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Emphysema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087752/deficient-retinoid-driven-angiogenesis-may-contribute-to-failure-of-adult-human-lung-regeneration-in-emphysema
#1
John-Poul Ng-Blichfeldt, Joana Alçada, M Angeles Montero, Charlotte H Dean, Uta Griesenbach, Mark J Griffiths, Matthew Hind
BACKGROUND: Molecular pathways that regulate alveolar development and adult repair represent potential therapeutic targets for emphysema. Signalling via retinoic acid (RA), derived from vitamin A, is required for mammalian alveologenesis, and exogenous RA can induce alveolar regeneration in rodents. Little is known about RA signalling in the human lung and its potential role in lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine regulation of human alveolar epithelial and endothelial repair by RA, and characterise RA signalling in human emphysema...
January 13, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077504/influence-of-history-of-cannabis-smoking-in-selected-donors-on-the-outcomes-of-lung-transplantation
#2
Prashant N Mohite, Mohamed Zeriouh, Diana G Sáez, Aron-Frederik Popov, Anton Sabashnikov, Bartlomiej Zych, Ashok Padukone, Levente Fazekas, Olga Ananiadou, Fabio De Robertis, Simona Soresi, Anna Reed, Martin Carby, André R Simon
OBJECTIVES: Cannabis is the most commonly abused illicit drug and the smokers are at the risk of lung infections, bullous emphysema and lung cancer. However, no evidence about the outcomes of lung transplantation (LTx) utilizing the lungs from such donors is available in the literature. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed lung 'organ offers' and LTx at our centre between January 2007 and November 2013. The outcomes of LTx utilizing lungs from donors with a history of cannabis smoking were compared with the outcomes of those with no such history using unadjusted model as well as propensity score matching...
January 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076684/radiographic-differentiation-of-advanced-fibrocystic-lung-diseases
#3
Masanori Akira
The concept of end-stage lung disease suggests a final common pathway for most diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. In accordance with this concept, end-stage disease is characterized radiographically and pathologically by the presence of extensive honeycombing. However, sequential computed tomographic (CT) scans obtained from patients with chronic diffuse lung disease evolve over time to show various advanced lung disease patterns other than honeycombing. Also, several radiographically distinct honeycomb patterns, including microcystic, macrocystic, mixed, and combined emphysema and honeycombing differentiate one advanced lung disease from another...
January 11, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070015/inhaled-resveratrol-treatments-slow-ageing-related-degenerative-changes-in-mouse-lung
#4
Barbara Driscoll, Sonia Navarro, Raghava Reddy, Jooeun Lee, David Warburton
BACKGROUND: Lung ageing, a significant risk factor for chronic human lung diseases such as COPD and emphysema, is characterised by airspace enlargement and decreasing lung function. Likewise, in prematurely ageing telomerase null (terc-/-) mice, p53 stabilisation within diminishing numbers of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2) accompanies reduced lung function. Resveratrol (RSL) is a plant phytoalexin that has previously showed efficacy in enhancing invertebrate longevity and supporting mammalian muscle metabolism when delivered orally...
January 9, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066665/pleural-tenting-as-an-effective-adjunct-in-patients-with-pneumothorax-secondary-to-emphysema-evaluated-with-computed-tomography-scan
#5
Chao-Chun Chang, Ying-Yuan Chen, Jia-Ming Chang, Yau-Lin Tseng, Chia-Ying Lin, Ming-Tsung Chuang, Yi-Ting Yen
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of thoracoscopic blebectomy and pleurodesis for secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) is often attenuated by diffuse emphysematous parenchyma. In this study, we reviewed our surgical results of pleural tenting and its association with preoperative chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with SSP. METHODS: From September 2005 to December 2014, there were 96 surgeries on 84 patients with SSP due to pulmonary emphysema. The data was collected on age, sex, smoking status, preoperative chest CT scan image, surgical procedure, blood loss, operative time, duration of tube thoracostomy, and hospital stay...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065772/multimorbidity-in-middle-aged-adults-with-cerebral-palsy
#6
Nicole Cremer, Edward A Hurvitz, Mark D Peterson
BACKGROUND: Individuals with cerebral palsy have less lean body mass, greater relative adiposity, and lower fitness and physical activity participation; and yet, the prevalence of age-related multimorbidity in this population has yet to be established. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic conditions and multimorbidity in a sample of middle-aged adults with cerebral palsy. METHODS: A clinic-based sample of middle-aged adults with cerebral palsy was examined using Electronic Medical Records Search Engine (EMERSE) software...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064485/astragalin-inhibits-allergic-inflammation-and-airway-thickening-in-ovalbumin-challenged-mice
#7
Yun-Ho Kim, Yean-Jung Choi, Min-Kyung Kang, Sin-Hye Park, Lucia Dwi Antika, Eun-Jung Lee, Dong Yeon Kim, Young-Hee Kang
