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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636254/pirfenidone-reduces-subchondral-bone-loss-and-fibrosis-after-murine-knee-cartilage-injury
#1
Deva D Chan, Jun Li, Wei Luo, Dan N Predescu, Brian J Cole, Anna Plaas
Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug that has shown efficacy in lung and kidney fibrosis. Because inflammation and fibrosis have been linked to the progression of osteoarthritis, we investigated the effects of oral Pirfenidone in a mouse model of cartilage injury, which results in chronic inflammation and joint-wide fibrosis in mice that lack hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1(-/-) ) in comparison to wild-type. Femoral cartilage was surgically injured in wild-type and Has1(-/-) mice, and Pirfenidone was administered in food starting after 3 days...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632922/comparison-of-manual-and-automated-measurements-of-tracheobronchial-airway-geometry-in-three-balb-c-mice
#2
Asef Islam, Michael Oldham, Anthony Wexler
Mammalian lungs are comprised of large numbers of tracheobronchial airways that transition from the trachea to alveoli. Studies as wide ranging as pollutant deposition and lung development rely on accurate characterization of these airways. Advancements in CT imaging and the value of computational approaches in eliminating the burden of manual measurement are providing increased efficiency in obtaining this geometric data. In this study, we compare an automated method to a manual one for the first six generations of three Balb/c mouse lungs...
June 20, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629719/alpha-ketoglutarate-nanoparticles-a-potentially-effective-treatment-for-cyanide-poisoning
#3
Shaheen Sultana, Sushma Talegaonkar, Dhruv Kumar Nishad, Gaurav Mittal, F J Ahmad, Aseem Bhatnagar
The purpose of this research work was to prepare nanosized formulation of alpha ketoglutarate as dry powder inhaler for cyanide poisoning. Nanosizing can be approached by solid phase and liquid phase method. The different conditions encountered in both these approaches can greatly affect the particle characteristics. In this study milling and precipitation technique were compared to study their effect on α-KG particles characteristics. Differences in choice of stabilizers were observed between the two processing techniques...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629640/is-physical-activity-a-modifier-of-the-association-between-air-pollution-and-arterial-stiffness-in-older-adults-the-sapaldia-cohort-study
#4
Simon Endes, Emmanuel Schaffner, Seraina Caviezel, Julia Dratva, Daiana Stolz, Christian Schindler, Nino Künzli, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Nicole Probst-Hensch
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Air pollution and insufficient physical activity have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, molecular mechanisms linked to arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease. There are no studies on how physical activity modifies the association between air pollution and arterial stiffness. We examined whether the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution were modified by individual physical activity levels in 2823 adults aged 50-81 years from the well-characterized Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases (SAPALDIA)...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626480/development-of-dry-powder-inhaler-containing-tadalafil-loaded-plga-nanoparticles
#5
Jaleh Varshosaz, Somayeh Taymouri, Hamed Hamishehkar, Razieh Vatankhah, Shadi Yaghubi
Inhalable dry powders containing poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were developed for the delivery of tadalafil (TAD) for treatment of life-treating pulmonary arterial hypertension. Taguchi design was employed to evaluate the effects of different formulation variables on the physicochemical characteristics of PLGA-NPs prepared using emulsion solvent evaporation method. Inhalable PLGA-NPs of TAD were successfully prepared by co-spray drying the PLGA-NPs with inert carriers. Physicochemical characteristics and in vitro deposition of the aerosolized drug were also evaluated...
June 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621667/xist-mir-139-axis-regulates-bleomycin-blm-induced-extracellular-matrix-ecm-and-pulmonary-fibrosis-through-%C3%AE-catenin
#6
Yichun Wang, Ying Liang, Junming Luo, Jing Nie, Huiming Yin, Qiong Chen, Jing Dong, Jixiang Zhu, Jiamei Xia, Wei Shuai
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF), characterized by the destruction of lung tissue architecture and the abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, currently has no satisfactory treatment. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that XIST play a promotive role in bleomycin (BLM)-induced ECM and pulmonary fibrosis; XIST exerts its effect through miR-139 regulation. XIST expression was upregulated in lung tissues derived from BLM-induced mouse model of PF, and was positively correlated with β-catenin and ECM protein levels, respectively...
May 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617149/comparison-of-airway-deposition-distributions-of-particles-in-healthy-and-diseased-workers-in-an-egyptian-industrial-site
#7
Péter Füri, Werner Hofmann, Ágnes Jókay, Imre Balásházy, Mona Moustafa, Blanka Czitrovszky, Gábor Kudela, Árpád Farkas
The objective of this study is the prediction and comparison of airway deposition patterns of an industrial aerosol in healthy workers and workers suffering from silicosis. Mass concentrations and related size distributions of particulate matter were measured in the industrial area of Samalut in Minia, Egypt. A novel stochastic lung deposition model, simulating the symptoms of silicosis by chronic bronchial (Br) obstruction and emphysema in the acinar (Ac) region, was applied to compute mass deposition fractions, deposition density, deposition rate and deposition density rate distributions in healthy and diseased workers...
