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Programmed Cell death AND disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780381/interferon-gamma-at-the-crossroads-of-tumor-immune-surveillance-or-evasion
#1
REVIEW
Flávia Castro, Ana Patrícia Cardoso, Raquel Madeira Gonçalves, Karine Serre, Maria José Oliveira
Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic molecule with associated antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and antitumor mechanisms. This effector cytokine, often considered as a major effector of immunity, has been used in the treatment of several diseases, despite its adverse effects. Although broad evidence implicating IFN-γ in tumor immune surveillance, IFN-γ-based therapies undergoing clinical trials have been of limited success. In fact, recent reports suggested that it may also play a protumorigenic role, namely, through IFN-γ signaling insensitivity, downregulation of major histocompatibility complexes, and upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and of checkpoint inhibitors, as programmed cell-death ligand 1...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779430/intratumoral-immune-cells-expressing-pd-1-pd-l1-and-their-prognostic-implications-in-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#2
Younghoon Kim, Xianyu Wen, Nam Yun Cho, Gyeong Hoon Kang
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of immune cells expressing programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in cancer are controversial, and the potential differential impact of using tissue microarrays and whole tissue sections to assess the positivity of immune cells has not been addressed. METHODS: The current study included 30 eligible studies with 7251 patients that evaluated the relationship between tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes expressing PD-1/PD-L1 and overall survival and disease-free survival, or progression-free survival...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777823/updated-efficacy-analysis-including-secondary-population-results-for-oak-a-randomized-phase-iii-study-of-atezolizumab-vs-docetaxel-in-patients-with-previously-treated-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
L Fehrenbacher, J von Pawel, K Park, A Rittmeyer, D R Gandara, S Ponce Aix, J-Y Han, S M Gadgeel, T Hida, D L Cortinovis, M Cobo, D M Kowalski, F De Marinis, M Gandhi, B Danner, C Matheny, M Kowanetz, P He, F Felizzi, H Patel, A Sandler, M Ballinger, F Barlesi
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy and safety of atezolizumab vs docetaxel as second- or third-line treatment in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer in the primary (n=850; ITT850) and secondary (n=1225; ITT1225) efficacy populations of the randomized phase III OAK study at an updated data cutoff were assessed. METHODS: Patients received atezolizumab 1200mg or docetaxel 75mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks until loss of clinical benefit or disease progression, respectively...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776633/molecular-diagnostics-in-colorectal-carcinoma-advances-and-applications-for-2018
#4
REVIEW
Amarpreet Bhalla, Muhammad Zulfiqar, Martin H Bluth
The molecular pathogenesis and classification of colorectal carcinoma are based on the traditional adenomaecarcinoma sequence, serrated polyp pathway, and microsatellite instability (MSI). The genetic basis for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is the detection of mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM genes. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome includes MSI testing, methylator phenotype testing, BRAF mutation testing, and molecular testing for germline mutations in MMR genes. Molecular makers with predictive and prognostic implications include quantitative multigene reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay and KRAS and BRAF mutation analysis...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775494/osa-mir164a-targets-osnac60-and-negatively-regulates-rice-immunity-against-the-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#5
Zhaoyun Wang, Yeqiang Xia, Siyuan Lin, Yanru Wang, Baohuan Guo, Xiaoning Song, Shaochen Ding, Liyu Zheng, Ruiying Feng, Shulin Chen, Yalin Bao, Cong Sheng, Xin Zhang, Jianguo Wu, Dongdong Niu, Hailing Jin, Hongwei Zhao
Exploring the regulatory mechanism played by endogenous rice miRNAs in defense responses against the blast disease is of great significance in both resistant variety breeding and disease control management. We identified rice defense-related miRNAs by comparing rice miRNA expression patterns before and after Magnaporthe oryzae strain Guy11 infection. We discovered that osa-miR164a expression reduced upon Guy11 infection at both early and late stages, which was perfectly associated with the induced expression of its target gene, OsNAC60...
May 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774530/cardiomyocyte-programmed-necrosis-mitochondria-death-receptor-and-beyond
#6
REVIEW
Junxia Zhang, Dairu Liu, Mao Zhang, Yan Zhang
Excessive death of cardiac myocytes leads to multiple cardiac diseases, including myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. For the last several decades, most work on cell death has focused on apoptosis, which is generally considered as the only form of regulated cell death, whereas necrosis has been regarded to be an unregulated process. Recent findings reveal that necrosis also occurs in a regulated manner and that it is closely related to the physiology and pathophysiology of multiple organs, including the heart...
