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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913150/sis3-a-specific-inhibitor-of-smad3-attenuates-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice
#1
Juanjuan Shou, Jingjing Cao, Shanshan Zhang, Ruicong Sun, Mengmeng Zhao, Keqiang Chen, Shao Bo Su, Jianhua Yang, Tianshu Yang
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a fatal respiratory disease with no effective medical treatments available. TGF-β/Smads signaling has been implicated to play an essential in the pathogenesis of PF, in which Smad3 act as the integrator of pro-fibrosis signals. In this study, we determined the effect of SIS3, a specific inhibitor of Smad3, in an experimental mouse model of lung fibrosis. We observed that SIS3 treatment significantly reduced bleomycin (BLM)-induced pathological changes and collagen deposition in the lung as indicated by Masson staining, real-time PCR and hydroxyproline content assay...
June 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910813/s100a4-is-secreted-by-alternatively-activated-alveolar-macrophages-and-promotes-activation-of-lung-fibroblasts-in-pulmonary-fibrosis
#2
Wei Zhang, Shinji Ohno, Beatrix Steer, Stephan Klee, Claudia A Staab-Weijnitz, Darcy Wagner, Mareike Lehmann, Tobias Stoeger, Melanie Königshoff, Heiko Adler
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating interstitial lung disease, characterized by damage of lung epithelial cells, excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in the lung interstitium, and enhanced activation and proliferation of fibroblasts. S100a4, also termed FSP-1 (fibroblast-specific protein-1), was previously considered as a marker of fibroblasts but recent findings in renal and liver fibrosis indicated that M2 macrophages are an important cellular source of S100a4. Thus, we hypothesized that also in pulmonary fibrosis, M2 macrophages produce and secrete S100a4, and that secreted S100a4 induces the proliferation and activation of fibroblasts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910732/bleomycin-aggravates-atopic-dermatitis-via-lung-inflammation-in-2-4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced-nc-nga-mice
#3
Yoon-Young Sung, Seung-Hyung Kim, Won-Kyung Yang, Yang-Chun Park, Ho Kyoung Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Bleomycin (BLM) contributes to the induction of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in animals. Although skin and lung tissue inflammation is closely related in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, a proper animal model for investigating the relationship between skin and lung inflammation is lacking. Therefore, we developed a mouse model of AD with relapsing dermatitis and pulmonary fibrosis caused by the administration of allergen and BLM. The present study determined whether lung injury caused by the bronchial application of BLM would exacerbate AD-like allergic inflammation induced by 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in NC/Nga mice...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909619/energetics-of-nanoparticle-exsolution-from-perovskite-oxides
#4
Yang Gao, Ziheng Lu, Tsam Lung You, Jian Wang, Lin Xie, Jiaqing He, Francesco Ciucci
The presence of active metal nanoparticles on the surface significantly increases the electrochemical performance of ABO3 perovskite oxide materials. While conventional deposition methods can improve the activity, in situ exsolution produces nanoparticles with far greater stability. The migration of transition metal atoms towards the surface is expected to affect the exsolution process. To study the energetics, we use ab initio computations combined with experiments in a SrTiO3-based model system. Our calculations show that Ni preferentially segregates towards the (100) oriented and SrTiO terminated surfaces, note that this orientation is identical to one reported by the Irvine and Gorte groups...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892540/black-lungs-and-big-nodes-a-case-of-airway-anthracosis-with-bronchial-anthracofibrosis
#5
S R Devarajan, N Zarrin-Khameh, P Alapat
We present a case of a 76 year-old, non-smoking Honduran female who was referred to our clinic for years of persistent dry cough. Cardiac evaluation was unremarkable. She denied symptoms of heartburn, allergic rhinitis, and there was no personal or family history of asthma. Her physical exam demonstrated wheezing over the right mid-posterior chest. Spirometry was within normal limits. CT-imaging of the chest demonstrated right middle lobe bronchus and lingular segmental bronchus narrowing with bibasilar atelectasis and mild interlobular septal thickening with prominent mediastinal adenopathy...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890754/nanoscale-electrical-potential-and-roughness-of-a-calcium-phosphate-surface-promotes-the-osteogenic-phenotype-of-stromal-cells
#6
Igor A Khlusov, Yuri Dekhtyar, Yurii P Sharkeev, Vladimir F Pichugin, Marina Y Khlusova, Nataliya Polyaka, Fedor Tyulkin, Viktorija Vendinya, Elena V Legostaeva, Larisa S Litvinova, Valeria V Shupletsova, Olga G Khaziakhmatova, Kristina A Yurova, Konstantin A Prosolov
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteoblasts respond to the surface electrical charge and topography of biomaterials. This work focuses on the connection between the roughness of calcium phosphate (CP) surfaces and their electrical potential (EP) at the micro- and nanoscales and the possible role of these parameters in jointly affecting human MSC osteogenic differentiation and maturation in vitro. A microarc CP coating was deposited on titanium substrates and characterized at the micro- and nanoscale. Human adult adipose-derived MSCs (hAMSCs) or prenatal stromal cells from the human lung (HLPSCs) were cultured on the CP surface to estimate MSC behavior...
