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Brassica oleracea

Kiwoung Yang, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Manosh Kumar Biswas, Md Abdul Kayum, Go-Eun Yi, Jonghoon Lee, Tae-Jin Yang, Ill-Sup Nou
Plant mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) vary in sequence structure. We assembled the Brassica oleracea var. capitata mtDNA using a mean coverage depth of 25X whole genome sequencing (WGS) and confirmed the presence of eight contigs/fragments by BLASTZ using the previously reported KJ820683 and AP012988 mtDNA as reference. Assembly of the mtDNA sequence reads resulted in a circular structure of 219,975 bp. Our assembled mtDNA, NCBI acc. no. KU831325, contained 34 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 19 tRNA genes with similarity to the KJ820683 and AP012988 reference mtDNA...
2018: PloS One
Michał Rurek, Magdalena Czołpińska, Tomasz Andrzej Pawłowski, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Tomasz Spiżewski
Complex proteomic and physiological approaches for studying cold and heat stress responses in plant mitochondria are still limited. Variations in the mitochondrial proteome of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) curds after cold and heat and after stress recovery were assayed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) in relation to mRNA abundance and respiratory parameters. Quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial proteome revealed numerous stress-affected protein spots. In cold, major downregulations in the level of photorespiratory enzymes, porine isoforms, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and some low-abundant proteins were observed...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fabien Bernard, Sylvain Dumez, Sébastien Lemière, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Annabelle Deram, Franck Vandenbulcke, Damien Cuny
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg-1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jieyong Ou, Hong Li, Zengguang Yan, Youya Zhou, Liping Bai, Chaoyan Zhang, Xuedong Wang, Guikui Chen
Clay minerals have been proposed as amendments for remediating metal-contaminated soils owing to their abundant reserves, high performance, simplicity of use and low cost. Two novel clay minerals, Maifan stone and illite/smectite clay, were examined in the in situ immobilisation of soil metals. The application of 0.5% Maifan stone or illite/smectite clay to field soils significantly decreased the fractions of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu and Pb. Furthermore, reductions of 35...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amarjeet Singh, Bhavana Sharma, Renu Deswal
In the present study, we report perhaps for the first time the use of novel varieties of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Raphanus sativus as potential bioreductant, to synthesize highly stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, no aggregation observed for six months), which is a significant finding as plant extract-directed AgNPs are intrinsically unstable and tend to aggregate. The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 nanostructures was confirmed using UVVis spectroscopy showing SPR spectra at 400-435 nm. Nanosight and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showed monodisperse spherical AgNPs (4-18 nm)...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Barbara Manachini, Giuseppe Bazan, Rosario Schicchi
The general increase of the cultivation and trade of Bt transgenic plants resistant to Lepidoptera pests raises concerns regarding the conservation of animal and plant biodiversity. Demand for biofuels has increased the cultivation and importation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including transgenic lines. In environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for its potential future cultivation as well as for food and feed uses, the impact on wild Brassicaeae relatives and on non-target Lepidoptera should be assessed...
March 14, 2018: Insect Science
Aditi Jain, Saurabh Anand, Neer K Singh, Sandip Das
The impact of polyploidy on functional diversification of cis-regulatory elements is poorly understood. This is primarily on account of lack of well-defined structure of cis-elements and a universal regulatory code. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of sequence and functional diversification of paralogous and homeologous promoter elements associated with MIR164 from Brassica. The availability of whole genome sequence allowed us to identify and isolate a total of 42 homologous copies of MIR164 from diploid species-Brassica rapa (A-genome), Brassica nigra (B-genome), Brassica oleracea (C-genome), and allopolyploids-Brassica juncea (AB-genome), Brassica carinata (BC-genome) and Brassica napus (AC-genome)...
March 12, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Miaomiao Xing, Chao Sun, Hailong Li, Shilin Hu, Lei Lei, Jungen Kang
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata), an important vegetable crop in the Brassicaceae family, is economically important worldwide. In the process of hybrid seed production, Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (OguCMS), controlled by the mitochondrial gene orf138, has been extensively used for cabbage hybrid production with complete and stable male sterility. To identify the critical genes and pathways involved in the sterility and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, the anther of OguCMS line R2P2CMS and the fertile line R2P2 were used for RNA-seq and iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation) proteome analysis...
