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Lung deposition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544857/new-treatment-directions-for-ipf-current-status-of-ongoing-and-upcoming-clinical-trials
#1
Francesco Macagno, Francesco Varone, Paolo Maria Leone, Pier-Valerio Mari, Loredana Panico, Ludovica Berardini, Luca Richeldi
The main objective of this review is to explore the wide and expanding field of new clinical trials in IPF. Recent trials have confirmed the efficacy of the approved drugs pirfenidone and nintedanib; nonetheless, the discovery of new biological pathways has opened new horizons in this field. Areas Covered: New strategies against matrix deposition are under study and so is for the role of immunity and autoimmunity. Recent advances in the use of stem cells are opening new possibilities for the recovery of damaged lung tissues...
May 25, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541666/unveiling-the-molecular-structure-of-pulmonary-surfactant-corona-on-nanoparticles
#2
Qinglin Hu, Xuan Bai, Guoqing Hu, Yi Y Zuo
The growing risk of human exposure to airborne nanoparticles (NPs) causes a general concern on the biosafety of nanotechnology. Inhaled NPs can deposit in the deep lung at which interacting with the pulmonary surfactant (PS). Despite the increasing study of nano-bio interactions, detailed molecular mechanisms by which inhaled NPs interact with the natural PS system remain unclear. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we studied the interaction between NPs and the PS system in the alveolar fluid...
May 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535594/industrial-pm2-5-cause-pulmonary-adverse-effect-through-rhoa-rock-pathway
#3
Junyan Yan, Chia-Hsiang Lai, Shih-Chun Candice Lung, Chongjun Chen, Wen-Cheng Wang, Pin-I Huang, Chia-Hua Lin
According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM2...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534139/pulmonary-emphysema-cross-linking-with-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-vice-versa-a-non-usual-experimental-intervention-with-elastase-and-bleomycin
#4
Isabella Cattani-Cavalieri, Adriane Graça Reis, Emanuel Kennedy-Feitosa, Vanessa Pinho-Ribeiro, Manuella Lanzetti, Lycia Brito Gitirana, Bruna Romana-Souza, Luis Cristóvão Porto, Samuel Santos Valença
Elastase (PPE) is usually used for emphysema models, whereas bleomycin (BLM) is used for fibrosis models. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BLM in PPE-induced emphysema, as well as the effect of PPE in BLM-induced fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice were divided into five groups: control, PPE, BLM, PPE + BLM, and BLM + PPE. Mice received saline, PPE (3 U/mouse), or BLM (20 U/kg) by intranasal instillation. Mice from the BLM and BLM + PPE groups received BLM on day 0 and saline or PPE on day 21, respectively...
May 23, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531919/bupleurum-chinense-extract-ameliorates-an-ova-induced-murine-allergic-asthma-through-the-reduction-of-the-th2-and-th17-cytokines-production-by-inactivation-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#5
Thi Tho Bui, Chun Hua Piao, Chang Ho Song, Hee Soon Shin, Ok Hee Chai
Bupleurum chinense belongs to the Bupleurum spp. family that has been used in traditional herbal medicine for over thousand years. It has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-fibrotic and immunomodulatory effect. However, the effect of B. Chinense on allergic asthma remains unclear. This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of B. Chinense extracts (BCE) on airway inflammation in asthmatic mice model. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model, we evaluated the number of total cells, differential inflammatory cells and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung homogenate as well as histological structure...
May 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525934/parathyroid-hormone-levels-predict-long-term-outcome-after-operative-management-of-parathyroid-cancer
#6
Andreas Machens, Kerstin Lorenz, Henning Dralle
The role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum levels for prediction of outcome is ill defined for parathyroid cancer, which is a very rare disease. This investigation of 17 consecutive patients with parathyroid cancer, (re-)operated on at a tertiary referral center between 1994 and July 2016, with a mean follow-up of 179.6 months (15 years) aimed to clarify the suitability of PTH serum levels for prediction of clinical outcome after comprehensive operative management of parathyroid cancer. Cancer-specific mortality occurred significantly more often with the performance of sternotomy before or at first operation at this institution (80 vs...
May 19, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522797/protective-effects-of-hydrogen-rich-saline-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-alveolar-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-pulmonary-fibrosis
#7
Wen-Wen Dong, Yun-Qian Zhang, Xiao-Yan Zhu, Yan-Fei Mao, Xue-Jun Sun, Yu-Jian Liu, Lai Jiang
BACKGROUND Fibrotic change is one of the important reasons for the poor prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The present study investigated the effects of hydrogen-rich saline, a selective hydroxyl radical scavenger, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male ICR mice were divided randomly into 5 groups: Control, LPS-treated plus vehicle treatment, and LPS-treated plus hydrogen-rich saline (2.5, 5, or 10 ml/kg) treatment. Twenty-eight days later, fibrosis was assessed by determination of collagen deposition, hydroxyproline, and type I collagen levels...
