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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456676/-cordyceps-sinensis-inhibits-airway-remodeling-in-rats-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Lei Yang, Xingai Jiao, Jinxiang Wu, Jiping Zhao, Tian Liu, Jianfeng Xu, Xiaohui Ma, Liuzao Cao, Lin Liu, Yahui Liu, Jingyu Chi, Minfang Zou, Shuo Li, Jiawei Xu, Liang Dong
Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to soothe the lung for the treatment of respiratory diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of C. sinensi s on airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats with COPD were orally administered C. sinensis at low, moderate or high doses (2.5, 5 or 7.5 g/kg/day, respectively) for 12 weeks. Airway tissue histopathology, lung inflammation and airway remodeling were evaluated...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455466/the-effects-of-il-33-on-airways-collagen-deposition-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-expression-in-a-murine-surrogate-of-asthma
#2
Gao An, Xin Zhang, Wenjun Wang, Qiong Huang, Yan Li, Shan Shan, Chris J Corrigan, Wei Wang, Sun Ying
It has been suggested that interleukin 33 (IL-33) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma through a variety of pathways, but its role in airways fibrosis in asthma has not been fully elucidated. In the present study we evaluated changes in the expression of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMs) as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) in an IL-33-induced, antigen-independent murine surrogate of asthma as well as a conventional surrogate employing per-nasal challenge of mice previously sensitised to produce an IgE response to ovalbumin (OVA)...
February 18, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454622/development-of-adjuvanted-solid-fat-nanoemulsions-for-pulmonary-hepatitis-b-vaccination
#3
Sunita Minz, Ravi Shankar Pandey
Pulmonary vaccination is one of the most promising routes for immunization owing to its non-invasive nature and induction of strong mucosal immunity and systemic response. In the present study, recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen loaded solid fat nanoemulsions (SFNs) as carrier system and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) as an adjuvant-carrier system was prepared and evaluated as multi adjuvanted vaccine system for deep pulmonary vaccination. Deposition and clearance from the deep lung of rats were determined by gamma scintigraphy...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454302/aerobic-exercise-inhibits-obesity-induced-respiratory-phenotype
#4
Jefferson Comin Jonco Aquino-Junior, BreAnne MacKenzie, Ana Roberta Almeida-Oliveira, Ana Carolina Martins, Manoel Carneiro Oliveira-Junior, Auriléa Aparecida Britto, Fernanda Magalhaes Arantes-Costa, Nilsa Regina Damaceno-Rodrigues, Elia Garcia Caldini, Ana Paula Ligeiro de Oliveira, Dioze Guadagnini, Luiz Osorio Leiria, Djalma Rabelo Ricardo, Mario Jose Abdalla Saad, Rodolfo Paula Vieira
PURPOSE: Obesity results in decreased lung function and increased inflammation. Moderate aerobic exercise (AE) reduced lung inflammation and remodeling in a variety of respiratory disease models. Therefore, this study investigated whether AE can attenuate a diet-induced obesity respiratory phenotype; including airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), remodeling and inflammation. METHODS: Sixty C57Bl/6 male mice were distributed into four groups: control lean (CL), exercise lean (EL), obese (O) and obese exercise (OE) groups (2 sets of 7 and 8 mice per group; n = 15)...
February 14, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453801/regional-deposition-of-nasal-sprays-in-adults-a-wide-ranging-computational-study
#5
Milad Kiaee, Herbert Wachtel, Michelle L Noga, Andrew R Martin, Warren H Finlay
The present work examines regional deposition within the nose for nasal sprays over a large and wide ranging parameter space by using numerical simulation. A set of seven realistic adult nasal airway geometries was defined based on Computed Tomography (CT) images. Deposition in six regions of each nasal airway geometry (the vestibule, valve, anterior turbinate, posterior turbinate, olfactory, and nasopharynx) was determined for varying particle diameter, spray cone angle, spray release direction, particle injection speed, and particle injection location...
