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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667142/pulmonary-cement-embolism-is-not-associated-with-the-cause-of-death-in-a-post-mortem-cohort-of-cement-augmented-interventions-in-the-spine
#1
Sebastian Butscheidt, Tim Rolvien, Jakob Ritter, Axel Heinemann, Hermann Vogel, Michael Amling, Klaus Püschel
PURPOSE: Complications of cement-augmented interventions (e.g., kyphoplasty) in the spine include local cement leakage and pulmonary cement embolisms (PCE). This study was conducted to determine their extent in a unique post-mortem cohort. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of post-mortem whole-body CT scans and review of autopsy results in 29 consecutive cases with cement-augmented interventions in the spine. PCE findings were graded based on cement deposits: grade 0 (no PCE), grade 1 (1-3 PCE), grade 2 (4-6 PCE), and grade 3 (> 6 or branch-shaped PCE)...
April 17, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663282/the-frozen-brain-state-of-cryptococcus-gattii-a-globe-trotting-tropical-neurotropic-fungus
#2
Paul T Akins, Brian Jian
Initially reported in tropical regions, Cryptococcus gattii infection is now diagnosed globally. METHODS: case report; Literature review. Although initial reports described outbreaks of pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) disease in tropical regions such as Australia and New Guinea, it is now clear that Cryptococcus gattii is a global, neurotropic pathogen. In contrast with C. neoformans, C. gattii patients are more likely to present with cryptococcomas in the brain and lungs and are often HIV negative...
April 16, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659138/quantification-of-airway-fibrosis-in-asthma-by-flow-cytometry
#3
Andrew Reichard, Nicholas Wanner, Eric Stuehr, Mario Alemagno, Kelly Weiss, Kimberly Queisser, Serpil Erzurum, Kewal Asosingh
Airway fibrosis is a prominent feature of asthma, contributing to the detrimental consequences of the disease. Fibrosis in the airway is the result of collagen deposition in the reticular lamina layer of the subepithelial tissue. Myofibroblasts are the leading cell type involved with this collagen deposition. Established methods of collagen deposition quantification present various issues, most importantly their inability to quantify current collagen biosynthesis occurring in airway myofibroblasts. Here, a novel method to quantify myofibroblast collagen expression in asthmatic lungs is described...
April 16, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652170/pulmonary-transplantation-of-human-ipsc-derived-macrophages-ameliorates-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis
#4
Christine Happle, Nico Lachmann, Mania Ackermann, Anja Mirenska, Gudrun Göhring, Kathrin Thomay, Adele Mucci, Miriam Hetzel, Torsten Glomb, Takuji Suzuki, Claudia Chalk, Silke Glage, Oliver Dittrich-Breiholz, Bruce Trapnell, Thomas Moritz, Gesine Hansen
Rationale While the transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cells harbors enormous potential for the treatment of pulmonary diseases, in vivo data demonstrating clear therapeutic benefits of human iPSC-derived cells in lung disease models is missing. Objective We here tested the therapeutic potential of iPSC-derived macrophages in a humanized disease model of hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (herPAP). herPAP is caused by a genetic defect of the GM-CSF-receptor, which leads to disturbed macrophage differentiation and protein/surfactant degradation in the lungs subsequently resulting in severe respiratory insufficiency...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651545/extracardiac-18-f-florbetapir-imaging-in-patients-with-systemic-amyloidosis-more-than-hearts-and-minds
#5
T Wagner, J Page, M Burniston, A Skillen, J C Ross, R Manwani, D McCool, P N Hawkins, Ashutosh D Wechalekar
PURPOSE: 18 F-Florbetapir has been reported to show cardiac uptake in patients with systemic light-chain amyloidosis (AL). This study systematically assessed uptake of 18 F-florbetapir in patients with proven systemic amyloidosis at sites outside the heart. METHODS: Seventeen patients with proven cardiac amyloidosis underwent 18 F-florbetapir PET/CT imaging, 15 with AL and 2 with transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR). Three patients had repeat scans. All patients had protocolized assessment at the UK National Amyloidosis Centre including imaging with 123 I-serum amyloid P component (SAP)...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649591/inhalable-gadofullerenol-70-fullerenol-as-high-efficiency-ros-scavengers-for-pulmonary-fibrosis-therapy
#6
Yue Zhou, Mingming Zhen, Haijun Ma, Jie Li, Chunying Shu, Chunru Wang
Pulmonary fibrosis has become a fatal disease for its high incidence and few effective drugs available in clinic. In this study, gadofullerenol (GF-OH) and [70] fullerenol (C70 -OH) nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by a one-pot reaction were designed as nanomedicines to treat this fatal disease. It was revealed that the inhalation of gadofullerenols and [70] fullerenols substantially alleviates the collagen deposition induced by acute lung injury. Based on detailed studies of oxidative stress parameters and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 ), we demonstrated they owned the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions for the modulation of ROS-mediated inflammation process...
