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Emphysema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340493/conservative-treatment-with-octreotide-to-provide-early-recovery-of-children-with-esophageal-perforation
#1
Ramazan Karabulut, Zafer Turkyilmaz, Kaan Sonmez, Abdullah Can Basaklar
Background The effectiveness of nonoperative treatment of esophageal perforation (EP) in children with octreotide is highlighted. Methods Records of nine patients (seven boys and two girls with an average age of 5.83 ± 5.35 years) with EP were reviewed. Results EP developed in six patients during dilation of esophageal stenosis (five of six caused by caustic burns). In the other three patients, EP developed after nasogastric placement, after endotracheal intubation, and during endoscopy for foreign body...
March 24, 2017: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334809/subcutaneous-emphysema-of-scalp-following-resuscitation-in-a-neonate
#2
Avinash Dhaware, Sandeep Kadam, Sanjay Patole
BACKGROUND: Neonatal subcutaneous emphysema of scalp (SES) with air leaks is rare. Case characteristics: Neonate presented with SES in addition to pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. OBSERVATION: SES resolved after the chest was drained to treat pneumothorax. OUTCOME: Neonate made full recovery. CONCLUSION: Neonatal SES may be associated with air leaks post-resuscitation, which has not been reported.
February 21, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325724/air-everywhere-colon-perforation-after-colonoscopy
#3
Ana Virgínia Araújo, Cláudia Santos, Helena Contente, Cláudia Branco
Colonoscopy is being widely used since the 1980s and is the leading diagnostic procedure for colorectal cancer. For many colorectal diseases, it is also a therapeutic tool. Like many other procedures in Medicine, it has its drawbacks and complications, some of which if not readily diagnosed can represent a serious risk to the patient's health and well-being. We describe a case of colon perforation during diagnostic colonoscopy in a patient, resulting in exuberant pneumoretroperitoneum, pneumoperitoneum, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema, who successfully underwent laparoscopic colonic resection with primary anastomosis...
March 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322440/psychological-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
REVIEW
Zafar A Usmani, Kristin V Carson, Karen Heslop, Adrian J Esterman, Anthony De Soyza, Brian J Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (commonly referred to as chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a chronic lung condition characterised by the inflammation of airways and irreversible destruction of pulmonary tissue leading to progressively worsening dyspnoea. It is a leading international cause of disability and death in adults. Evidence suggests that there is an increased prevalence of anxiety disorders in people with COPD. The severity of anxiety has been shown to correlate with the severity of COPD, however anxiety can occur with all stages of COPD severity...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321062/the-presence-of-venous-gas-does-not-affect-the-prognosis-in-emphysematous-cystitis
#5
Yuki Yoshimatsu, Tomoko Takai, Yasuhisa Abe, Toshimasa Nakagawa
Objective Emphysematous cystitis (EC) has a high mortality rate compared with urinary tract infection without emphysema. However, its prognostic factors have yet to be determined. The presence of venous gas is suspected to be a rare, adverse prognostic factor of EC. However, all four previously reported cases improved. We hypothesized that venous gas is not an adverse prognostic factor of EC and aimed to assess the effect of venous gas on the EC prognosis. Methods Medical records were reviewed retrospectively...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316849/spontaneous-pneumomediastinum-in-labor
#6
Mohamed Adnane Berdai, Said Benlamkadem, Smael Labib, Mustapha Harandou
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema also known as Hamman's syndrome is a very rare complication of labor that is often related to the valsalva maneuver during the labor. In most case, Hamman's syndrome is a self-limiting condition, rarely complicated unless there are underlying respiratory diseases. Chest X-ray can be a useful early diagnostic technique in severe clinical presentation. We report an uneventful pregnancy in a primigravid parturient, which was complicated in the late second stage of labor by the development of subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and mild pneumothorax...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315337/p53-signaling-pathway-polymorphisms-associated-with-emphysematous-changes-in-copd-patients
#7
Shiro Mizuno, Takeshi Ishizaki, Maiko Kadowaki, Masaya Akai, Kohei Shiozaki, Masaharu Iguchi, Taku Oikawa, Ken Nakagawa, Kazuhiro Osanai, Hirohisa Toga, Jose Gomez-Arroyo, Donatas Kraskauskas, Carlyne D Cool, Herman J Bogaard, Norbert F Voelkel
BACKGROUND: The p53 signaling pathway may be important for the pathogenesis of emphysematous changes in the lungs of smokers. Polymorphism of p53 at codon 72 is known to affect apoptotic effector proteins, and the polymorphism of mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) SNP309 is known to increase MDM2 expression. The aim of this study was to assess polymorphisms of the p53 and MDM2 genes in smokers and confirm the role of SNPs in these genes in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. METHODS: 365 patients with a smoking history were included in this study, and the polymorphisms of p53 and MDM2 genes were identified...