May 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521243/shikonin-alleviates-allergic-airway-remodeling-by-inhibiting-the-erk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#8
Tian-Yue Wang, Qian-Lan Zhou, Miao Li, Yun-Xiao Shang
Shikonin is a naphthoquinone extracted from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, and has been reported to suppress allergic airway inflammation in mice. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear and need to be further elucidated. In this study, shikonin (0.5, 2 or 4mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally to ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged BALB/c mice. We found that the pathological airway remodeling of asthmatic mice was alleviated by shikonin, and the infiltrated inflammatory cells and collagen deposition in their lungs were reduced...
May 15, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516516/towards-long-term-stable-and-efficient-large-area-organic-solar-cells
#9
Pei-Ting Tsai, Kuan-Chu Lin, Cheng-Yu Wu, Chung-Hung Liao, Man-Chun Lin, Ying Qian Wong, Hsin-Fei Meng, Chih-Yu Chang, Chien-Lung Wang, Yi-Fan Huang, Sheng-Fu Horng, Hsiao-Wen Zan, Yu-Chiang Chao
In this study, we report that long-term stable and efficient organic solar cells (OSCs) can be obtained via the following strategies: (1) combination of rapid-drying blade-coating deposition with an appropriate thermal annealing treatment to obtain an optimized morphology of the active layer; (2) insertion of interfacial layers to optimize the interfacial properties. The resulting devices based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl)] (PBDTTT-EFT):[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) blend as the active layer exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 9...
May 17, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511651/high-resolution-mucociliary-transport-measurement-in-live-excised-large-animal-trachea-using-synchrotron-x-ray-imaging
#10
Martin Donnelley, Kaye S Morgan, Maged Awadalla, Nigel R Farrow, Chris Hall, David W Parsons
BACKGROUND: The Australian Synchrotron Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) was designed as the world's widest synchrotron X-ray beam, enabling both clinical imaging and therapeutic applications for humans as well as the imaging of large animal models. Our group is developing methods for imaging the airways of newly developed CF animal models that display human-like lung disease, such as the CF pig, and we expect that the IMBL can be utilised to image airways in animals of this size. METHODS: This study utilised samples of excised tracheal tissue to assess the feasibility, logistics and protocols required for airway imaging in large animal models such as pigs and sheep at the IMBL...
May 16, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510480/dry-powder-inhaler-formulation-of-rifampicin-an-improved-targeted-delivery-system-for-alveolar-tuberculosis
#11
Tejal Rawal, Laurent Kremer, Iman Halloum, Shital Butani
BACKGROUND: The delivery of antitubercular drugs through direct lung targeting can lead to reduction in the dose as well as side effects of the drug. In the present investigation, carrier (lactose)-based dry-powder inhaler of rifampicin was prepared to achieve direct targeting of the drug into the lungs. METHODS: The dry powder inhaler formulation was prepared by simply mixing micronized rifampicin with coarse and fine lactose preblend. Preliminary blends of the drug were prepared with various lactose grades (Inhalac(®), Respitose,(®) and Lactohale(®))...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507469/lungs-deposition-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-submicron-budesonide-particles-in-wistar-rats-intended-for-immediate-effect-in-asthma
#12
Abdul Rauf, Aseem Bhatnagar, S S Sisodia, Roop K Khar, Farhan J Ahmad
The purpose of the present investigation was to study the aerosolization, lungs deposition and pharmacokinetic study of inhalable submicron particles of budesonide in male Wistar rats. Submicron particles were prepared by antisolvent nanoprecipitation method and freeze-dried to obtain free flowing powder. The freeze-drying process yielded dry powder with desirable aerodynamic properties for inhalation therapy. An in-house model inhaler was designed to deliver medicine to lungs, optimized at dose level of 10 mg for 30 sec of fluidization...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506819/prediction-of-delivery-of-organic-aerosols-onto-air-liquid-interface-cells-in-vitro-using-an-electrostatic-precipitator
#13
Zechen Yu, Myoseon Jang, Tara Sabo-Attwood, Sarah E Robinson, Huanhuan Jiang
To better characterize biological responses to atmospheric organic aerosols, the efficient delivery of aerosol to in vitro lung cells is necessary. In this study, chamber generated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) entered the commercialized exposure chamber (CULTEX® Radial Flow System Compact) where it interfaced with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (CULTEX® Electrical Deposition Device) and then deposited on a particle collection plate. This plate contained human lung cells (BEAS-2B) that were cultured on a membrane insert to produce an air-liquid interface (ALI)...
