan Jin, Hui-Ping Yu
Oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Alpha‑lipoic acid (ALA) is widely recognized for its potent superoxide inhibitory properties, and it can safely penetrate deep into the brain. The aim of this study was to explore whether ALA supplementation attenuates hypertensive responses and cardiac hypertrophy by decreasing the NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX)-derived overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria in the RVLM, and thus attenuating the development of salt‑induced hypertension...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Shuhang Liang, Kuo Sun, Yue Wang, Shuying Dong, Cheng Wang, LianXin Liu, YongHui Wu
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used in a variety of products used in daily life. However, their impact on human health has not been completely elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity associated with ZnO NPs, the role of dissolution in the toxicity of ZnO NPs, the molecular mechanisms and mode of cell death induced by ZnO NPs in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), and the protective effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (LA). ZnO NPs significantly reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, resulted in intracellular oxidative stress and cell membrane leakage when treated with doses of 8-50 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h in HAECs...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Lin Lei, Yiwei Zhu, Wenwen Gao, Xiliang Du, Min Zhang, Zhicheng Peng, Shoupeng Fu, Xiaobing Li, Wang Zhe, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) has been reported to have beneficial effects for improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the beneficial effects remains poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are considered causal factors that induce insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated the effect of ALA on the modulation of insulin resistance in ER-stressed HepG2 cells, and we explored the potential mechanism of this effect. HepG2 cells were incubated with tunicamycin (Tun) for 6h to establish an ER stress cell model...
October 2016: Cellular Signalling
Miaomiao Fei, Qun Xie, Yun Zou, Rong He, Yan Zhang, Jun Wang, Lulong Bo, Jinbao Li, Xiaoming Deng
BACKGROUND: Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA), which exits in almost all types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, is a key regulator of energy metabolism in mitochondria. This study was designed to explore the protective effect of α-LA against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis in mice and explore the potential mechanism. METHODS: Acute autoimmune hepatitis was induced by intravenous (IV) injection of Con A (15mg/kg) in C57BL/6 mice. α-LA (100mg/kg) was administered four days before Con A injection...
June 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Garth L Nicolson
Loss of function in mitochondria, the key organelle responsible for cellular energy production, can result in the excess fatigue and other symptoms that are common complaints in almost every chronic disease. At the molecular level, a reduction in mitochondrial function occurs as a result of the following changes: (1) a loss of maintenance of the electrical and chemical transmembrane potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane, (2) alterations in the function of the electron transport chain, or (3) a reduction in the transport of critical metabolites into mitochondria...
August 2014: Integrative Medicine
Y I Mahmoud, H G Hegazy
Because of the important role that oxidative stress is thought to play in the aging process, antioxidants could be candidates for preventing its related pathologies. We investigated the ameliorative effects of two antioxidant supplements, ginger and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), on hepatic ultrastructural alterations in old rats. Livers of young (4 months) and old (24 months) Wistar rats were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Livers of old rats showed sinusoidal collapse and congestion, endothelial thickening and defenestration, and inconsistent perisinusoidal extracellular matrix deposition...
2016: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Arpit Mehrotra, Abhilasha Sood, Rajat Sandhir
3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase and induces neuropathological changes similar to those observed in Huntington's disease (HD). The objective of the present study was to investigate neuroprotective effect of mitochondrial modulators; alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on 3-NP-induced alterations in mitochondrial lipid composition, mitochondrial structure and memory functions. Experimental model of HD was developed by administering 3-NP at sub-chronic doses, twice daily for 17 days...
December 2015: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Roland Lill, Rafal Dutkiewicz, Sven A Freibert, Torsten Heidenreich, Judita Mascarenhas, Daili J Netz, Viktoria D Paul, Antonio J Pierik, Nadine Richter, Martin Stümpfig, Vasundara Srinivasan, Oliver Stehling, Ulrich Mühlenhoff
Mitochondria have been derived from alpha-bacterial endosymbionts during the evolution of eukaryotes. Numerous bacterial functions have been maintained inside the organelles including fatty acid degradation, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and the synthesis of heme or lipoic acid cofactors. Additionally, mitochondria have inherited the bacterial iron-sulfur cluster assembly (ISC) machinery. Many of the ISC components are essential for cell viability because they generate a still unknown, sulfur-containing compound for the assembly of cytosolic and nuclear Fe/S proteins that perform important functions in, e...