April 9, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649244/the-characterization-of-surgical-smoke-from-various-tissues-and-its-implications-for-occupational-safety
#7
Markus Karjalainen, Anton Kontunen, Sampo Saari, Topi Rönkkö, Jukka Lekkala, Antti Roine, Niku Oksala
Electrosurgery produces surgical smoke. Different tissues produce different quantities and types of smoke, so we studied the particle characteristics of this surgical smoke in order to analyze the implications for the occupational health of the operation room personnel. We estimated the deposition of particulate matter (PM) from surgical smoke on the respiratory tract of operation room personnel using clinically relevant tissues from Finnish landrace porcine tissues including skeletal muscle, liver, subcutaneous fat, renal pelvis, renal cortex, lung, bronchus, cerebral gray and white matter, and skin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630123/il-33-induced-inflammation-exacerbated-the-development-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-through-oxidative-stress
#8
S-C Zou, J Jiang, J Song
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at exploring the role of IL-33 in mouse chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its potential molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mice model was established by cigarette smoking (CS). COPD mice were randomly assigned into PBS group and IL-33 antibody group. The peripheral blood and lung tissues of mice from two groups were collected for the following experiments. Pathological changes of the lung tissues in both groups were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623041/an-adaptogen-withaferin-a-ameliorates-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-modulating-the-interplay-of-fibrotic-matricelluar-proteins-and-cytokines
#9
Swarna Bale, Pooladanda Venkatesh, Manoj Sunkoju, Chandraiah Godugu
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is chronic lung disease with only two FDA approved clinically available drugs, with limited safety profile. Inadequate therapy motivated us to explore the effect of vimentin inhibitor Withaferin A, as an anti-fibrotic agent against TGF-β1-induced in vitro fibrotic events and Bleomycin induced in vivo fibrosis with an emphasis on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), extracellular matrix deposition (ECM), inflammation, and angiogenesis. In vitro EMT and fibrotic events were induced by TGF-β1 in alveolar epithelial cells and human fetal lung fibroblasts followed by treatment with Withaferin A (0...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621765/nrf2-activation-induced-by-sirt1-ameliorates-acute-lung-injury-after-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-through-nox4-mediated-gene-regulation
#10
DongDong Chai, Lei Zhang, SiWei Xi, YanYong Cheng, Hong Jiang, Rong Hu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a major stress-response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulating ischemic angiogenesis. We investigated the effects of Nrf2 in regulating revascularization and modulating acute lung injury. METHODS: The expression of Nrf2 and sirtuin1 (Sirt1) was assessed in lung tissue by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IIR) in Nrf2-/- and wild-type (WT) mice...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621625/ciprofloxacin-dry-powder-for-inhalation-ciprofloxacin-dpi-technical-design-and-features-of-an-efficient-drug-device-combination
#11
REVIEW
Pamela J McShane, Jeffry G Weers, Thomas E Tarara, Alfred Haynes, Preeti Durbha, Danforth P Miller, Tobias Mundry, Elisabeth Operschall, J Stuart Elborn
Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease with heterogeneous etiology, characterized by a cycle of bacterial infection and inflammation, resulting in increasing airway damage. Exacerbations are an important cause of morbidity and are strongly associated with disease progression. Many patients with bronchiectasis suffer from two or more exacerbations per year. However, there are no approved therapies to reduce or delay exacerbations in this patient population. Ciprofloxacin DPI is in development as a long-term, intermittent therapy to reduce exacerbations in patients with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis and evidence of respiratory pathogens...
April 2, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621624/astilbin-ameliorates-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-blockade-of-hedgehog-signaling-pathway
#12
Jie Zhang, Hanchen Liu, Chenguang Song, Jinjin Zhang, Youlei Wang, Changjun Lv, Xiaodong Song
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The nature of pulmonary fibrosis involves inadequate repair of the epithelial cell barrier accompanied by impaired regulation of the fibroblast. Moreover, pulmonary fibrosis currently lacks an effective therapeutic drug. This study targets the protection of the epithelial cell and fibroblast to identify a novel, potentially therapeutic drug (i.e., astilbin). METHODS: In this study, the cytotoxicity of astilbin was firstly detected using CCK-8...
April 2, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620124/precise-targeting-of-cancer-metastasis-using-multi-ligand-nanoparticles-incorporating-four-different-ligands
#13
P M Peiris, F He, G Covarrubias, S Raghunathan, O Turan, M Lorkowski, B Gnanasambandam, C Wu, W P Schiemann, E Karathanasis
Metastasis displays a highly heterogeneous cellular population with cancer cells continuously evolving. As a result, a single-ligand nanoparticle cannot account for the continuously changing expression of targetable biomarkers over time and space. To effectively direct nanoparticles to metastasis, we developed a multi-ligand nanoparticle by using four different types of ligands on the same nanoparticle that target biomarkers on the endothelium associated with metastatic disease. These vascular targets included αvβ3 integrin, P-selectin, EGFR and fibronectin...
