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Emphysema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351445/impact-of-hiv-infection-on-alpha-1-antitrypsin-in-the-lung
#1
Sarah E Stephenson, Carole L Wilson, Kristina Crothers, Engi F Attia, Cherry Wongtrakool, Irina Petrache, Lynn M Schnapp
BACKGROUND: Emphysema is one of the most common lung diseases in HIV+ individuals. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated emphysema remains unclear; however, radiographic distribution and earlier age of presentation of emphysema in the lungs of HIV+ patients are similar to deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT), a key elastase inhibitor in the lung. Reduced levels of circulating A1AT have been detected in HIV+ patients, suggesting a potential mechanism for emphysema development. In the present study, we asked if A1AT levels and activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) differ in patients with and without HIV and emphysema...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351435/effects-of-cigarette-smoke-on-pulmonary-endothelial-cells
#2
Qing Lu, Eric Gottlieb, Sharon Rounds
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the US. Cardiovascular co-morbidities associated with both active and secondhand cigarette smoking indicate the vascular toxicity of smoke exposure. Growing evidence supports the injurious effect of cigarette smoke on pulmonary endothelial cells and the roles of endothelial cell injury in development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), emphysema, and pulmonary hypertension. This review summarizes results from studies of humans, preclinical animal models, and cultured endothelial cells that document toxicities of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary endothelial cell functions, including barrier dysfunction, endothelial activation and inflammation, apoptosis, and vasoactive mediator production...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346827/efficacy-and-complications-of-submucosal-tunneling-endoscopic-resection-for-upper-gastrointestinal-submucosal-tumors-and-exploration-for-influencing-factors
#3
Shunzhe Song, Xu Wang, Shen Zhang, Yanxia Li, Xiaonan Zhang, Xufang Chu
BACKGROUND:  Submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER) has emerged as a feasible technique for resecting upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract submucosal tumors (SMTs) through natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. STER reduces the risk of postoperative perforation and abdominal infections and promotes rapid wound healing. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of STER for small (≤ 3.5 cm) upper GI SMTs and explore the potential factors influencing STER's efficacy and complication rate...
January 18, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343951/risk-factors-predict-frequent-hospitalization-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-copd
#4
Xia Wei, Zhengquan Ma, Nan Yu, Jingting Ren, Chenwang Jin, Jiuyun Mi, Meijuan Shi, Libin Tian, Yanzhong Gao, Youmin Guo
Purpose: COPD is a heterogeneous disease, and the available prognostic indexes are therefore limited. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with acute exacerbation leading to hospitalization. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients with COPD (meeting the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] diagnostic criteria) hospitalized at the Ninth Hospital of Xi'an Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University between October 2014 and September 2016...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342262/preliminary-study-of-1940-nm-thulium-laser-usage-in-peroral-endoscopic-myotomy-for-achalasia
#5
J Liu, Y Jiao, Y Niu, L Yu, M Ji, S Zhang
Esophageal achalasia is a type of motility disorder characterized by incomplete relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and absence of esophageal peristalsis. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new treatment option for achalasia that is less invasive, more effective, and safe as compared to surgery. High-frequency electrotome is commonly used in POEM, but takes longer time to make the tunnel in the esophagus and causes many complications. The thulium laser decreases the risk of bleeding and perforation in endoscopy but has not been reported in digestive diseases, especially in POEM...
January 9, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341033/-lung-volume-reduction-surgery
#6
C Caviezel, D Franzen, W Weder
Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) offers improvement in lung function, quality of life and even survival in well selected patients with severe emphysema. Patients with all types of emphysema morphology can profit from LVRS when certain selection criteria are present. Hyperinflation plays a key role in qualifying for the procedure. Candidate selection should be performed at high volume centers with a multidisciplinary emphysema board. Qualified thoracic surgeons together with pulmonologists and radiologists identify the suitable patient considering emphysema morphology with its target areas for resection, lung function parameters and cardiac comorbidities...