Lung inflammation and oxidative stress are the major contributors to developing obstructive pulmonary diseases. Macrophages are involved in pulmonary inflammation and alveolar damage in emphysema. Astragalin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid present in persimmon leaves and green tea seeds. This study elucidated that astragalin inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration induced by 20 μM H2O2, and blocked airway thickening and alveolar emphysema induced by 20 μg ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. OVA induced mouse pulmonary MCP-1, and H2O2 enhanced the expression of MCP-1/ICAM-1/αv integrin in bronchial airway epithelial BEAS-2B cells...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060702/a-bayesian-nonparametric-model-for-disease-subtyping-application-to-emphysema-phenotypes
#8
James C Ross, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Junxiang Chen, Yale Chang, Jennifer G Dy, Edwin K Silverman, George R Washko, Raul San Jose Estepar
We introduce a novel Bayesian nonparametric model that uses the concept of disease trajectories for disease subtype identification. Although our model is general, we demonstrate that by treating fractions of tissue patterns derived from medical images as compositional data, our model can be applied to study distinct progression trends between population subgroups. Specifically, we apply our algorithm to quantitative emphysema measurements obtained from chest CT scans in the COPDGene Study and show several distinct progression patterns...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060414/standardizing-ct-lung-density-measure-across-scanner-manufacturers
#9
Huaiyu Heather Chen-Mayer, Matthew K Fuld, Bernice Hoppel, Philip F Judy, Jered P Sieren, Junfeng Guo, David A Lynch, Antonio Possolo, Sean B Fain
PURPOSE: Computed Tomography (CT) imaging of the lung, reported in Hounsfield Units (HU), can be parameterized as a quantitative image biomarker for the diagnosis and monitoring of lung density changes due to emphysema, a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CT lung density metrics are global measurements based on lung CT number histograms, and are typically a quantity specifying either the percentage of voxels with CT numbers below a threshold, or a single CT number below which a fixed relative lung volume, nth percentile, falls...
January 6, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056498/bone-marrow-stem-cell-therapy-partially-ameliorates-pathological-consequences-in-livers-of-mice-expressing-mutant-human-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin
#10
Prakash Baligar, Veena Kochat, Shailendra K Arindkar, Zaffar Equbal, Snehashish Mukherjee, Swati Patel, Perumal Nagarajan, Sujata Mohanty, Jeffrey H Teckman, Asok Mukhopadhyay
: Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic disease, caused by mutation of the AAT gene. Accumulation of mutated AAT protein aggregates in hepatocytes leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress resulting in impairment of liver functions and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas decline of AAT levels in sera is responsible for pulmonary emphysema. In critical cases of liver ailments, the only option for treatment is liver transplantation, whereas AAT replacement therapy is followed in case of emphysema...
January 5, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053854/identification-of-a-novel-alpha1-antitrypsin-variant
#11
Camille de Seynes, C Ged, H de Verneuil, N Chollet, M Balduyck, C Raherison
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is a genetic condition caused by SERPINA1 mutations, which results into decreased protease inhibitor activity in the serum and predisposes to emphysema and/or to liver disease due to accumulation of the abnormal protein in the hepatic cells. In most cases the clinical manifestations of A1ATD are associated with PIZZ (p.Glu366Lys; p.Glu366Lys (p.Glu342Lys; p.Glu342Lys)) or PISZ (p.Glu288Val; p.Glu366Lys (p.Glu264Val; p.Glu342Lys)) genotype, less frequently, deficient or null alleles may be present in compound heterozygous or homozygous A1AT deficient patients...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053522/do-nanoparticles-provide-a-new-opportunity-for-diagnosis-of-distal-airspace-disease
#12
Jakob Löndahl, Jonas Kf Jakobsson, David M Broday, H Laura Aaltonen, Per Wollmer
There is a need for efficient techniques to assess abnormalities in the peripheral regions of the lungs, for example, for diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema. Considerable scientific efforts have been directed toward measuring lung morphology by studying recovery of inhaled micron-sized aerosol particles (0.4-1.5 µm). In contrast, it is suggested that the recovery of inhaled airborne nanoparticles may be more useful for diagnosis. The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical background for the use of nanoparticles in measuring lung morphology and to assess their applicability based on a review of the literature...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053515/gender-differences-in-the-t-cell-profiles-of-the-airways-in-copd-patients-associated-with-clinical-phenotypes
#13
Helena Forsslund, Mingxing Yang, Mikael Mikko, Reza Karimi, Sven Nyrén, Benita Engvall, Johan Grunewald, Heta Merikallio, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Jan Wahlström, Åsa M Wheelock, C Magnus Sköld
T lymphocytes are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). How T cells are recruited to the lungs and contribute to the inflammatory process is largely unknown. COPD is a heterogeneous disease, and discriminating disease phenotypes based on distinct molecular and cellular pathways may provide new approaches for individualized diagnosis and therapies. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples were obtained from 40 never-smokers, 40 smokers with normal lung function, and 38 COPD patients...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050477/transthoracic-biopsy-causes-massive-subcutaneous-emphysema-in-a-low-risk-patient