June 15, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614301/microglia-dependent-synapse-loss-in-type-i-interferon-mediated-lupus
#8
Allison R Bialas, Jessy Presumey, Abhishek Das, Cees E van der Poel, Peter H Lapchak, Luka Mesin, Gabriel Victora, George C Tsokos, Christian Mawrin, Ronald Herbst, Michael C Carroll
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an incurable autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody deposition in tissues such as kidney, skin and lungs. Notably, up to 75% of patients with SLE experience neuropsychiatric symptoms that range from anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment to seizures and, in rare cases, psychosis-collectively this is referred to as central nervous system (CNS) lupus. In some cases, certain autoantibodies, such as anti-NMDAR or anti-phospholipid antibodies, promote CNS lupus...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607392/chronic-vitamin-d-deficiency-induces-lung-fibrosis-through-activation-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#9
Yongyan Shi, Tianjing Liu, Li Yao, Yujiao Xing, Xinyi Zhao, Jianhua Fu, Xindong Xue
Pulmonary fibrosis, which influences lung function and exacerbates a patient's condition, is the ultimate stage of many lung diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with pulmonary fibrosis and impaired lung function, but the underlying mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency may cause over-activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which aggravates extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and lung fibrosis. This study aims to investigate the effect of chronic vitamin D deficiency on lung fibrosis in otherwise healthy mice and to explore the role of RAS in this process...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607366/comparisons-of-the-biodistribution-and-toxicological-examinations-after-repeated-intravenous-administration-of-silver-and-gold-nanoparticles-in-mice
#10
Lin Yang, Huijuan Kuang, Wanyi Zhang, Zoraida P Aguilar, Hua Wei, Hengyi Xu
Nanoparticles (NPs) size, surface functionalization, and concentration were claimed to contribute to distribution and toxicity outcomes of NPs in vivo. However, intrinsic chemical compositions of NPs caused inconsistent biodistribution and toxic profiles which attracted little attention. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used to determine the biodistribution, toxickinetic, and genotoxicity variances in murine animals. The results demonstrated AgNPs and AuNPs were primarily deposited in the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) such as the liver and spleen...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606286/-effect-of-water-soluble-c-60-fullerenes-on-pulmonary-fibrosis-induced-by-bleomycin-in-mice
#11
R Dong, M Liu, X X Huang, Z Liu, D Y Jiang, H J Xiao, H P Dai
Objective: To evaluate the role of water-soluble C(60) fullerenes in mice model of lung injury and fibrosis that induced by bleomycin. Methods: A total of 20 healthy C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into normal control group, bleomycin group, high dose C(60) group, low dose C(60) group, each group with 5 mice. Mice were induced pulmonary fibrosis by intratracheal injection of bleomycin except the normal control group, which was induced by saline instead. In low dose C(60) group and high dose C(60) group, 1 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) and 10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) water-soluble C(60) fullerenes was injected into mice intraperitoneally every day, which began from one day before intratracheal instillation of bleomycin until the end of observation...
June 13, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603412/in-vitro-dose-comparison-of-respimat-%C3%A2-inhaler-with-dry-powder-inhalers-for-copd-maintenance-therapy
#12
Anna-Maria Ciciliani, Peter Langguth, Herbert Wachtel
BACKGROUND: Combining in vitro mouth-throat deposition measurements, cascade impactor data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, four different inhalers were compared which are indicated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment. METHODS: The Respimat inhaler, the Breezhaler, the Genuair, and the Ellipta were coupled to the idealized Alberta throat model. The modeled dose to the lung (mDTL) was collected downstream of the Alberta throat model using either a filter or a next generation impactor (NGI)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602990/enhancement-in-in-vitro-anti-angiogenesis-activity-and-cytotoxicity-in-lung-cancer-cell-by-pectin-pvp-based-curcumin-particulates
#13
Dinanath Gaikwad
The aim of this work was to prepare pectin-poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) [PVP] based curcumin particulates to enhance the anticancer potential of curcumin, solubility and allow its localized controlled release. Pectin-PVP based curcumin particulates (PECTIN-PVP CUR) were prepared by spray drying technique in different ratios and were evaluated for surface morphology, micromeritics, flowability, particle size, drug content, in vitro dissolution, inhalable fraction, anti-angiogenesis/angiolysis and cytotoxicity. Results of micromeritic properties, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio and angle of repose were satisfactory...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602599/silibinin-inhibits-the-fibrotic-responses-induced-by-cigarette-smoke-via-suppression-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-2-3-signaling
#14
Je-Won Ko, Na-Rae Shin, Sung-Hyeuk Park, In-Chul Lee, Jung-Min Ryu, Ha-Jung Kim, Young-Kwon Cho, Jong-Choon Kim, In-Sik Shin
Cigarette smoke (CS) is generally accepted as a major contributor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which is characterized by chronic inflammation, fibrotic response, and airway obstruction. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of silibinin, an active constitute of silymarin on CS and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure-induced fibrotic response. Mice were exposed to CS for 1 h per day (8 cigarettes per day) for 4 weeks. On day 12 and 26, mice were treated with LPS intranasally...