January 2018: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339516/human-airway-branch-variation-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
Benjamin M Smith, Hussein Traboulsi, John H M Austin, Ani Manichaikul, Eric A Hoffman, Eugene R Bleecker, Wellington V Cardoso, Christopher Cooper, David J Couper, Stephen M Dashnaw, Jia Guo, MeiLan K Han, Nadia N Hansel, Emlyn W Hughes, David R Jacobs, Richard E Kanner, Joel D Kaufman, Eric Kleerup, Ching-Long Lin, Kiang Liu, Christian M Lo Cascio, Fernando J Martinez, Jennifer N Nguyen, Martin R Prince, Stephen Rennard, Stephen S Rich, Leora Simon, Yanping Sun, Karol E Watson, Prescott G Woodruff, Carolyn J Baglole, R Graham Barr
Susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) beyond cigarette smoking is incompletely understood, although several genetic variants associated with COPD are known to regulate airway branch development. We demonstrate that in vivo central airway branch variants are present in 26.5% of the general population, are unchanged over 10 y, and exhibit strong familial aggregation. The most common airway branch variant is associated with COPD in two cohorts (n = 5,054), with greater central airway bifurcation density, and with emphysema throughout the lung...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339284/rbmti-6-attenuates-pathophysiological-and-inflammatory-parameters-of-induced-emphysema-in-mice
#8
Adriana Feliciano Alves Duran, Luana de Paiva Neves, Flavia Ribeiro Santos da Silva, Gabriel Capella Machado, Graziele Cristina Ferreira, Juliana D Lourenço, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Milton de Arruda Martins, Fernanda D T Q S Lopes, Sergio Daishi Sasaki
Protease/anti-protease imbalance is the main pathogenic mechanism of emphysema and protease inhibitors have been recognized as potential molecules to treat the disease conditions. In this work the rBmTI-6 first domain (rBmTI-6-D1), a recombinant Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor, was used to verify its effect in prevention or minimization of PPE-induced emphysema in mice. C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a PPE-induced emphysema model and treated with rBmTI-6-D1 before the emphysema development. We showed that the rBmTI-6-D1 treatment was sufficient to avoid the loss of elastic recoil, an effective decrease in alveolar enlargement and in the number of macrophages and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335355/snap-crackle-and-pop-when-sneezing-leads-to-crackling-in-the-neck
#9
Wanding Yang, Raguwinder S Sahota, Sudip Das
Spontaneous perforation of the pharynx is an unusual condition. Due to its non-specific presentation and general lack of awareness, diagnosis and intervention may be delayed resulting in potential complications. This case reports a rare spontaneous perforation of the pyriform sinus after a forceful sneeze, leading to cervical subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum.
January 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335054/orbital-mediastinal-and-cervicofacial-subcutaneous-emphysema-after-dental-rehabilitation-in-a-pediatric-patient
#10
William J Boggess, Jeanine Ronan, Neeraj Panchal
Subcutaneous emphysema is a rare possible complication of dental procedures. The majority of the dental literature describes cases of localized areas of subcutaneous emphysema following various dental procedures, with a large number of these cases seen following intraoral surgical procedures. Classically, subcutaneous emphysema occurs within minutes to hours after conclusion of dental procedures and is commonly misdiagnosed as either an allergic reaction or acute post-operative swelling. This case report describes a four-year-old male who underwent dental rehabilitation for routine restorative dentistry without extractions under general anesthesia...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330275/case-of-chest-pain-in-a-young-man
#11
Ankit Gupta, Atul Vijay Palkar, Priya Narwal
A young man with a history of smoking presented with acute-onset chest pain after lifting weights. He also noticed a change in his voice, tightness in his neck and difficulty breathing. A chest radiograph showed soft tissue emphysema in the neck. A CT scan of the chest revealed moderate amount of pneumomediastinum tracking into the neck and down to the diaphragm. He was haemodynamically stable and had no hypoxia or dysphagia. He was monitored for 48 hours and discharged home after resolution of his symptoms...
January 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329251/pharmacological-investigation-of-the-anti-inflammation-and-anti-oxidation-activities-of-diallyl-disulfide-in-a-rat-emphysema-model-induced-by-cigarette-smoke-extract
#12
Yan Liu, Ang Li, Xiuli Feng, Xiao Sun, Xiaosong Zhu, Zhongxi Zhao
Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is the main organosulfur ingredient in garlic, with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DADS on reducing the inflammation and redox imbalance in a rat emphysema model that was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Briefly, DADS exerted an anti-inflammation effect on emphysema rats through decreasing cell influx in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and suppressing pro-inflammation cytokine production including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) via inhibiting the NF-κB pathway...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328885/radiographic-emphysema-circulating-bone-biomarkers-and-progressive-bone-mineral-density-loss-in-smokers
#13
Jessica Bon, Yingze Zhang, Joseph K Leader, Carl Fuhrman, Subashan Perera, Divay Chandra, Marnie Bertolet, Brenda Diergaarde, Susan L Greenspan, Frank C Sciurba
RATIONALE: Osteoporosis is common in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lung-specific factors, including radiographic emphysema, independently associate with low bone mineral density (BMD) in cross-sectional smoking cohorts. However, factors associated with progressive bone loss in smokers are under-studied and largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between radiographic emphysema, circulating bone metabolism markers, and pulmonary function and accelerated BMD loss in smokers...