May 18, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774031/il-10-producing-b-cells-ability-to-induce-regulatory-t-cells-is-maintained-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Julie Mielle, Rachel Audo, Michael Hahne, Laurence Macia, Bernard Combe, Jacques Morel, Claire Daien
Despite growing evidence highlighting the relevance of increasing IL-10-producing B cells (B10+ cells) in autoimmune diseases, their functions in patients are still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functions of CpG-induced B10+ cells isolated from healthy controls (HC) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, on naïve T cell differentiation. We demonstrated that CpG-induced B10+ cells from HC drove naïve T cell differentiation toward regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and IL-10-producing T cells (Tr1) through IL-10 secretion and cellular contacts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770915/cytolytic-activity-score-to-assess-anticancer-immunity-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
Sumana Narayanan, Tsutomu Kawaguchi, Li Yan, Xuan Peng, Qianya Qi, Kazuaki Takabe
BACKGROUND: Elevated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) within the tumor microenvironment is a known positive prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that since cytotoxic T cells release cytolytic proteins such as perforin (PRF1) and pro-apoptotic granzymes (GZMA) to attack cancer cells, a cytolytic activity score (CYT) would be a useful tool to assess anticancer immunity. METHODS: Genomic expression data were obtained from 456 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766811/p2x7-receptor-associated-programmed-cell-death-in-the-pathophysiology-of-hemorrhagic-stroke
#9
Hengli Zhao, Yujie Chen, Hua Feng
Hemorrhagic stroke is a life-threatening disease characterized by a sudden rupture of cerebral blood vessels, and cell death is widely believed to occur after exposure to blood metabolites or subsequently damaged cells. Recently, programmed cell death, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis, has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of stroke. However, the detailed mechanisms of these novel kinds of cell death are still unclear. The P2X7 receptor, previously known for its cytotoxic activity, is an ATP-gated, non-selective cation channel that belongs to the family of ionotropic P2X receptors...
May 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764752/successful-treatment-by-pembrolizumab-in-a-patient-with-end-stage-renal-disease-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-high-pd-l1-expression
#10
Shiho Ishizuka, Shinya Sakata, Chieko Yoshida, Akira Takaki, Sho Saeki, Kazuyoshi Nakamura, Kazuhiko Fujii
We report a 66-year-old Japanese male with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who was on hemodialysis. The patient harbored high programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and was successfully treated with pembrolizumab. Laboratory examination upon diagnosis showed elevated serum creatinine (6.58 mg/dL). We administered pembrolizumab (200 mg/body) and repeated every 3 weeks. His renal dysfunction gradually progressed, hemodialysis was initiated after eight courses of pembrolizumab, and the antitumor effect was maintained at five months after hemodialysis initiation...
May 10, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761078/novel-immunotherapy-options-for-extranodal-nk-t-cell-lymphoma
#11
REVIEW
Boyu Hu, Yasuhiro Oki
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL) is a highly aggressive mature NK/T-cell neoplasm marked by NK-cell phenotypic expression of CD3ε and CD56. While the disease is reported worldwide, there is a significant geographic variation with its highest incidence in East Asian countries possibly related to the frequent early childhood exposure of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and specific ethnic-genetical background, which contributes to the tumorigenesis. Historically, anthracycline-based chemotherapy such as CHOP (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone) was used, but resulted in poor outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756633/immunotherapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer-scientific-rationale-current-treatment-options-and-future-directions
#12
Uta Rothschild, Laurent Muller, Axel Lechner, Hans A Schlösser, Dirk Beutner, Heinz Läubli, Alfred Zippelius, Sacha I Rothschild
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a frequent tumour arising from multiple anatomical subsites in the head and neck region. The treatment for early-stage disease is generally single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy. The treatment for locally advanced tumours is multimodal. For recurrent/metastatic HNSCC palliative chemotherapy is standard of care. The prognosis is limited and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed. HNSCC evades immune responses through multiple resistance mechanisms...
May 14, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754585/significance-and-implications-of-fda-approval-of-pembrolizumab-for-biomarker-defined-disease
#13
Michael M Boyiadzis, John M Kirkwood, John L Marshall, Colin C Pritchard, Nilofer S Azad, James L Gulley
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved pembrolizumab, an anti- programmed cell death protein 1 cancer immunotherapeutic, for use in advanced solid tumors in patients with the microsatellite-high/DNA mismatch repair-deficient biomarker. This is the first example of a tissue-agnostic FDA approval of a treatment based on a patient's tumor biomarker status, rather than on tumor histology. Here we discuss key issues and implications arising from the biomarker-based disease classification implied by this historic approval...
May 14, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750992/transcriptome-analysis-of-dorsal-root-ganglia-s-diabetic-neuropathy-reveals-mechanisms-involved-in-pain-and-regeneration
#14
Maria Carolina Pedro Athie, Andre Schwambach Vieira, Juliana Maia Teixeira, Gilson Gonçalves Dos Santos, Elayne Vieira Dias, Claudia Herrera Tambeli, Cesar Renato Sartori, Carlos A Parada
Peripheral diabetic neuropathy (DN) manifests in nearly 60% of diabetic patients, being pain its most debilitating symptom. Although electrophysiological and morphological aspects are well described, little is known about its development and progression, undermining effective therapies. Hyperglycemia and insulin signaling impairment are considered the triggering events of oxidative stress observed in the dying nerves, however there are still many gaps in the knowledge of intracellular plastic changes it generates...
