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Brassica oleracea

Sandra E Branham, Zachary J Stansell, David M Couillard, Mark W Farnham
Five quantitative trait loci and one epistatic interaction were associated with heat tolerance in a doubled haploid population of broccoli evaluated in three summer field trials. Predicted rising global temperatures due to climate change have generated a demand for crops that are resistant to yield and quality losses from heat stress. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is a cool weather crop with high temperatures during production decreasing both head quality and yield. Breeding for heat tolerance in broccoli has potential to both expand viable production areas and extend the growing season but breeding efficiency is constrained by limited genetic information...
November 29, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Sumio Kondo, Asahi Suzuki, Mihoko Kurokawa, Keiji Hasumi
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), a vegetable in the family Brassicaceae, has beneficial effects on health, including hypoglycemic effects. In our previous study with a limited number of subjects, intake of kale-containing food at a dose of 14 g decreased postprandial plasma glucose levels. In the present study, the effective dose of kale-containing food was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. The trial was conducted on 42 Japanese subjects aged 21-64 years with fasting plasma glucose levels of ≤125 mg/dl and 30-min postprandial plasma glucose levels of 140-187 mg/dl...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
Robert Berkey, Yi Zhang, Xianfeng Ma, Harlan King, Qiong Zhang, Wenming Wang, Shunyuan Xiao
Upon penetration of the host cell wall, powdery mildew develops a feeding structure named the haustorium in the invaded host cell. Concomitant with haustorial biogenesis, the extra-haustorial membrane (EHM) is formed to separate the haustorium from the host cell cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis resistance protein RPW8.2 is specifically targeted to the EHM where it activates haustorium-targeted resistance against powdery mildew. RPW8.2 belongs to a small family with six members in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whether Homolog of RPW8 (HR) 1 to HR4 are also localized to the EHM and contribute to resistance has not been determined...
November 17, 2016: Plant Physiology
Simin Pourjavaher, Hadi Almasi, Saeed Meshkini, Sajad Pirsa, Ehsan Parandi
This work aimed to develop and characterize a smart label for pH monitoring based on bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers doped with anthocyanins extracted from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The relationship between the concentration of anthocyanins (32 and 193mgL(-1)) and the morphological properties and color response efficiency of pH indicator labels was investigated. The FT-IR results reflected that some new interactions have occurred between BC membrane and anthocyanins. The XRD analyses showed a decrease in diffraction intensities of BC by addition of concentrated form of anthocyanins...
January 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
R Montero, M Ribas-Carbó, N F Del Saz, H El Aou-Ouad, J A Berry, J Flexas, J Bota
Dark respiration measurements with open-flow gas exchange analyzers are often questioned for their low accuracy as their low values often reach the precision limit of the instrument. Respiration was measured in five species, two hypostomatous (Vitis Vinifera L. and Acanthus mollis) and three amphistomatous, one with similar amount of stomata in both sides (Eucalyptus citriodora) and two with different stomata density (Brassica oleracea and Vicia faba). CO2 differential (ΔCO2) increased two-fold with no change in apparent Rd, when the two leaves with higher stomatal density faced outside...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Agnieszka A Golicz, Philipp E Bayer, Guy C Barker, Patrick P Edger, HyeRan Kim, Paula A Martinez, Chon Kit Kenneth Chan, Anita Severn-Ellis, W Richard McCombie, Isobel A P Parkin, Andrew H Paterson, J Chris Pires, Andrew G Sharpe, Haibao Tang, Graham R Teakle, Christopher D Town, Jacqueline Batley, David Edwards
There is an increasing awareness that as a result of structural variation, a reference sequence representing a genome of a single individual is unable to capture all of the gene repertoire found in the species. A large number of genes affected by presence/absence and copy number variation suggest that it may contribute to phenotypic and agronomic trait diversity. Here we show by analysis of the Brassica oleracea pangenome that nearly 20% of genes are affected by presence/absence variation. Several genes displaying presence/absence variation are annotated with functions related to major agronomic traits, including disease resistance, flowering time, glucosinolate metabolism and vitamin biosynthesis...
November 11, 2016: Nature Communications
Jia-Yi Cao, You-Ping Xu, Wen Li, Shuang-Sheng Li, Hafizur Rahman, Xin-Zhong Cai
RNA silencing is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression and antiviral defense in plants. Nevertheless, RNA silencing machinery in the important oil crop Brassica napus and function in resistance to the devastating fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are not well-understood. In this study, gene families of RNA silencing machinery in B. napus were identified and their role in resistance to S. sclerotiorum was revealed. Genome of the allopolyploid species B. napus possessed 8 Dicer-like (DCL), 27 Argonaute (AGO), and 16 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) genes, which included almost all copies from its progenitor species B...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wei Li, Junxing Lu, Kun Lu, Jianglian Yuan, Jieheng Huang, Hai Du, Jiana Li
For many plants, regulating lignin content and composition to improve lodging resistance is a crucial issue. Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a lignin monomer-specific enzyme that controls S subunit synthesis in plant vascular cell walls. Here, we identified 12 BnCOMT1 gene homologues, namely BnCOMT1-1 to BnCOMT1-12. Ten of 12 genes were composed of four highly conserved exons and three weakly conserved introns. The length of intron I, in particular, showed enormous diversification. Intron I of homologous BnCOMT1 genes showed high identity with counterpart genes in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, and intron I from positional close genes in the same chromosome were relatively highly conserved...