April 5, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615673/quantifying-extracellular-matrix-turnover-in-human-lung-scaffold-cultures
#14
Oskar Rosmark, Emma Åhrman, Catharina Müller, Linda Elowsson Rendin, Leif Eriksson, Anders Malmström, Oskar Hallgren, Anna-Karin Larsson-Callerfelt, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Johan Malmström
Remodelling of the extracellular matrix is accomplished by altering the balance between matrix macromolecule production and degradation. However, it is not well understood how cells balance production of new matrix molecules and degradation of existing ones during tissue remodelling and regeneration. In this study, we used decellularized lung scaffolds repopulated with allogenic lung fibroblasts cultured with stable isotope labelled amino acids to quantify the balance between matrix production and degradation at a proteome-wide scale...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615497/novel-broadly-reactive-anticapsular-antibodies-against-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-protect-from-infection
#15
Elizabeth Diago-Navarro, Michael P Motley, Gonzalo Ruiz-Peréz, Winnie Yu, Julianne Austin, Bruna M S Seco, Guozhi Xiao, Aniska Chikhalya, Peter H Seeberger, Bettina C Fries
Carbapenem-resistant (CR) sequence type 258 (ST258) Klebsiella pneumoniae has become an urgent health care threat, causing an increasing number of high-mortality infections. Its resistance to numerous antibiotics and threat to immunocompromised patients necessitate finding new therapies to combat these infections. Previous successes in the laboratory, as well as the conservation of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) among the members of the ST258 clone, suggest that monoclonal antibody (MAb) therapy targeting the outer polysaccharide capsule of K...
April 3, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610176/pediatric-malignant-atrophic-papulosis
#16
Yung-Chieh Huang, Jiaan-Der Wang, Fang-Yi Lee, Lin-Shien Fu
Malignant atrophic papulosis (MAP), also known as Degos disease, is an extremely rare disease that is characterized by its unique skin presentation (namely, central, porcelain-white atrophic lesions with a telangiectatic rim). MAP has the following 2 variants: cutaneous MAP is manifested in the skin alone, whereas systemic MAP affects the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, lungs, and other internal organs. Some patients who presented with only cutaneous symptoms at first may develop systemic symptoms several years later...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607206/primary-lung-carcinoma-combined-with-pulmonary-amyloidosis-secondary-to-syphilis-infection
#17
Luo Zhao, Xiaohui Xu, Ye Zhang, Shanqing Li, Xiaohua Shi, Yushang Cui
A 55-year-old female patient was found to have a pulmonary nodule combined with multiple lung cysts detected on CT scan. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy was performed and the nodule showed adenocarcinoma while the whole left upper lobe showed a heavy deposition of amyloid. Syphilis infection was detected and was suspected contributing to secondary pulmonary amyloidosis. Although very rare, pulmonary amyloidosis should be added to the differential diagnosis for solid pulmonary nodules. Furthermore, widespread lung cysts located apart from pulmonary nodules is especially rare in pulmonary amyloidosis secondary to syphilis infection...
February 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606339/a-feasibility-study-of-single-inhalation-single-energy-xenon-enhanced-ct-for-high-resolution-imaging-of-regional-lung-ventilation-in-humans
#18
Daniel W Pinkham, Mohammadreza Negahdar, Tokihiro Yamamoto, Erik Mittra, Maximilian Diehn, Viswam S Nair, Paul J Keall, Peter G Maxim, Billy W Loo
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of single-inhalation xenon-enhanced computed tomography (XeCT) to provide clinically practical, high-resolution pulmonary ventilation imaging to clinics with access to only a single-energy computed tomography scanner, and to reduce the subject's overall exposure to xenon by utilizing a higher (70%) concentration for a much shorter time than has been employed in prior studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an institutional review board-approved prospective feasibility study of XeCT for 15 patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy...
March 29, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598926/effects-of-heterogeneities-in-dose-distributions-under-nonreference-conditions-monte-carlo-simulation-vs-dose-calculation-algorithms
#19
Cristiano Queiroz Melo Reis, Patricia Nicolucci, Saulo S Fortes, Leonardo P Silva
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of dose calculation algorithms used in radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPSs) in comparison with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in nonelectronic equilibrium conditions. MC simulations with PENELOPE package were performed for comparison of doses calculated by pencil beam convolution (PBC), analytical anisotropy algorithm (AAA), and Acuros XB TPS algorithms. Relative depth dose curves were calculated in heterogeneous water phantoms with layers of bone (1...
March 26, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592982/pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-following-cryptococcal-meningitis-a-possible-cause
#20
Sarah Demir, Nader Chebib, Francoise Thivolet-Bejui, Vincent Cottin
Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare interstitial lung disease characterised by the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibodies. A man with no history of infection developed cryptococcal meningitis and a right parahilar cryptococcal mass. Antifungal treatment led to infection control, although there was presence of neurological sequelae. After 3 years, thoracic CT revealed bilateral ground glass opacities and a crazy paving pattern. Transparietal needle biopsy showed proteinaceous alveolar deposits, confirming the diagnosis of PAP...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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