February 17, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453386/anti-fibrotic-effects-of-cxcr4-targeting-i-body-ad-114-in-preclinical-models-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#6
K Griffiths, D M Habiel, J Jaffar, U Binder, W G Darby, C G Hosking, A Skerra, G P Westall, C M Hogaboam, M Foley
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic lung disease that is prevalent in individuals >50 years of age, with a median survival of 3-5 years and limited therapeutic options. The disease is characterized by collagen deposition and remodeling of the lung parenchyma in a process that is thought to be driven by collagen-expressing immune and structural cells. The G-protein coupled C-X-C chemokine receptor 4, CXCR4, is a candidate therapeutic target for IPF owing to its role in the recruitment of CXCR4 + fibrocytes from the bone marrow to fibrotic lung tissue and its increased expression levels by structural cells in fibrotic lung tissue...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451040/pulmonary-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-formulations-in-cotton-rats-site-of-deposition-plays-a-minor-role-in-the-protective-efficacy-against-clinical-isolate-of-h1n1pdm-virus
#7
Yoshita Bhide, Jasmine Tomar, Wei Dong, Jacqueline de Vries-Idema, Henderik W Frijlink, Anke Huckriede, Wouter L J Hinrichs
Administration of influenza vaccines to the lungs could be an attractive alternative to conventional parenteral administration. In this study, we investigated the deposition site of pulmonary delivered liquid and powder influenza vaccine formulations and its relation to their immunogenicity and protective efficacy. In vivo deposition studies in cotton rats revealed that, the powder formulation was mainly deposited in the trachea ( ∼ 65%) whereas the liquid was homogenously distributed throughout the lungs ( ∼ 96%)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442496/a-novel-photoalignment-method-based-on-low-molecular-weight-azobenzene-dyes-and-its-application-for-high-dichroic-ratio-polarizers
#8
Su Pan, Jacob Yeuk-Lung Ho, Hoi Sing Kwok
Photoalignment is a simple tecnique for manipulation of molecular orientations, which has been widely used in liquid crystal displays. Here we propose a novel photoalignment method, in which an azobenzene dye thin film is deposited by thermal evaporation and in situ exposed to linear polarized light simultaneously. We obtain polarizers with a dichroic ratio up to 62, which is the highest value ever realized by a photoalignment method. Moreover, the polarizing thin film has a thickness of just 200 nm, compatible with flexible substrates, making it perfect for use as a dichroic polarizer in ultra-thin and flexible displays...
February 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440885/annexin-a1-is-elevated-in-patients-with-copd-and-affects-lung-fibroblast-function
#9
Tianwen Lai, Yanyu Li, Zongjiong Mai, Xiaoxia Wen, Yingying Lv, Zhanqing Xie, Quanchao Lv, Min Chen, Dong Wu, Bin Wu
Purpose: Fibrosis in peripheral airways is responsible for airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Annexin A1 modulates several key biological events during inflammation. However, little is known about its role in airway fibrosis in COPD. We investigated whether levels of Annexin A1 were upregulated in patients with COPD, and whether it promoted airway fibrosis. Methods: We quantified serum Annexin A1 levels in never-smokers (n=12), smokers without COPD (n=11), and smokers with COPD (n=22)...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437725/recognition-of-histone-acetylation-by-the-gas41-yeats-domain-promotes-h2a-z-deposition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Chih-Chao Hsu, Jiejun Shi, Chao Yuan, Dan Zhao, Shiming Jiang, Jie Lyu, Xiaolu Wang, Haitao Li, Hong Wen, Wei Li, Xiaobing Shi
Histone acetylation is associated with active transcription in eukaryotic cells. It helps to open up the chromatin by neutralizing the positive charge of histone lysine residues and providing binding platforms for "reader" proteins. The bromodomain (BRD) has long been thought to be the sole protein module that recognizes acetylated histones. Recently, we identified the YEATS domain of AF9 (ALL1 fused gene from chromosome 9) as a novel acetyl-lysine-binding module and showed that the ENL (eleven-nineteen leukemia) YEATS domain is an essential acetyl-histone reader in acute myeloid leukemias...