June 9, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886099/effect-of-delayed-pmdi-actuation-on-the-lung-deposition-of-a-fixed-dose-combination-aerosol-drug
#7
Árpád Farkas, Alpár Horváth, Attila Kerekes, Attila Nagy, Szilvia Kugler, Lilla Tamási, Gábor Tomisa
Lack of coordination between the beginning of the inhalation and device triggering is one of the most frequent errors reported in connection with the use of pMDI devices. Earlier results suggested a significant loss in lung deposition as a consequence of late actuation. However, most of our knowledge on the effect of poor synchronization is based on earlier works on CFC devices emitting large particles with high initial velocities. The aim of this study was to apply numerical techniques to analyse the effect of late device actuation on the lung dose of a HFA pMDI drug emitting high fraction of extrafine particles used in current asthma and COPD therapy...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884181/the-therapeutic-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-pulmonary-myeloid-cells-following-neonatal-hyperoxic-lung-injury-in-mice
#8
Ali Al-Rubaie, Andrea F Wise, Foula Sozo, Robert De Matteo, Chrishan S Samuel, Richard Harding, Sharon D Ricardo
BACKGROUND: Exposure to high levels of oxygen (hyperoxia) after birth leads to lung injury. Our aims were to investigate the modulation of myeloid cell sub-populations and the reduction of fibrosis in the lungs following administration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to neonatal mice exposed to hyperoxia. METHOD: Newborn mice were exposed to 90% O2 (hyperoxia) or 21% O2 (normoxia) from postnatal days 0-4. A sub-group of hyperoxia mice were injected intratracheally with 2...
June 8, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883664/preparation-and-quality-evaluation-of-salvianolic-acids-and-tanshinones-dry-powder-inhalation
#9
Jian-Hong Wang, Wen-Wen Zhai, Jia-Qi Yu, Jie Wang, Jun-Dong Dai
Salvianolic acids and tanshinones both exhibit efficacy in treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but their formulation limits their clinical use. This study aimed to prepare the Salvianolic acids and tanshinones dry powder for inhalatioan (SPI) to achieve pulmonary delivery for the treatment of IPF. The variable quantities of Salvianolic acids and tanshinones composite powder (STW) were optimized using the central composite design-response surface method. Different carriers with various drug-carrier ratios were optimized to prepare SPI...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879675/health-risk-assessment-due-to-biomass-smoke-exposure-in-indian-indoor-environment-an-empirical-approach-using-lung-deposition-model
#10
Snehlata Tigala, Anu Rani Sharma, Kamna Sachdeva
The paper subsumes a framework that assesses health risk due to exposure to different fuel combustion through articulation of modern microscopic techniques, empirical equations, lung diagnostic tools and a pre-existing model that has been extrapolated to futuristic aspects (within controlled conditions). The framework was tested on 132 household cooks belonging to different age groups and using different types of fuel. The inhalable fraction released during fuel combustion varied in morphological characteristics and deposition site...