2016: PloS One
A M M Maruf Hossain, M Shahidul Islam, M Mustafa Mamun, H M Al-Jonaed, M Imran, M Hasibur Rahman, M Azizul Islam Kazi, Syed Fazle Elahi
With regard to previously reported Lead (Pb) and Chromium (Cr) contamination in egg, a semi-quantitative assessment of the general environment of Bangladesh is carried out through nation-wide sampling of commonly grown and consumed vegetables. Five vegetables, namely, White Potato (Solanum tuberosum), Green Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata var. alba L.), Red Spinach (Amaranthus dubius), White Radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus), and Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were selected for sampling from all 64 Districts of the country as per their availability during the sampling season...
2016: SpringerPlus
Wagner de Souza Tavares, Yasmin Akhtar, Gabriel Luiz Padoan Gonçalves, José Cola Zanuncio, Murray B Isman
Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
Laurencja Szała, Katarzyna Sosnowska, Wiesława Popławska, Alina Liersch, Anna Olejnik, Katarzyna Kozłowska, Jan Bocianowski, Teresa Cegielska-Taras
Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Moniek van Geem, Rieta Gols, Ciska E Raaijmakers, Jeffrey A Harvey
Insects feeding on aboveground and belowground tissues can influence each other through their shared plant and this is often mediated by changes in plant chemistry. We examined the effects of belowground root fly (Delia radicum) herbivory on the performance of an aboveground herbivore (Plutella xylostella) and its endoparasitoid wasp (Cotesia vestalis). Insects were reared on three populations of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) plants, exhibiting qualitative and quantitative differences in root and shoot defense chemistry, that had or had not been exposed to root herbivory...
2016: Chemoecology
Dawei Zhang, Qi Pan, Chen Tan, Bin Zhu, Xianhong Ge, Yujiao Shao, Zaiyun Li
The young allotetraploid Brassica napus (2n = 38, AACC) is one of models to study genomic responses to allopolyploidization. The extraction of AA component from natural B. napus and then restitution of progenitor B. rapa should provide a unique opportunity to reveal the genome interplay for gene expressions during the evolution. Herein, B. napus hybrids (2n = 19, AC) between the extracted and extant B. rapa (2n = 20, AA) and the same B. oleracea genotype (2n = 18, CC) were studied by RNA-seq and compared with natural B...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Abdullah, Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Ali Asghar, Imran Pasha, Rabia Usman, Muhammad Shamoon, Muhammad Arslan Bhatti, Muhammad Asim Irshad, Naveed Ahmad
The increasing use of pesticides for boosting the yield of agricultural crops also impart toxic residues which ultimately extend to numerous physiological disorders upon consumption. The present study was designed as an effort to assess the reduction potential of various chemical solutions and to minimize the pesticide residues in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). The samples were soaked in various solutions along with tap water to mitigate pesticide residues. Afterwards, the extracted supernatant was passed through column containing anhydrous sodium sulfate trailed by activated carbon for clean-up...
August 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Go-Eun Yi, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Kiwoung Yang, Jong-In Park, Byung Ho Hwang, Ill-Sup Nou
Glucosinolates have anti-carcinogenic properties. In the recent decades, the genetics of glucosinolate biosynthesis has been widely studied, however, the expression of specific genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis under exogenous phytohormone treatment has not been explored at the subspecies level in Brassica oleracea. Such data are vital for strategies aimed at selective exploitation of glucosinolate profiles. This study quantified the expression of 38 glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes in three B...
October 24, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lydiane Gaborieau, Gregory G Brown
BACKGROUND: The plant trait of cytoplasmically-inherited male sterility (CMS) and its suppression by nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can be viewed as a genetic arms race between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Most nuclear Rf genes have been shown to encode P-type pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPRs). Phylogenetic analysis of P-class PPRs from sequenced plants genomes has shown that Rf-proteins cluster in a distinct clade of P-class PPRs, RFL-PPRs, that display hallmarks of positive evolutionary selection...
October 26, 2016: BMC Genomics
Alena Vanduchova, Veronika Tomankova, Pavel Anzenbacher, Eva Anzenbacherova
The influence of metabolites of sulforaphane, natural compounds present in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis italica) and in other cruciferous vegetables, on drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human liver microsomes and possible entry of sulforaphane into human hepatic cells were investigated. Metabolites studied are compounds derived from sulforaphane by the mercapturic acid pathway (conjugation with glutathione and by following reactions), namely sulforaphane glutathione and sulforaphane cysteine conjugates and sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Christiane E M Duarte, Monise V Abranches, Patrick F Silva, Sérgio O de Paula, Silvia A Cardoso, Leandro L Oliveira
Lectins are involved in a wide range of biological mechanisms, like immunomodulatory agent able to activate the innate immunity. In this study, we purified and characterized a new lectin from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea ssp. botrytis - BOL) by three sequential chromatographic steps and confirmed the purity by SDS-PAGE. Additionally, we evaluated the role of the lectin in innate immunity by a phagocytosis assay, production of H2O2 and NO. BOL was characterized like a non-glycosylated protein that showed a molecular mass of ∼34kDa in SDS-PAGE...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rongfang Guo, Zhongkai Huang, Yanping Deng, Xiaodong Chen, Xu XuHan, Zhongxiong Lai
Brassica sprouts contain abundant phytochemicals, especially glucosinolates (GSs). Various methods have been used to enhance GS content in sprouts. However, the molecular basis of GS metabolism in sprouts remains an open question. Here we employed RNA-seq analysis to compare the transcriptomes of high-GS (JL-08) and low-GS (JL-09) Brassica alboglabra sprouts. Paired-end Illumina RNA-seq reads were generated and mapped to the Brassica oleracea reference genome. The differentially expressed genes were analyzed between JL-08 and JL-09...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jingxue Wang, Sanjay K Singh, Chunfang Du, Chen Li, Jianchun Fan, Sitakanta Pattanaik, Ling Yuan
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world's supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl-lipid metabolism (ALM) genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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