January 1, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434591/angiotensin-1-7-promotes-resolution-of-eosinophilic-inflammation-in-an-experimental-model-of-asthma
#11
Giselle S Magalhaes, Lívia C Barroso, Alesandra C Reis, Maria G Rodrigues-Machado, Juliana F Gregório, Daisy Motta-Santos, Aline C Oliveira, Denise A Perez, Lucíola S Barcelos, Mauro M Teixeira, Robson A S Santos, Vanessa Pinho, Maria Jose Campagnole-Santos
Defective apoptosis of eosinophils, the main leukocyte in the pathogenesis of asthma, and delay in its removal lead to lung damage and loss of pulmonary function due to failure in the resolution of inflammation. Here, we investigated the ability of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], a pivotal peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, to promote resolution of an allergic lung inflammatory response. Balb/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin and treated with Ang-(1-7) at the peak of the inflammatory process...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433908/pro-fibrotic-phenotype-of-human-skin-fibroblasts-induced-by-periostin-via-modulating-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#12
Miwa Kanaoka, Yukie Yamaguchi, Noriko Komitsu, Carol A Feghali-Bostwick, Masahiro Ogawa, Kazuhiko Arima, Kenji Izuhara, Michiko Aihara
BACKGROUND: Periostin is a matricellular protein that belongs to a class of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related molecules defined by their ability to modulate cell-matrix interactions. We previously reported an elevated level of circulating periostin in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and its association with the severity of skin sclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of periostin in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling involved in fibrosis. METHODS: Levels of periostin were examined in skin and lung fibroblasts obtained from SSc patients...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427710/pathophysiology-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-in-sheep-dorper-kajli-and-goats-boer-beetal
#13
Ahrar Khan, M Kashif Saleemi, Farah Ali, Muhammad Abubakar, Riaz Hussain, Rao Zahid Abbas, Imtiaz Ahmad Khan
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important viral transboundary disease of small ruminants is not only prevalent in Pakistan but also in other countries where people rely on agriculture and animal products. The present study was aimed at describing the pathology and antigen localization in natural PPR infections in local (Kajli sheep; Beetal goats) as well as imported small ruminant breeds (Dorper sheep; Australian Boer goat). Morbidity and mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in indigenous Kajli sheep (75...
February 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426824/plasma-a%C3%AE-analysis-using-magnetically-labeled-immunoassays-and-pet-18f-florbetapir-binding-in-non-demented-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Kuan-Yi Wu, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Chia-Yih Liu, Jung-Lung Hsu, Sheng-Yao Huang, Tzu-Chen Yen, Kun-Ju Lin
An increased level of brain amyloid deposition and a decreased level of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 are currently considered reliable biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the usefulness of plasma Aβ levels are not well-established. This study investigated the relationships between plasma Aβ levels and cerebral amyloidosis in 36 non-demented patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). All participants underwent 18F-florbetapir PET imaging and provided a blood sample at the same time for immunomagnetic reduction assay to measure the plasma levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426194/assessment-of-occupational-exposure-to-engineered-nanomaterials-in-research-laboratories-using-personal-monitors
#15
Ivo Iavicoli, Luca Fontana, Pasqualantonio Pingue, Ana Maria Todea, Christof Asbach
Exposure assessment is a key stage in the risk assessment/management of engineered nanomaterials. Although different sampling strategies and instruments have been used to define the occupational exposure to nano-scale materials, currently there is no international consensus regarding measurement strategy, metrics and limit values. In fact, the assessment of individual exposure to engineered nanomaterials remains a critical issue despite recent innovative developments in personal monitors and samplers. Hence, we used several of these instruments to evaluate the workers' personal exposure in a large research laboratory where engineered nanomaterials are produced, handled, and characterized in order to provide input data for nanomaterial exposure assessment strategies and future epidemiological studies...