June 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878859/in-vitro-tests-for-aerosol-deposition-vi-realistic-testing-with-different-mouth-throat-models-and-in-vitro-in-vivo-correlations-for-a-dry-powder-inhaler-metered-dose-inhaler-and-soft-mist-inhaler
#11
Xiangyin Wei, Michael Hindle, Anubhav Kaviratna, Bao K Huynh, Renishkumar R Delvadia, Dennis Sandell, Peter R Byron
BACKGROUND: In vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) for lung deposition may be established by testing inhalers in vitro with realistic mouth-throat (MT) models and inhalation profiles (IP). This study was designed to compare the currently available MT models and their ability to predict in vivo lung deposition. METHODS: Budelin® Novolizer® , Ventolin® Evohaler® , and Respimat® fenoterol were chosen to represent a dry powder inhaler (DPI), metered dose inhaler (MDI), and soft mist inhaler (SMI) in tests using eight MT models: small, medium, and large Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) models; small, medium, and large oropharyngeal consortium (OPC) models, the medium adult Alberta Idealized Throat (AIT), and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Induction Port, with IPs that simulated those used by volunteers in lung scintigraphy studies...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870400/topographic-distribution-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-hybrid-physics-and-agent-based-model
#12
Tyler J Wellman, Jarred R Mondoñedo, Gerald S Davis, Jason H T Bates, Bela Suki
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disease characterized by excessive deposition of collagen and associated stiffening of lung tissue. While it is known that inflammation and dysfunction of fibroblasts are involved in disease development, it remains poorly understood how cells and their microenvironment interact to produce a characteristic subpleural pattern of high and low tissue density variations, called honeycombing, on CT images of patients with IPF. Since the pleura is stiffer than the parenchyma, we hypothesized that local stiffness of the underlying extracellular matrix (ECM) can influence fibroblast activation and consequently the deposition of collagen, which in turn influences tissue stiffness in a positive feedback loop...
June 5, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864937/fgf21-attenuates-pulmonary-fibrogenesis-through-ameliorating-oxidative-stress-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#13
Shengqi Zhang, Dan Yu, Mengxia Wang, Tao Huang, Hongsong Wu, Yu Zhang, Teng Zhang, Wenfei Wang, Jiechao Yin, Guiping Ren, Deshan Li
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic, progressive lung disease, characterized by excessive matrix formation, destruction of the normal lung architecture, dysfunction and finally death. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a promising pleiotropic regulator in glucolipid metabolism. Recently, we reported that FGF21 attenuates hepatic fibrogenesis. However, the role of FGF21 on PF is unknown. In this study, mice endotracheal instilled with bleomycin (BLM) were used to study the effect of FGF21 on PF. Bleomycin-instilled mice were administered with pirfenidone (PFD) or FGF21 daily for 3 weeks from 7 days after instillation of BLM...
July 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859808/preclinical-evaluation-of-aerosol-administration-systems-using-positron-emission-tomography
#14
Unai Cossío, Vanessa Gómez-Vallejo, María Flores, Braulio Gañán-Calvo, Gloria Jurado, Jordi Llop
Pulmonary administration of drugs has recently gained attention because it exhibits numerous advantages compared to oral or intravenous administration. The administration of aerosols for inhalation to animals, however, remains a critical challenge and only a few methods of administration have been developed. Herein, we compare the regional distribution of aerosols in the lungs of wild type rats after pulmonary administration using three different methods: (a) The Penn-Century MicroSprayer® Aerosolizer; (b) an in-house designed aerosol generation system; and (c) the Aeroneb® Lab Micropump Nebulizer...