May 12, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504839/the-pathological-trento-variant-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-e75v-shows-non-classical-behaviour-during-polymerization
#14
Elena Miranda, Ilaria Ferrarotti, Romina Berardelli, Mattia Laffranchi, Marta Cerea, Fabrizio Gangemi, Imran Haq, Stefania Ottaviani, David A Lomas, James A Irving, Annamaria Fra
Severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is most frequently associated with the alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) Z variant (E342K). ZZ homozygotes exhibit accumulation of AAT as polymers in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes. This protein deposition can lead to liver disease, with the resulting low circulating levels of AAT predisposing to early-onset emphysema due to dysregulation of elastinolytic activity in the lungs. An increasing number of rare AAT alleles have been identified in patients with severe AATD, typically in combination with the Z allele...
May 15, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504252/pulmonary-delivery-of-nanoparticle-chemotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-lung-cancers-challenges-and-opportunities
#15
REVIEW
Sharad Mangal, Wei Gao, Tonglei Li, Qi Tony Zhou
Lung cancer is the second most prevalent and the deadliest among all cancer types. Chemotherapy is recommended for lung cancers to control tumor growth and to prolong patient survival. Systemic chemotherapy typically has very limited efficacy as well as severe systemic adverse effects, which are often attributed to the distribution of anticancer drugs to non-targeted sites. In contrast, inhalation routes permit the delivery of drugs directly to the lungs providing high local concentrations that may enhance the anti-tumor effect while alleviating systemic adverse effects...
May 1, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499927/disruption-of-the-hepcidin-ferroportin-regulatory-system-causes-pulmonary-iron-overload-and-restrictive-lung-disease
#16
Joana Neves, Dominik Leitz, Simone Kraut, Christina Brandenberger, Raman Agrawal, Norbert Weissmann, Christian Mühlfeld, Marcus A Mall, Sandro Altamura, Martina U Muckenthaler
Emerging evidence suggests that pulmonary iron accumulation is implicated in a spectrum of chronic lung diseases. However, the mechanism(s) involved in pulmonary iron deposition and its role in the in vivo pathogenesis of lung diseases remains unknown. Here we show that a point mutation in the murine ferroportin gene, which causes hereditary hemochromatosis type 4 (Slc40a1(C326S)), increases iron levels in alveolar macrophages, epithelial cells lining the conducting airways and lung parenchyma, and in vascular smooth muscle cells...
April 29, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499855/electrolyte-type-and-nozzle-composition-affect-the-process-of-vibrating-membrane-nebulization
#17
Moritz Beck-Broichsitter, Nina Oesterheld
The size of airborne particles determines their deposition pattern within the lungs and therefore, the efficacy of inhalation therapy. The present study analyzed factors affecting liquid atomization performed by vibrating-membrane technology. First, the process of vibrating-membrane nebulization (eFlow(®)rapid and Aeroneb(®) Pro) was challenged with numerous inorganic salts and active pharmaceutical ingredients. All investigated samples caused a sigmoidal decrease in aerosol droplet size upon an increase in concentration...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499430/genome-wide-dna-methylation-analysis-in-lung-fibroblasts-co-cultured-with-silica-exposed-alveolar-macrophages
#18
Juan Li, Wu Yao, Lin Zhang, Lei Bao, Huiting Chen, Di Wang, Zhongzheng Yue, Yiping Li, Miao Zhang, Changfu Hao
BACKGROUND: Exposure to crystalline silica is considered to increase the risk of lung fibrosis. The primary effector cell, the myofibroblast, plays an important role in the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). DNA methylation change is considered to have a potential effect on myofibroblast differentiation. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of lung fibroblasts co-cultured with alveolar macrophages exposed to crystalline silica in vitro...
May 12, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498407/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-accelerates-lung-fibrosis-through-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-a-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-animal-model
#19
Lina Wang, Wei Cheng, Zhimin Zhang
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER) is involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Viral infection often triggers a hyperinflammatory response by an expansion of the ER. The present study was designed to observe the role of respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSV)‑induced ER stress on lung fibrosis. In order to determine the role of ER stress on the onset and progression of pulmonary fibrosis, mice received an intratracheal combined injection of RSV and bleomycin on day 0...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494303/hemocompatibility-of-inhaled-environmental-nanoparticles-potential-use-of-in-vitro-testing
#20
REVIEW
Eleonore Fröhlich
Hemocompatibility testing is an important part in the evaluation of nano-based medicines. However, it is not systematically used for the assessment of environmental particles since they do not come in contact with blood immediately. Studies on human exposure to air-borne particles and pulmonary exposure of rodents have reported alterations in blood physiology. It is not clear, whether these effects are majorly caused by tissue inflammation or translocated particles in blood. This review addresses the question, if in vitro hemocompatibility testing could help in the risk evaluation of inhaled particles...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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