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Lung deposition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053080/aerosolizing-lipid-dispersions-enables-antibiotic-transport-across-mimics-of-the-lung-airway-surface-even-in-the-presence-of-pre-existing-lipid-monolayers
#1
Steven V Iasella, Amy Z Stetten, Timothy E Corcoran, Stephen Garoff, Todd M Przybycien, Robert D Tilton
BACKGROUND: Secondary lung infections are the primary cause of morbidity associated with cystic fibrosis lung disease. Aerosolized antibiotic inhalation is potentially advantageous but has limited effectiveness due to altered airway aerodynamics and deposition patterns that limit drug access to infected regions. One potential strategy to better reach infected areas is to formulate aerosols with surfactants that induce surface tension gradients and drive postdeposition drug dispersal via Marangoni transport along the airway surface liquid (ASL)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047085/redox-dependent-calpain-signaling-in-airway-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-copd
#2
Laszlo Kovacs, Yunchao Su
The calcium-dependent cytosolic, neutral, thiol endopeptidases, calpains, perform limited cleavage of their substrates thereby irreversibly changing their functions. Calpains have been shown to be involved in several physiological processes such as cell motility, proliferation, cell cycle, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Overactivation of calpain or mutations in the calpain genes contribute to a number of pathological conditions including neurodegenerative disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and lung diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047037/diesel-exhaust-particles-and-the-induction-of-macrophage-activation-and-dysfunction
#3
REVIEW
Akeem O Lawal
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are an important component of air particulate matter, generated from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuel in diesel engines. Several epidemiological and experimental data have shown the ability of DEP to induce oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response as mechanisms in macrophage activation and dysfunction. Macrophages are very important to immunity and immune response due to their ability to phagocyte microbes and parasites. They also respond to toxic chemicals, such as DEP, in the environment and studies have shown that their functions may be impaired by their exposure to DEP...
October 19, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042968/hesperetin-alleviates-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-tubular-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#4
Hong-Wei Wang, Lei Shi, Yan-Ping Xu, Xing-Ya Qin, Qi-Zhi Wang
Hesperetin (HES) is a flavonoid that has been reported to exert protective effects against cardiac remodeling, lung fibrosis and hepatic fibrosis. However, reports on the effects and potential mechanisms of HES in renal fibrosis are limited. In the present study, a unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) mouse model and a transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-activated normal rat kidney (NRK)-52E cell model were established. HES was subsequently administered to these models to evaluate its anti-fibrotic effects and potential underlying mechanisms of action...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042937/inflammation-and-airway-remodeling-of-the-lung-in-guinea-pigs-with-allergic-rhinitis
#5
Zu-Yao Chen, Shou-Hong Zhou, Qiao-Feng Zhou, Hong-Bo Tang
Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma belong to the category of type I allergic diseases, whose pathological features are airway remodeling of the lung and allergic inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate inflammation and remodeling of lung tissue in a guinea pig model of AR in order to confirm consistent pathological changes of upper and lower airways in AR. Male guinea pigs were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group (n=10 in each). The AR model was established by sensitization through intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin for three weeks and bilateral nasal local excitation for twelve weeks...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039215/a-clinical-assessment-and-lung-tissue-burden-from-an-individual-who-worked-as-a-libby-vermiculite-miner
#6
Brad Black, Ronald F Dodson, James R Bruce, Lee W Poye, Claudia Henschke, Gregory Loewen
During its days of operation (1920s-1990), the world's largest source of vermiculite was extracted from a mine located near Libby, Montana. The material mined at this site was shipped for various commercial applications to numerous sites in the United States. There was a "fibrous" component with toxic potential within the vermiculite deposit that has resulted in "asbestos-like" diseases/deaths being reported in numerous studies involving miners as well as residents of the town of Libby. The present case involves the clinical assessments of an individual who worked at the mine from 1969 to 1990...
October 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038189/nodular-pulmonary-amyloidosis-a-complex-disease-with-malignancy-association
#7
Jacob M Core, Ali A Alsaad, Liuyan Jiang, Neal M Patel
Pulmonary amyloidosis is a rare disease that incorporates deposition of amyloid microfibril material in the lung parenchyma. The condition generally presents as an indolent subacute-to-chronic pulmonary disease and requires tissue biopsy to establish the diagnosis. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis, a subtype of pulmonary amyloidosis, is characterised by special radiographic and pathological features. While the disease can be associated with inflammatory conditions; its association with mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is unusual and carries management challenges...