May 31, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858973/effects-of-formulation-variables-on-lung-dosimetry-of-albuterol-sulfate-suspension-and-beclomethasone-dipropionate-solution-metered-dose-inhalers
#15
Jeffry D Schroeter, Poonam Sheth, Anthony J Hickey, Bahman Asgharian, Owen T Price, Jay T Holt, Denise S Conti, Bhawana Saluja
The performance of pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) is affected by formulation and device variables that impact delivered dose, aerodynamic particle size distribution, and consequently lung deposition and therapeutic effect. Specific formulation variables of relevance to two commercially available products-Proventil® HFA [albuterol sulfate (AS) suspension] and Qvar® [beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) solution]-were evaluated to determine their influence on key performance attributes measured experimentally with in vitro cascade impaction studies...
June 1, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850455/an-in-vivo-study-on-intoxicating-effects-of-nerium-oleander-water-based-extract-on-multiorgans-of-wistar-rat
#16
Muddasir Hassan Abbasi, Sana Fatima, Muhammad Babar Khawar, Shah Jahan, Nadeem Sheikh
This study was aimed to find histological changes in the extrahepatic organs, hepatic iron deposition, and gene expression of some iron regulatory proteins in rats after sterile muscle abscess during the acute intoxication of Nerium oleander leaves decoction. 10 ml/kg of the leaves extract was injected intramuscularly in Wistar rats (200-225 g, n = 4). Control animals received saline injection of matched volume. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed after 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after administration of decoction...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849940/clinical-characteristics-and-diagnosis-of-a-rare-case-of-systemic-al-amyloidosis-a-descriptive-study
#17
Pengguo Chen, Zhaohan Wang, Hui Liu, Donglin Liu, Zhibin Gong, Jin Qi, Jianfang Hu
Systemic amyloidosis is a rare disease involving multiple organs. It is difficult to establish diagnosis as the symptoms is diverse and non-specific. And without specific therapy the prognosis is very poor. We analyzed detailed clinical and laboratorial data of a 53-year-old male patient. The characteristic features included refractory pleural effusion, extraordinary hepatomegaly and cardiac failure. The illness lasted 9 months and therapy period spanned 4 months. Fine needle biopsy of liver, lung, heart, pancreas and kidney was performed...
May 11, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849831/optimizing-the-delivery-of-inhaled-medication-for-respiratory-patients-the-role-of-valved-holding-chambers
#18
REVIEW
R Andrew McIvor, Hollie M Devlin, Alan Kaplan
Valved holding chambers (VHCs) have been used with pressurized metered-dose inhalers since the early 1980s. They have been shown to increase fine particle delivery to the lungs, decrease oropharyngeal deposition, and reduce side effects such as throat irritation, dysphonia, and oral candidiasis that are common with use of pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) alone. VHCs act as aerosol reservoirs, allowing the user to actuate the pMDI device and then inhale the medication in a two-step process that helps users overcome challenges in coordinating pMDI actuation with inhalation...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849654/a-woman-with-black-beads-in-her-stomach-severe-gastric-ulceration-caused-by-yttrium-90-radioembolization
#19
Indu S Voruganti, James L Godwin, Alyn Adrain, Edward Feller
Radioembolization (RE) is a selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) delivering targeted, high-dose, intra-arterial radiation directly to the vascular supply of liver tumors. Complications can occur due to aberrant deposition or migration of radiation microspheres into nontarget locations, including normal hepatic parenchyma, lungs, pancreas, and upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract. We report a case of gastric ulcers due to yttrium-90 (90 Y) seed migration to the stomach to alert clinicians to this rare cause of gastric injury...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848296/evaluation-of-metastatic-niches-in-distant-organs-after-surgical-removal-of-tumor-bearing-lymph-nodes
#20
Jinhua Zheng, Limin Jia, Shiro Mori, Tetsuya Kodama
BACKGROUND: Surgical removal of primary tumors can promote the incidence of tumor metastasis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. METHODS: We inoculated tumor cells expressing luciferase gene  into subiliac lymph node (SiLN) of the MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice. The tumor-bearing SiLNs were surgically removed at a certain period of time after inoculation. RESULTS: In vivo bioluminescence imaging system and histological staining revealed metastasis in lung, proper axillary lymph node (PALN) and liver...
May 30, 2018: BMC Cancer
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