#14
Fikri Selcuk Simsek, Yusuf Dag
Subcutaneous Emphysema (SE) can be defined as air leakage under skin from the respiratory or gastrointestinal system. It is frequently accompanied by pneumomediastinum. Thoracentesis, image-guided lung biopsies, pulmonary diseases and therapies resulting in necrosis can cause this pathology. The risk of pneumothorax and SE increased with the distance of the lesion to the pleura, and small size of the lesion. Although, our patient had low risk for SE, there were minimal pneumothoraces and massive SE. We consider that tumour necrosis and subcutaneous tissue may be related via transthoracic biopsy and this leads to massive SE...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048230/su-g-206-15-effects-of-dose-reduction-on-emphysema-score
#15
P Lo, S Young, J Hoffman, M Wahi-Anwar, H Kim, M McNitt-Gray
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing radiation dose levels on emphysema scores from lung cancer screening CT exams. METHODS: 52 cases were selected from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) patients for which we had both the image series and the raw CT data. All scans were acquired with fixed effective mAs (25 for standard-sized patients, 40 for large patients) on a 64-slice scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens Healthcare) using 120kV, 64×0...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047750/we-fg-206-08-pulmonary-functional-imaging-biomarkers-of-nsclc-to-guide-and-optimize-functional-lung-avoidance-radiotherapy
#16
Khadija Sheikh, Dante Pi Capaldi, Douglas A Hoover, David A Palma, Brian P Yaremko, Grace Parraga
PURPOSE: Functional lung avoidance radiotherapy promises optimized therapy planning by minimizing dose to well-functioning lung and maximizing dose to the rest of the lung. Patients with NSCLC commonly present with co-morbid COPD and heterogeneously distributed ventilation abnormalities stemming from emphysema, airways disease, and tumour burden. We hypothesized that pulmonary functional imaging methods may be used to optimize radiotherapy plans to avoid regions of well-functioning lung and significantly improve outcomes like quality-of-life and survival...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047572/we-fg-207b-07-feasibility-of-low-dose-lung-cancer-screening-with-a-whole-body-photon-counting-ct-first-human-results
#17
R Symons, T Cork, L Folio, D Bluemke, A Pourmorteza
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of using a whole-body photon counting detector (PCD) CT scanner for low dose lung cancer screening compared to a conventional energy integrating detector (EID) system. METHODS: Radiation dose-matched EID and PCD scans of the COPDGene 2 phantom and 2 human volunteers were acquired. Phantom images were acquired at different radiation dose levels (CTDIvol: 3.0, 1.5, and 0.75 mGy) and different tube voltages (120, 100, and 80 kVp), while human images were acquired at vendor recommended low-dose lung cancer screening settings...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044005/biomechanical-ct-metrics-are-associated-with-patient-outcomes-in-copd
#18
Sandeep Bodduluri, Surya P Bhatt, Eric A Hoffman, John D Newell, Carlos H Martinez, Mark T Dransfield, Meilan K Han, Joseph M Reinhardt
BACKGROUND: Traditional metrics of lung disease such as those derived from spirometry and static single-volume CT images are used to explain respiratory morbidity in patients with COPD, but are insufficient. We hypothesised that the mean Jacobian determinant, a measure of local lung expansion and contraction with respiration, would contribute independently to clinically relevant functional outcomes. METHODS: We applied image registration techniques to paired inspiratory-expiratory CT scans and derived the Jacobian determinant of the deformation field between the two lung volumes to map local volume change with respiration...
January 2, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043740/health-conditions-in-rural-areas-with-high-livestock-density-analysis-of-seven-consecutive-years
#19
Christel E van Dijk, Jan-Paul Zock, Christos Baliatsas, Lidwien A M Smit, Floor Borlée, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Dick Heederik, C Joris Yzermans
Previous studies investigating health conditions of individuals living near livestock farms generally assessed short time windows. We aimed to take time-specific differences into account and to compare the prevalence of various health conditions over seven consecutive years. The sample consisted of 156,690 individuals registered in 33 general practices in a (rural) area with a high livestock density and 101,015 patients from 23 practices in other (control) areas in the Netherlands. Prevalence of health conditions were assessed using 2007-2013 electronic health record (EHR) data...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034695/aberrant-lung-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-surfactant-dysregulation-induced-by-modulation-of-the-abca3-gene
#20
Michael F Beers, Lars Knudsen, Yaniv Tomer, Julian Maronn, Ming Zhao, Matthias Ochs, Surafel Mulugeta
The lipid transporter, ATP binding cassette class A3 (ABCA3), plays a critical role in the biogenesis of alveolar type 2 (AT2) cell lamellar bodies (LBs). A relatively large number of mutations in the ABCA3 gene have been identified in association with diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), the most common of which is a missense mutation (valine substitution for lysine at residue 292 (ABCA3(E292V))) that leads to functional impairment of the transporter in vitro. The consequences of ABCA3(E292)(V) gene expression in vivo are unknown...
December 26, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
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