2018: PloS One
Gopala, Ekta Khasa, Ashutosh Rao, Madhupriya, G P Rao
Nine vegetable plants species exhibiting phytoplasma suspected symptoms of white/purple leaf, little leaf, flat stem, witches' broom, phyllody and leaf yellowing were observed in experimental fields at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi from December 2015 to July 2016. Total DNA extracted from the three healthy and three symptomatic leaves of all the nine vegetables were subjected to PCR assays using phytoplasma specific primers P1/P7 followed by R16F2n/R16R2 and 3Far/3Rev to amplify the 16S rDNA fragments...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Kamila Kasprzak, Tomasz Oniszczuk, Agnieszka Wójtowicz, Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Marta Olech, Renata Nowak, Renata Polak, Anna Oniszczuk
Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale ( Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica )-a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Sun Young Kim, Jai-Eok Park, Eun Ok Kim, Sue Ji Lim, Eui Jeong Nam, Ji Ho Yun, GyHye Yoo, Sang-Rok Oh, Hyoung Seok Kim, Chu Won Nho
A plant factory is a closed cultivation system that provides a consistent and modified environment for plant growth. We speculated that treatment of kale (Brassica oleracea) grown in a plant factory with NaCl, Na2 SeO3 , or both would increase the bioactive phytochemical levels including glucosinolates (GLSs) and isothiocyanates (ITCs), the key molecules in cancer prevention. The kale was harvested and analysed after treatment with NaCl and Na2 SeO3 alone or in combination for 1 or 2 weeks. Exposure to NaCl alone but not Na2 SeO3 increased plant root growth...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sundar Tiwari, Nicholas Dickinson, David J Saville, Stephen D Wratten
The wheat bug, Nysius huttoni L. is an endemic New Zealand pest. The seedlings of forage brassicas are highly susceptible to direct feeding damage by this insect, and this can reduce plant establishment. Prophylactic use of pesticides is the usual practice for N. huttoni management. These practices have been linked to environmental pollution, biodiversity loss, and pollinator population declines in brassicas and other crops. Habitat management of the bug utilizing potential trap crops can be a better option for its management...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Qinfei Li, Yangui Chen, Fang Yue, Wei Qian, Hongyuan Song
The strategies of crossing B. napus with parental species play important role in broadening and improving the genetic basis of B. napus by the introgression of genetic resources from parental species. With these strategies, it is easy to select new types of B. napus, but difficult to select new types of B. rapa or B. oleracea by self-pollination. This characteristic may be a consequence of high competition with B. napus gametes. To verify the role of gamete viability in producing new B. napus individuals, the meiotic chromosome behavior of the interspecific hybrid between B...
2018: PloS One
Sang Sook Lee, Won Yong Jung, Hyun Ji Park, Arum Lee, Suk-Yoon Kwon, Hyun-Soon Kim, Hye Sun Cho
Introduction: High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) studies demonstrate that Alter-native Splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism that enhances transcriptome diversity, particularly in plants exposed to environmental stress. In an attempt to determine the transcriptome and AS patterns of cabbage inbred line "HO" under Heat Stress (HS), RNA-Seq was carried out using HS-treated and con-trol samples. Genome-wide analysis indicated that AS is differentially regulated in response to HS...
January 2018: Current Genomics
Ye-Jin Park, Hye-Min Lee, MinJung Shin, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Doug Young Chung, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Sun-Ju Kim
Kale ( Brassica oleracea L. Acephala Group) is the rich source of medicinal value sulphur compounds, glucosinolates (GLSs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different proportion of sulphur (S) supplementation levels on the accumulation of GLSs in the leaves of the kale cultivar ('TBC'). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation method guided to identify and quantify six GSLs including three aliphatic (progoitrin, sinigrin and gluconapin) and three indolyl (glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and neoglucobrasscin) respectively...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Arne Rosen, Yaser Hasan, William Briggs, Ralf Uptmoor
The development of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) is highly dependent on temperature due to vernalization requirements, which often causes delay and unevenness in maturity during months with warm temperatures. Integrating quantitative genetic analyses with phenology modeling was suggested to accelerate breeding strategies toward wide-adaptation cauliflower. The present study aims at establishing a genome-based model simulating the development of doubled haploid (DH) cauliflower lines to predict time to curd induction of DH lines not used for model parameterization and test hybrids derived from the bi-parental cross...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yoshio Makino, Yuto Nishimura, Seiichi Oshita, Takaharu Mizosoe, Takashi Akihiro
Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that is usually found in cruciferous vegetables and is known to have a depressive effect on gastric cancer. Preliminary investigations showed that the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets increased under anoxia. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of different atmospheric conditions on the sulforaphane concentration in broccoli and also tested whether there are concurrent effects on the concentration of ethanol, which is an unfavorable byproduct of fermentation...
2018: PloS One
Carmen K Blubaugh, Jacob S Asplund, Sanford D Eigenbrode, Matthew J Morra, Christopher R Philips, Inna E Popova, John P Reganold, William E Snyder
Plant defenses often mediate whether competing chewing and sucking herbivores indirectly benefit or harm one another. Dual guild herbivory also can muddle plant signals used by specialist natural enemies to locate prey, further complicating the net impact of herbivore-herbivore interactions in naturally diverse settings. While dual guild herbivore communities are common in nature, their community trilevel consequences are unclear, as chemically mediated tri-trophic interactions are rarely evaluated in field environments...
February 21, 2018: Ecology
Eltohamy A A Yousef, Thomas Müller, Andreas Börner, Karl J Schmid
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an important vegetable crop for human nutrition. We characterized 192 cauliflower accessions from the USDA and IPK genebanks with genotyping by sequencing (GBS). They originated from 26 different countries and represent about 44% of all cauliflower accessions in both genebanks. The analysis of genetic diversity revealed that accessions formed two major groups that represented the two genebanks and were not related to the country of origin. This differentiation was robust with respect to the analysis methods that included principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE and neighbor-joining trees...
2018: PloS One
G M Domingos, E L L Baldin, V F Canassa, I F Silva, A L Lourenção
Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of vegetable crops, including collard greens Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae). The use of resistant genotypes is an interesting option to reduce insect populations and can be used as an important tool for integrated pest management (IPM). This study evaluated 32 genotypes of collard greens against the attack of silver leaf whitefly, with the aim to characterize antixenosis. Initially, a multiple-choice trial was conducted using all genotypes, in which the adult attractiveness was assessed on two leaves per genotype at 24 and 48 h after infestation...
February 2, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
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