January 12, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327719/the-histomorphological-spectrum-of-restrictive-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-and-implications-for-prognosis
#14
Jan H von der Thüsen, Elly Vandermeulen, Robin Vos, Birgit Weynand, Erik K Verbeken, Stijn E Verleden
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction continues to be the main contributor to poor long-term allograft survival after lung transplantation. The restrictive phenotype of chronic lung allograft dysfunction carries a particularly poor prognosis. Little is known about the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction. In this study, we performed histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis of restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction lungs. Explant lung tissue from 21 restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction patients was collected and histopathologic patterns of rejection, fibrosis and vascular changes were scored after routine histochemical stains and additional immunohistochemistry for endothelial markers and C4d...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326298/smoking-duration-alone-provides-stronger-risk-estimates-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-than-pack-years
#15
Surya P Bhatt, Young-Il Kim, Kathy F Harrington, John E Hokanson, Sharon M Lutz, Michael H Cho, Dawn L DeMeo, James M Wells, Barry J Make, Stephen I Rennard, George R Washko, Marilyn G Foreman, Donald P Tashkin, Robert A Wise, Mark T Dransfield, William C Bailey
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for COPD. Smoking burden is frequently measured in pack-years, but the relative contribution of cigarettes smoked per day versus duration towards the development of structural lung disease, airflow obstruction and functional outcomes is not known. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data from a large multicentre cohort (COPDGene) of current and former smokers. Primary outcome was airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC); secondary outcomes included five additional measures of disease: FEV1, CT emphysema, CT gas trapping, functional capacity (6 min walk distance, 6MWD) and respiratory morbidity (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ)...
January 11, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325685/reduced-incidence-of-lung-cancer-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-treated-with-pirfenidone
#16
Yukiko Miura, Takefumi Saito, Toru Tanaka, Hiroyuki Takoi, Yohei Yatagai, Minoru Inomata, Takahito Nei, Yoshinobu Saito, Akihiko Gemma, Arata Azuma
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with a worse prognosis than some types of cancer. In patients with IPF, lung cancer is critical because of the associated high mortality rate from its progression and fatal complications from anticancer treatments. Therefore, preventing lung cancer in patients with IPF is primordial. Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic agent that reduces the decline in forced vital capacity. This study aimed to assess the effect of pirfenidone in the development of lung cancer in patients with IPF...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319542/supplemental-oxygen-in-patients-with-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-evidence-from-nocturnal-oxygen-treatment-trial-to-long-term-oxygen-treatment-trial
#17
Umur Hatipoğlu, James K Stoller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxygen therapy was the first treatment shown to prolong life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been joined by lung volume reduction surgery in selected patients with emphysema, smoking cessation, and potentially noninvasive ventilation in chronic hypercapneic respiratory failure. Although there is consensus around the survival-enhancing effect of supplemental oxygen (SupplO2) for patients with chronic severe hypoxemia at rest, the impact of SupplO2 for COPD patients with moderate hypoxemia and exertional desaturation had been less clear...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316765/-analysis-of-clinical-features-in-patients-with-pneumoconiosis-complicated-with-pulmonary-emphysema
#18
X Li, W R Dai, L Li, W F Liu, Z X Yang, L Xie
Objective: To investigate the clinical features of pneumoconiosis complicated with pulmo-nary emphysema. Methods: selected 868 patients with pneumoconiosis were selected from December 2015 to December 2016 in Hunan occupational disease prevention and treatment hospital. Collected the results of high-resolution spiral CT, arterial blood gas, ECG, pulmonary function and MRC score. The subjects were divided into pneumoconiosis complicated with pulmonary emphysema group and simple pneumoconiosis group accord-ing to the results of HRCT...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315038/coils-to-aid-recoil-a-bronchoscopic-approach-to-lung-reduction-surgery-in-emphysema
#19
Francesca Conway, Simon Dubrey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314865/il-17-plays-a-role-in-rsv-induced-lung-inflammation-and-emphysema-in-elastase-and-lps-injured-mice
#20
Yohannes A Mebratu, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is associated with enhanced progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and COPD exacerbations. However, little is known about the role of IL-17 in RSV-induced lung injury. We first investigated the role of RSV infection in enhancing mucous cell hyperplasia and airspace enlargement in the lungs of mice injured with elastase and lipopolysaccharide (E/LPS). Mice injured with E/LPS had an enhanced and prolonged neutrophilic response to RSV that was associated with decreased levels of type I IFN and increased levels of IL-17, IL-23, CXCL-1, GCSF and CXCL-5 and MMP-9...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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