June 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599855/impact-of-droplet-evaporation-rate-on-resulting-in-vitro-performance-parameters-of-pressurized-metered-dose-inhalers
#15
Poonam Sheth, Matthew R Grimes, Stephen W Stein, Paul B Myrdal
Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are widely used for the treatment of pulmonary diseases. The overall efficiency of pMDI drug delivery may be defined by in vitro parameters such as the amount of drug that deposits on the model throat and the proportion of the emitted dose that has particles that are sufficiently small to deposit in the lung (i.e., fine particle fraction, FPF). The study presented examines product performance of ten solution pMDI formulations containing a variety of cosolvents with diverse chemical characteristics by cascade impaction with three inlets (USP induction port, Alberta Idealized Throat, and a large volume chamber)...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599456/dynamic-monitoring-of-egfr-mutations-in-circulating-cell-free-dna-for-egfr-mutant-metastatic-patients-with-lung-cancer-early-detection-of-drug-resistance-and-prognostic-significance
#16
Jianjiao Ni, Linqian Weng, Yi Liu, Zhao Sun, Chunmei Bai, Yingyi Wang
Detecting genetic mutations in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a promising approach of liquid biopsy. Between June 2014 and May 2015, 168 plasma samples were collected monthly from 20 patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation receiving gefitinib therapy. Clinically relevant EGFR mutations, including exon 19 deletion, L858R and T790M, were quantified using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction. In baseline samples, 19 (95.0%) patients had the same mutation with the matched tumors, and pretreatment T790M mutations were also detected in 3 (15...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595469/application-of-the-icrp-respiratory-tract-model-to-estimate-pulmonary-retention-of-industrially-sampled-indium-containing-dusts
#17
Aleksandr B Stefaniak, M Abbas Virji, Melissa A Badding, Kristin J Cummings
Inhalation of indium-containing dusts is associated with the development of indium lung disease. Workers may be exposed to several different chemical forms of indium; however, their lung dosimetry is not fully understood. We characterized the physicochemical properties and measured the lung dissolution kinetics of eight indium-containing dusts. Indium dissolution rates in artificial lung fluids spanned two orders of magnitude. We used the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) human respiratory model (HRTM) to estimate pulmonary indium deposition, retention and biokinetic clearance to blood...
June 8, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592028/-analysis-of-12-cases-of-exogenous-lipoid-pneumonia-confirmed-by-pathology
#18
Y X Wang, F Fang, Y F Guo, Y M Li, T Y Sun, M Zhang, J Chen, B M Fang
Objective: To study the etiological, clinical, radiological, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic manifestations of exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), and therefore to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Methods: The clinical data of 12 cases of ELP confirmed by pathology were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients consisted of 9 males and 3 females, with an average age of 73.8 years (range, 44 to 100 years). The underlying diseases were variable, including diseases affecting the general condition (multiple organ failure, chronic heart and renal insufficiency, pemphigoid, etc) and conditions with increased risk of aspiration (sequelae of cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, advanced stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, paralytic ileus, etc)...
June 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585473/computer-aided-generation-and-lung-deposition-modeling-of-nano-scale-particle-aggregates
#19
Robert Sturm
The study sets its main focus on the introduction of a random-walk-based model for the generation of variably shaped particle aggregates consisting of a predefined number of spherical components. With the help of a well-defined algorithm, the user is enabled to select between isodimensional, chain-like and platelet-like aggregates, for which related aerodynamic parameters (dynamic shape factors, volume-equivalent diameters, aerodynamic diameters) are determined automatically. The theoretical approach for random aggregate construction is directly connected with the previously developed stochastic particle transport and deposition model...
June 6, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584899/development-of-aerosol-phospholipid-microparticles-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
Sarah Brousseau, Zimeng Wang, Sweta K Gupta, Samantha A Meenach
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an incurable cardiovascular disease characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries leading from the heart to the lungs. Over two million people in the USA are diagnosed with PAH annually and the typical survival rate is only 3 years after diagnosis. Current treatments are insufficient because of limited bioavailability, toxicity, and costs associated with approved therapeutics. Aerosol delivery of drugs is an attractive approach to treat respiratory diseases because it increases localized drug concentration while reducing systemic side effects...
June 5, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
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