October 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035287/cardio-pulmonary-involvement-in-systemic-sclerosis-a-study-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#8
Geetakiran Arakkal, Sudha Rani Chintagunta, Vasavilatha Chandika, Sudha Vani Damarla, Srinivas Manchala, B Udaya Kumar
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem disorder characterized by microangiopathy, dysregulation of the immune system and massive deposition of collagen in the connective tissue of the skin, blood vessels and various internal organs. Although the mortality from renal crises has dropped significantly due to the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, cardiac and pulmonary involvement accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. We studied 28 patients with systemic sclerosis at Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Hyderabad, over a period of two years for cardiopulmonary involvement...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035132/hybrid-lipid-polymer-nanoparticles-for-pulmonary-delivery-of-sirna-development-and-fate-upon-in-vitro-deposition-on-the-human-epithelial-airway-barrier
#9
Ivana d'Angelo, Gabriella Costabile, Estelle Durantie, Paola Brocca, Valeria Rondelli, Annapina Russo, Giulia Russo, Agnese Miro, Fabiana Quaglia, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Francesca Ungaro
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the downregulation of genes involved in the pathogenesis of severe lung diseases through local siRNA delivery appears an interesting therapeutic approach. In this study, we propose novel hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles (hNPs) consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as siRNA inhalation system. METHODS: A panel of DPPC/PLGA hNPs was prepared by emulsion/solvent diffusion and fully characterized...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035122/homogeneity-of-aerosol-deposition-and-mucociliary-clearance-are-improved-following-ivacaftor-treatment-in-cystic-fibrosis
#10
William D Bennett, Kirby L Zeman, Beth L Laube, Jihong Wu, Gail Sharpless, Peter J Mogayzel, Scott H Donaldson
BACKGROUND: Using planar gamma scintigraphy of inhaled radioaerosols, we have developed new analytical methods for assessing homogeneity of aerosol deposition and time-dependent particle clearance on a pixel-by-pixel basis, and applied them to a therapeutic cystic fibrosis (CF) study. METHODS: At baseline and 1 month after beginning treatment with ivacaftor, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator modulator for CF patients with at least one copy of the G551D mutation (n = 13), initial deposition and subsequent mucociliary clearance (MCC) of radiolabeled particles ((99m)Technetium-sulfur colloid, 5 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) inhaled under controlled breathing conditions were measured...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031615/the-leukotriene-receptor-antagonist-pranlukast-attenuates-airway-remodeling-by-suppressing-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#11
Jung Hur, Ji Young Kang, Chin Kook Rhee, Young Kyoon Kim, Sook Young Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling, which are associated with a loss in lung function. Although both contribute significantly to asthma pathogenesis, mechanistic studies and drug discovery have focused on inflammatory targets. In this study, we investigated the effect of the leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling in vivo and in vitro. METHOD: Four groups of female BALB/c mice (control; ovalbumin [OVA]-sensitized and -challenged; dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]-treated OVA; and pranlukast-treated OVA) were examined...
October 12, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031221/effects-of-particulate-matter-from-straw-burning-on-lung-fibrosis-in-mice
#12
Yang Hu, Liu-Sheng Wang, Yan Li, Qiu-Hong Li, Chun-Lin Li, Jian-Min Chen, Dong Weng, Hui-Ping Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impacts of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) from straw burning on the acute exacerbation of lung fibrosis in mice and the preventive effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). METHODS: The composition, particle size, and 30-min concentration change in an exposure system of the PM2.5 from straw-burning were determined. Forty C57BL male mice were equally randomized to two groups: bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis with an exposure to air (BLM+air) and BLM+PM2...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029436/xist-mir-139-axis-regulates-bleomycin-blm-induced-extracellular-matrix-ecm-and-pulmonary-fibrosis-through-%C3%AE-catenin
#13
Yichun Wang, Ying Liang, Junming Luo, Jing Nie, Huiming Yin, Qiong Chen, Jing Dong, Jixiang Zhu, Jiamei Xia, Wei Shuai
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF), characterized by the destruction of lung tissue architecture and the abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, currently has no satisfactory treatment. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that XIST play a promotive role in bleomycin (BLM)-induced ECM and pulmonary fibrosis; XIST exerts its effect through miR-139 regulation. XIST expression was upregulated in lung tissues derived from BLM-induced mouse model of PF, and was positively correlated with β-catenin and ECM protein levels, respectively...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026127/controlled-delivery-and-minimally-invasive-imaging-of-stem-cells-in-the-lung
#14