March 14, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315045/late-onset-chest-wall-abscess-due-to-a-biodegradable-rib-pin-infection-after-lung-transplantation
#8
Yasufumi Goda, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Masaaki Kusunose, Masatsugu Hamaji, Hideki Motoyama, Kyoko Hijiya, Akihiro Aoyama, Hiroshi Date
A 55-year-old man with end-stage emphysema underwent a right single-lung transplantation through a posterolateral thoracotomy. The fifth rib was divided and fused back using a biodegradable pin made of polylactide acid and hydroxyapatite. Two weeks postoperatively, he suffered from central vein catheter-related sepsis due to methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. After being successfully treated for sepsis, he was discharged. However, 3 months later, computed tomography revealed multiple loculated abscesses in the chest wall and the right pleural space...
March 17, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314215/a-metabolomic-approach-shows-sphingosine-1-phosphate-and-lysophospholipids-as-mediators-of-the-therapeutic-effect-of-liver-growth-factor-in-emphysema
#9
A Navarrete, F J Rupérez, T O Mendes, S Pérez-Rial, A Girón-Martínez, R Terrón-Expósito, J J Díaz-Gil, G Peces-Barba, C Barbas, A García
Tobacco smoke exposure is the principal cause of lung tissue destruction, which in turn results in emphysema that leads into shortness of breath. Liver growth factor (LGF, a cell and tissue regenerating factor with therapeutic activity in several organs) has antifibrotic and antioxidant properties that could be useful to promote lung tissue regenerating capacity in damaged lungs. The current study has examined differences in metabolite profiles (fingerprints) of plasma from mice (strain C57BL/6J, susceptible to develop emphysema) exposed to tobacco smoke during six months...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306325/diffuse-subcutaneous-emphysema-following-tracheal-perforation
#10
Andrew Keenan, William Browne, Maneesh Bhargava
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303154/mesenchymal-stem-cell-administration-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-state-of-the-science
#11
REVIEW
Shih-Lung Cheng, Ching-Hsiung Lin, Chao-Ling Yao
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have chronic, irreversible airway inflammation; currently, there is no effective or curative treatment and the main goals of COPD management are to mitigate symptoms and improve patients' quality of life. Stem cell based therapy offers a promising therapeutic approach that has shown potential in diverse degenerative lung diseases. Preclinical studies have demonstrated encouraging outcomes of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) therapy for lung disorders including emphysema, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, fibrosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302613/prognostic-predictors-of-visual-outcome-in-open-globe-injury-emphasis-on-facial-ct-findings
#12
U K Bodanapally, H Addis, D Dreizin, A K Reddy, J A Margo, K L Archer-Arroyo, S Feldman, B Saboury, K Sudini, O Saeedi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The present prognostic models for open globe injuries have a limited ability to predict visual outcome before a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination or operation because they depend on the data derived from the ophthalmologic examination and intraoperative findings. The purpose of our study was to determine the specific CT and preoperative clinical data that can predict the prognosis of open globe injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the relationship of 29 variables derived from clinical and CT data from 97 globe injuries with visual acuity at 1 month...