January 31, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426143/association-of-ultrafine-particles-with-cardiopulmonary-health-among-adult-subjects-in-the-urban-areas-of-northern-taiwan
#16
Jun-Yu Liu, Ta-Chih Hsiao, Kang-Yun Lee, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Tsun-Jen Cheng, Kai-Jen Chuang
The association between short-term exposure to particulate air pollution, especially fine particles, and cardiopulmonary health has been well-established in previous studies. However, previous findings regarding the effect of ultrafine particles (UFPs) on cardiopulmonary health are inconsistent. We repeatedly measured the mass concentrations of UFPs using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) in the apartments of 100 adult participants and collected the participants' health data from the pulmonary outpatient unit of Shuang-Ho Hospital to investigate the association between short-term exposure to UFPs and cardiopulmonary health using mixed-effects models from January 1, 2014 to August 31, 2017...
January 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425364/comparing-lungs-liver-and-knee-measurement-geometries-at-various-times-post-inhalation-of-239pu-and-241am
#17
Lokpati Mishra, I S Singh, H K Patni, D D Rao
In-vivo measurement of Pu/241Am in workers is carried out by placing suitable detector above lungs, liver and skeleton, as major fraction of Pu/Am is transferred to liver and skeleton, after its retention in entry organ. In this work, committed effective dose (CED) corresponding to minimum detectable activity for Type M and Type S 239Pu/241Am deposited in these organs are presented and a monitoring protocol of organ measurement giving lowest CED at different time intervals post inhalation is described. We have observed, for Type M compounds, lung measurement is most sensitive method during initial days after exposure...
February 7, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422248/-why-proton-therapy-and-how
#18
REVIEW
Juliette Thariat, Jean Louis Habrand, Paul Lesueur, Abdulhamid Chaikh, Emmanuel Kammerer, Delphine Lecomte, Alain Batalla, Jacques Balosso, Thomas Tessonnier
Proton therapy is a radiotherapy, based on the use of protons, charged subatomic particles that stop at a given depth depending on their initial energy (pristine Bragg peak), avoiding any output beam, unlike the photons used in most of the other modalities of radiotherapy. Proton therapy has been used for 60 years, but has only become ubiquitous in the last decade because of recent major advances in particle accelerator technology. This article reviews the history of clinical implementation of protons, the nature of the technological advances that now allows its expansion at a lower cost...
February 5, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417313/sweetening-inhaled-antibiotic-treatment-for-eradication-of-chronic-respiratory-biofilm-infection
#19
Ching-Yee Loo, Wing-Hin Lee, Gianluca Lauretani, Santo Scalia, David Cipolla, Daniela Traini, Paul Young, Hui Xin Ong
PURPOSE: The failure of chronic therapy with antibiotics to clear persistent respiratory infection is the key morbidity and mortality factor for patients with chronic lung diseases, primarily due to the presence of biofilm in the lungs. It is hypothesised that carbon sources, such as mannitol, could stimulate the metabolic activity of persister cells within biofilms and restore their susceptibility to antibiotics. The aims of the current study are to: (1) establish a representative in vitro model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm lung infection, and (2) investigate the effects of nebulised mannitol on antibiotic efficacy, focusing on ciprofloxacin, in the eradication of biofilm...
February 7, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417309/il-33-can-promote-the-process-of-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-inducing-the-imbalance-between-mmp-9-and-timp-1
#20
Liyan Wu, Zujin Luo, Jinxu Zheng, Peng Yao, Zhenyan Yuan, Xiaohong Lv, Jing Zhao, Min Wang
IL-33 played an important role in inflammatory diseases as evidenced by their high levels of expression in diseased tissues. Previous studies showed that IL-33/ST2L signal transduction pathway participated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of A549 cells. Cytokine IL-1β can increase the expression of MMPs by activating NF-kB. The excessive or inappropriate expression of MMP-9 may randomly and non-selectively destroy the extracellular matrix. TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of MMP-9) effects on ebb and flow of ECM by inhibiting activation of MMP-9...
February 7, 2018: Inflammation
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