May 8, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749309/the-application-of-natural-products-in-cancer-therapy-by-targeting-apoptosis-pathways
#15
Yan Wang, Jian Zhong, Jiaojiao Bai, Rongsheng Tonga, Feifei An, Pengcheng Jiao, Lin He, Daiwen Zeng, Enwu Long, Junfeng Yan, Jiying Yu, Lulu Cai
Apoptosis is one of the pathways of programmed cell death (PCD), which leads to pathognomic cellular changes different from cellular necrosis. It includes the death receptor pathway and the mitochondrial pathway, both of which involve many key proteins, including cytochrome c, Fas, the Bcl-2 family, caspases, survivin and p53. In apoptosis-related diseases, such as cancer, many proteins associated with apoptosis are abnormally expressed. The majority of anti-cancer agents promote apoptosis to induce cancer cell death...
May 11, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746230/safety-of-programmed-death-1-pathway-inhibitors-among-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-preexisting-autoimmune-disorders
#16
Giulia C Leonardi, Justin F Gainor, Mehmet Altan, Sasha Kravets, Suzanne E Dahlberg, Lydia Gedmintas, Roxana Azimi, Hira Rizvi, Jonathan W Riess, Matthew D Hellmann, Mark M Awad
Purpose Although programmed death (PD)-1 pathway inhibitors are now used in nearly all patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the large number of patients with NSCLC and concurrent autoimmune disease (AID) have been universally excluded from immunotherapy clinical trials. Therefore, the safety of PD-1 and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors in patients with NSCLC and underlying AID is currently unknown. Methods As part of a multi-institutional effort, we retrospectively collected clinicopathologic data from patients with NSCLC and a history of AID who received monotherapy with either a PD-1 or a PD-L1 (herein referred to as PD-[L]1) inhibitor...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744525/mapping-of-a-dominant-rust-resistance-gene-revealed-two-r-genes-around-the-major-rust_qtl-in-cultivated-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l
#17
Suvendu Mondal, Anand M Badigannavar
A consensus rust QTL was identified within a 1.25 cM map interval of A03 chromosome in cultivated peanut. This map interval contains a TIR-NB-LRR R gene and four pathogenesis-related genes. Disease resistance in plants is manifested due to the specific interaction between the R gene product and its cognate avirulence gene product (AVR) in the pathogen. Puccinia arachidis Speg. causes rust disease and inflicts economic damages to peanut. Till now, no experimental evidence is known for the action of R gene in peanut for rust resistance...
May 9, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742291/pd-1-and-pd-l1-expression-in-hnscc-primary-cancer-and-related-lymph-node-metastasis-impact-on-clinical-outcome
#18
Sven Schneider, Lorenz Kadletz, Robert Wiebringhaus, Lukas Kenner, Edgar Selzer, Thorsten Füreder, Orsolya Rajky, Anna S Berghoff, Matthias Preusser, Gregor Heiduschka
AIMS: Expression profiles and clinical impact of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expressing tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are not fully elucidated. This study evaluates expression patterns in primary HNSCC and related lymph node metastasis and impact on patients' clinical outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining patterns of PD-L1 and PD-1 were evaluated in 129 specimens of primary HNSCC and 77 lymph node metastases...
May 9, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739397/integrative-analyses-of-genes-and-microrna-expressions-in-human-trisomy-21-placentas
#19
Ji Hyae Lim, You Jung Han, Hyun Jin Kim, Moon Young Kim, So Yeon Park, Youl-Hee Cho, Hyun Mee Ryu
BACKGROUND: The most frequent chromosomal aneuploidy is trisomy 21 (T21) that is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. The imbalance of whole genome including genes and microRNAs contributes to the various phenotypes of T21. However, the integrative association between genes and microRNAs in the T21 placenta has yet to be determined. METHODS: We analyzed the expressions of genes and microRNAs in the whole genomes of chorionic villi cells from normal and T21 human fetal placentas based on our prior studies...
May 9, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738824/radiologic-pseudoprogression-during-anti-pd1-therapy-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Sharyn I Katz, Mark Hammer, Stephen Bagley, Charu Aggarwal, Joshua Bauml, Jeffrey C Thompson, Arun C Nachiappan, Charles B Simone, Corey Langer
INTRODUCTION: Anti-PD1 (programmed cell death protein 1) therapy can lead to unconventional tumor responses including radiologic pseudoprogression. Here we determine the real-world incidence of radiologic pseudoprogression in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and compare radiologic response criteria for disease response assessment. METHODS: Electronic medical records of all NSCLC patients receiving anti-PD1 therapy at our institution over a 3-year period were retrospectively reviewed and patients with clinically suspected radiologic pseudoprogression identified...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
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