March 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302227/anaesthetic-concerns-of-surgical-emphysema-following-thyroidectomy
#13
Sanum Kashif, Amna Gulrez
Surgical emphysema secondary to tracheal tear is a rare but serious complication after thyroidectomy. It is usually resolved by conservative management; but in case of compromised airway, early airway control and surgical intervention is required. This is the case report of a 52-year woman diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma, who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema involving head and upper thorax, following total thyroidectomy, in post anesthesia care unit (PACU). The complication was related to tracheal tear occurring during excision of huge thyroid mass, encroaching trachea...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301499/svip-regulates-z-variant-alpha-1-antitrypsin-retro-translocation-by-inhibiting-ubiquitin-ligase-gp78
#14
Nazli Khodayari, Rejean Liqun Wang, George Marek, Karina Krotova, Mariana Kirst, Chen Liu, Farshid Rouhani, Mark Brantly
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an inherited disorder characterized by early-onset emphysema and liver disease. The most common disease-causing mutation is a single amino acid substitution (Glu/Lys) at amino acid 342 of the mature protein, resulting in disruption of the 290-342 salt bridge (an electrophoretic abnormality defining the mutation [Z allele, or ZAAT]), protein misfolding, polymerization, and accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes and monocytes. The Z allele causes a toxic gain of function, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase gp78 promotes degradation and increased solubility of endogenous ZAAT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298960/lung-volume-reduction-coils-as-a-novel-bronchoscopic-treatment-for-emphysema
#15
Timothy A Connolly
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite regular advances in pharmacology, there remains great potential for addressing structural deficiencies, especially in emphysema. The loss of alveolar attachments to small bronchial tubes results in diffuse loss of elastic recoil and airway collapse during exhalation. This appears physiologically as hyperinflation of lung volumes with flattened diaphragms and significantly elevated residual volumes (RV) on pulmonary function testing (predicted RV > 175%)...
October 2016: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293389/exploring-the-effect-of-intravenous-lipid-emulsion-in-acute-methamphetamine-toxicity
#16
Ameneh Ghadiri, Leila Etemad, Mohammad Moshiri, Seyed Adel Moallem, Amir Hossein Jafarian, Farzin Hadizadeh, Mahmoud Seifi
OBJECTIVES: The increasing use of methamphetamine (METH) in the last decades has made it the second most abused drug. Advancs in the area of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) have led to its potential application in the treatment of poisoning. The present study aims to investigate the potential role of ILE as an antidote for acute METH poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two groups of six male rats were treated by METH (45 mg/kg), intraperitoneally. Five to seven min later, they received an infusion of 18...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291826/endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-emphysema
#17
Margaret F Doyle, Russell P Tracy, Megha A Parikh, Eric A Hoffman, Daichi Shimbo, John H M Austin, Benjamin M Smith, Katja Hueper, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Joao Lima, Antoinette Gomes, Karol Watson, Steven Kawut, R Graham Barr
Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50-79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289587/polymorphisms-of-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-and-interleukin-6-genes-and-the-progression-of-hepatic-cirrhosis-in-patients-with-a-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#18
T Motawi, O G Shaker, R M Hussein, M Houssen
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a serious health problem. The -174 G/C mutation in the pro inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is associated with developing liver diseases. Likewise, the S and Z mutations in the serine protease inhibitor α1-antitrypsin (A1AT) are associated with pulmonary emphysema and/or liver cirrhosis. We explored the distribution of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-6 and A1AT genes in chronic HCV-infected patients and evaluated their impact on the progression of liver cirrhosis...
December 1, 2016: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287180/functional-interactors-of-three-genome-wide-association-study-genes-are-differentially-expressed-in-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-lung-tissue
#19
Jarrett D Morrow, Xiaobo Zhou, Taotao Lao, Zhiqiang Jiang, Dawn L DeMeo, Michael H Cho, Weiliang Qiu, Suzanne Cloonan, Victor Pinto-Plata, Bartholome Celli, Nathaniel Marchetti, Gerard J Criner, Raphael Bueno, George R Washko, Kimberly Glass, John Quackenbush, Augustine M K Choi, Edwin K Silverman, Craig P Hersh
In comparison to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), there has been poor replication of gene expression studies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed microarray gene expression profiling on a large sample of resected lung tissues from subjects with severe COPD. Comparing 111 COPD cases and 40 control smokers, 204 genes were differentially expressed; none were at significant GWAS loci. The top differentially expressed gene was HMGB1, which interacts with AGER, a known COPD GWAS gene...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287060/end-to-end-anastomosis-in-the-management-of-laryngotracheal-defects
#20
E D Gozen, M Yener, Z B Erdur, E Karaman
OBJECTIVE: To present clinical experience and surgical outcomes of end-to-end anastomosis in the management of laryngotracheal stenosis and tracheal defects following invasive thyroid malignancy resection. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of 14 patients with laryngotracheal stenosis and tracheal invasive thyroid malignancy. All patients underwent tracheal or cricotracheal resection and primary end-to-end anastomosis. RESULTS: Length of stenosis was 1...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
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