Jinho Kim, Brandon Guenthart, John D O'Neill, N Valerio Dorrello, Matthew Bacchetta, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Intratracheal delivery of stem cells into injured or diseased lungs can provide a variety of therapeutic and immunomodulatory effects for the treatment of acute lung injury and chronic lung disease. While the efficacy of this approach depends on delivering the proper cell dosage into the target region of the airway, tracking and analysis of the cells have been challenging, largely due to the limited understanding of cell transport and lack of suitable cell monitoring techniques. We report on the transport and deposition of intratracheally delivered stem cells as well as strategies to modulate the number of cells (e...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025711/toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-have-opposing-roles-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cigarette-smoke-induced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
Tatt Jhong Haw, Malcolm R Starkey, Stelios Pavlidis, Michael Fricker, Anya L Arthurs, Prema Mono Nair, Gang Liu, Irwan Hanish, Richard Y Kim, Paul S Foster, Jay C Horvat, Ian M Adcock, Philip M Hansbro
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of morbidity and death and imposes major socioeconomic burdens globally. It is a progressive and disabling condition that severely impairs breathing and lung function. There is a lack of effective treatments for COPD, which is a direct consequence of the poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in driving the pathogenesis of the disease. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 are implicated in chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD, asthma and pulmonary fibrosis...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024475/bioengineered-lungs-generated-from-human-ipscs-derived-epithelial-cells-on-native-extracellular-matrix
#16
Mahboobe Ghaedi, Andrew V Le, Go Hatachi, Arkadi Beloiartsev, Kevin Rocco, Amogh Sivarapatna, Julio J Mendez, Pavlina Baevova, Rachel N Dyal, Katie L Leiby, Eric S White, Laura E Niklason
Controls on the spatiotemporal extent of groundwater flooding are poorly understood, despite the long duration of groundwater flood events and distinct social and economic impacts. We developed a novel approach using statistical analysis of groundwater level hydrographs and impulse response functions (IRFs) and applied it to the 2013/14 Chalk groundwater flooding in the English Lowlands. We proposed a standardised index of groundwater flooding which we calculated for monthly groundwater levels for 26 boreholes in the Chalk...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022837/critical-parameters-for-particle-based-pulmonary-delivery-of-chemotherapeutics
#17
Ali Dabbagh, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim, Chai Hong Yeong, Tin Wui Wong, Noorsaadah Abdul Rahman
Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics through the respiratory system is a potential approach to improve drug accumulation in the lung tumor, while decreasing their negative side effects. However, elimination by the pulmonary clearance mechanisms, including the mucociliary transport system, and ingestion by the alveolar macrophages, rapid absorption into the blood, enzymatic degradation, and low control over the deposition rate and location remain the main complications for achieving an effective pulmonary drug delivery...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017384/leukocyte-cell-derived-chemotaxin-2-amyloidosis-alect2-in-a-patient-with-lung-adenocarcinoma-an-autopsy-report-and-literature-review
#18
Hamza Tariq, Francis E Sharkey
Amyloidosis caused by deposition of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 amyloidosis (ALECT2) is the most recently described form of systemic amyloidosis and has quickly emerged as a common and possibly underdiagnosed cause of slowly declining renal function, particularly in patients of Hispanic ancestry. We describe the autopsy findings in a 70-year-old Hispanic woman who died of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma and was incidentally found to have extensive amyloid deposition in the kidneys, liver, spleen, adrenal glands, small intestine, gallbladder, lungs, bilateral ovaries, and uterus...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993882/commuter-exposure-to-fine-and-ultrafine-particulate-matter-in-vienna
#19
Georg Strasser, Stefan Hiebaum, Manfred Neuberger
Mass concentrations PM10, PM2.5, PM1, particle number concentrations of ultrafine particles and lung deposited surface area were measured during commutes with a subway, tram, bus, car and bicycle in Vienna for the first time. Obtained data were examined for significant differences in personal exposure when using various transport modalities along similar routes. Mean PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were significantly higher in the subway when compared to buses. Mean PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were significantly higher in the subway when compared to cars using low ventilation settings...
October 9, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993573/measurement-of-nanoparticle-exposure-in-crematoriums-and-estimation-of-respiratory-deposition-of-the-nanoparticles-by-number-and-size-distribution
#20
Nobuhuki Kato, Yasuto Mastui, Masaki Takaoka, Minoru Yoneda
OBJECTIVES: Nanoparticles (NPs), including hazardous substances, are generated in crematoriums due to the high temperatures during the combustion process. NPs are reported to greatly impact animals' health by reaching the alveoli and being carried to the entire body through the blood stream. However, studies in crematoriums have yet to assess workers' exposure to the generated NPs. The purpose of this study is to assess workers' exposure to NPs released in crematoriums. METHODS: Field surveys were conducted in three crematoriums with an emphasis on cremation, bone rearrangement and cleaning processes...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
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