July 2015: European Journal of Cell Biology
Wuting Wei, Handong Wang, Yong Wu, Ke Ding, Tao Li, Zixiang Cong, Jianguo Xu, Mengliang Zhou, Litian Huang, Hui Ding, Heming Wu
Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a powerful antioxidant that has proven protective effects against brain damage following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. This study investigated the effect of ALA on neural apoptosis and the potential mechanism of these effects in the weight-drop model of TBI in male Sprague-Dawley rats that were treated with ALA (20 or 100 mg/kg) or vehicle via intragastric administration 30 min after TBI...
August 2015: Neurochemistry International
Marta Fernández-Galilea, Patricia Pérez-Matute, Pedro L Prieto-Hontoria, Marianne Houssier, María A Burrell, Dominique Langin, J Alfredo Martínez, María J Moreno-Aliaga
α-Lipoic acid (α-Lip) is a natural occurring antioxidant with beneficial anti-obesity properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative effects of α-Lip on mitochondrial biogenesis and the acquirement of brown-like characteristics by subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight/obese subjects. Thus, fully differentiated human subcutaneous adipocytes were treated with α-Lip (100 and 250μM) for 24h for studies on mitochondrial content and morphology, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, fatty acid oxidation enzymes and brown/beige characteristic genes...
March 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Marilia Brito Gomes, Carlos Antonio Negrato
Alpha-lipoic acid is a naturally occurring substance, essential for the function of different enzymes that take part in mitochondria's oxidative metabolism. It is believed that alpha-lipoic acid or its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid have many biochemical functions acting as biological antioxidants, as metal chelators, reducers of the oxidized forms of other antioxidant agents such as vitamin C and E, and modulator of the signaling transduction of several pathways. These above-mentioned actions have been shown in experimental studies emphasizing the use of alpha-lipoic acid as a potential therapeutic agent for many chronic diseases with great epidemiological as well economic and social impact such as brain diseases and cognitive dysfunctions like Alzheimer disease, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, burning mouth syndrome, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, some types of cancer, glaucoma and osteoporosis...
2014: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Sungmi Park, Udayakumar Karunakaran, Nam Ho Jeoung, Jae-Han Jeon, In-Kyu Lee
Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species promote endothelial dysfunction in old age and contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. α-Lipoic acid was identified as a catalytic agent for oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate in 1951, and it has been studied intensively by chemists, biologists, and clinicians who have been interested in its role in energetic metabolism and protection from reactive oxygen species-induced mitochondrial dysfunction...
2014: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Michael Vigil, Burton M Berkson, Ana Patricia Garcia
Alpha lipoic acid (ALA, thioctic acid), among other actions, is an essential coenzyme in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl co-enzyme A. Therefore, it is necessary for the production of energy for aerobic organisms. Scientists have found that it can be used medically to help regenerate liver tissue, reverse the complications of diabetes mellitus, slow or stop the growth of cancer cells, and chelate heavy metals, among other actions. In this article, the authors describe the cellular mitochondrial damage from excessively high doses of this beneficial agent...
January 2014: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
M T Kütter, L A Romano, J Ventura-Lima, M B Tesser, J M Monserrat
Lipoic acid (LA) is a disulfide-containing compound derived from octanoic acid that is synthesized in mitochondria. This molecule acts as a co-factor for mitochondrial enzymes that catalyze oxidative decarboxylation reactions. Several antioxidant properties of LA enable it to be considered as an "ideal antioxidant", having diverse benefits that allow it to deal with environmental or biological stress. Some of the effects induced by LA in aquatic organisms render it suitable for use in aquaculture. However, it is necessary to determine the appropriate dose(s) to be used with different species and even organs to maximize the beneficial antioxidant and detoxifying effects and to minimize the pro-oxidant toxic effects...
May 2014: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
T Blanco-Ayala, A C Andérica-Romero, J Pedraza-Chaverri
Paraquat (PQ, 1,1'-dimethyl-4-4'-bipyridinium dichloride) is a highly toxic quaternary ammonium herbicide widely used in agriculture, it exerts its toxic effects mainly because of its redox cycle through the production of superoxide anions in organisms, leading to an imbalance in the redox state of the cell causing oxidative damage and finally cell death. The contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction including increased production of reactive oxygen species besides the reduction in oxygen consumption as well as in the activity of some respiratory complexes has emerged as a key component in the mechanisms through which PQ induces cell death...
June 2014: Free Radical Research
Garth L Nicolson
Loss of function in mitochondria, the key organelle responsible for cellular energy production, can result in the excess fatigue and other symptoms that are common complaints in almost every chronic disease. At the molecular level, a reduction in mitochondrial function occurs as a result of the following changes: (1) a loss of maintenance of the electrical and chemical transmembrane potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane, (2) alterations in the function of the electron transport chain, or (3) a reduction in the transport of critical metabolites into mitochondria...
2014: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
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