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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217472/performance-indicators-for-carrier-based-dpis-carrier-surface-properties-for-capsule-filling-and-api-properties-for-in-vitro-aerosolisation
#1
E Faulhammer, S Zellnitz, T Wutscher, S Stranzinger, A Zimmer, A Paudel
This study investigates engineered carrier, as well as engineered API particles, and shows that there are distinct performance indicators of particle engineering for carrier-based DPIs. Spray dried (SDSS) and jet-milled (JMSS) salbutamol sulphate (SS) was blended with untreated α-lactose monohydrate (LAC_R) and α-lactose monohydrate engineered (LAC_E). Subsequent capsule filling was performed with different process settings on a dosator nozzle capsule filling machine in order to reach a target fill weight of 20-25 mg...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217273/ltbps-in-biology-and-medicine-ltbp-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Daniel B Rifkin, William J Rifkin, Lior Zilberberg
The latent transforming growth factor (TGF) β binding proteins (LTBP) are crucial mediators of TGFβ function, as they control growth factor secretion, matrix deposition, presentation and activation. Deficiencies in specific LTBP isoforms yield discrete phenotypes representing defects in bone, lung and cardiovascular development mediated by loss of TGFβ signaling. Additional phenotypes represent loss of unique TGFβ-independent features of LTBP effects on elastogenesis and microfibril assembly. Thus, the LTBPs act as sensors for the regulation of both growth factor activity and matrix function...
December 4, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216182/the-physicochemical-fingerprint-of-necator-americanus
#3
Veeren M Chauhan, David J Scurr, Thomas Christie, Gary Telford, Jonathan W Aylott, David I Pritchard
Necator americanus, a haematophagous hookworm parasite, infects ~10% of the world's population and is considered to be a significant public health risk. Its lifecycle has distinct stages, permitting its successful transit from the skin via the lungs (L3) to the intestinal tract (L4 maturing to adult). It has been hypothesised that the L3 larval sheath, which is shed during percutaneous infection (exsheathment), diverts the immune system to allow successful infection and reinfection in endemic areas. However, the physicochemical properties of the L3 larval cuticle and sheath, which are in direct contact with the skin and its immune defences, are unknown...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209799/-chondroblastoma
#4
REVIEW
G Jundt, D Baumhoer
Chondroblastomas are very rare benign primary bone tumors occurring preferentially in the epiphyses or apophyses of long bones in children and adolescents. In most cases the typical histological and imaging findings lead to a correct diagnosis that may be substantiated by demonstrating the highly specific point mutation in the H3F3B gene (p.K36M), either by sequencing or immunohistochemistry. Recurrences occur in 5-15% of cases, postsurgical metastatic deposits to the lungs are very rare (<1%). Histologically "malignant" chondroblastomas have been reported as single case reports...
December 5, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202802/histopathology-microbiology-and-the-inflammatory-process-associated-with-sarcoptes-scabiei-infection-in-the-iberian-ibex-capra-pyrenaica
#5
José Espinosa, Arián Ráez-Bravo, Jorge R López-Olvera, Jesús M Pérez, Santiago Lavín, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Francisco J Cano-Manuel, Paulino Fandos, Ramón C Soriguer, José Enrique Granados, Diego Romero, Roser Velarde
BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange has been identified as the most significant infectious disease affecting the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Despite several studies on the effects of mange on ibex, the pathological and clinical picture derived from sarcoptic mange infestation is still poorly understood. To further knowledge of sarcoptic mange pathology, samples from ibex were evaluated from histological, microbiological and serological perspectives. METHODS: Samples of skin, non-dermal tissues and blood were collected from 54 ibex (25 experimentally infected, 15 naturally infected and 14 healthy)...
December 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197105/upper-and-lower-airway-remodelling-mechanisms-in-asthma-allergic-rhinitis-and-chronic-rhinosinusitis-the-one-airway-concept-revisited
#6
REVIEW
Konstantinos Samitas, Alison Carter, Harsha H Kariyawasam, Georgina Xanthou
Allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and asthma often co-exist. The one airway model proposes that disease mechanisms occurring in the upper airway may mirror lower airway events. Airway remodelling is the term used to describe tissue structural changes that occur in a disease setting and reflect the dynamic process of tissue restructuring during wound repair. Remodelling has been long identified in the lower airways in asthma and is characterized by epithelial shedding, goblet cell hyperplasia, basement membrane thickening, subepithelial fibrosis, airway smooth muscle hyperplasia and increased angiogenesis...
December 1, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191462/exposure-of-tropoelastin-to-peroxynitrous-acid-gives-high-yields-of-nitrated-tyrosine-residues-di-tyrosine-cross-links-and-altered-protein-structure-and-function
#7
Georg Degendorfer, Christine Y Chuang, Michele Mariotti, Astrid Hammer, Gerald Hoefler, Per Hägglund, Ernst Malle, Steven Wise, Michael J Davies
Elastin is an abundant extracellular matrix protein in elastic tissues, including the lungs, skin and arteries, and comprises 30-57% of the aorta by dry mass. The monomeric precursor, tropoelastin (TE), undergoes complex processing during elastogenesis to form mature elastic fibers. Peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), a potent oxidizing and nitrating agent, is formed in vivo from superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Considerable evidence supports ONOOH formation in the inflamed artery wall, and a role for this species in the development of human atherosclerotic lesions, with ONOOH-damaged extracellular matrix implicated in lesion rupture...
November 27, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187209/biodistribution-of-single-and-aggregated-gold-nanoparticles-exposed-to-the-human-lung-epithelial-tissue-barrier-at-the-air-liquid-interface
#8
Estelle Durantie, Dimitri Vanhecke, Laura Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Flavien Delhaes, Sandor Balog, Dedy Septiadi, Joel Bourquin, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
BACKGROUND: The lung represents the primary entry route for airborne particles into the human body. Most studies addressed possible adverse effects using single (nano)particles, but aerosolic nanoparticles (NPs) tend to aggregate and form structures of several hundreds nm in diameter, changing the physico-chemical properties and interaction with cells. Our aim was to investigate how aggregation might affect the biodistribution; cellular uptake and translocation over time of aerosolized NPs at the air-blood barrier interface using a multicellular lung system...
November 29, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185067/phantom-validation-of-quantitative-y-90-pet-ct-based-dosimetry-in-liver-radioembolization
#9
Marco D'Arienzo, Maria Pimpinella, Marco Capogni, Vanessa De Coste, Luca Filippi, Emiliano Spezi, Nick Patterson, Francesca Mariotti, Paolo Ferrari, Paola Chiaramida, Michael Tapner, Alexander Fischer, Timo Paulus, Roberto Pani, Giuseppe Iaccarino, Marco D'Andrea, Lidia Strigari, Oreste Bagni
BACKGROUND: PET/CT has recently been shown to be a viable alternative to traditional post-infusion imaging methods providing good quality images of 90Y-laden microspheres after selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). In the present paper, first we assessed the quantitative accuracy of 90Y-PET using an anthropomorphic phantom provided with lungs, liver, spine, and a cylindrical homemade lesion located into the hepatic compartment. Then, we explored the accuracy of different computational approaches on dose calculation, including (I) direct Monte Carlo radiation transport using Raydose, (II) Kernel convolution using Philips Stratos, (III) local deposition algorithm, (IV) Monte Carlo technique (MCNP) considering a uniform activity distribution, and (V) MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) analytical approach...
November 28, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180863/paclitaxel-and-quercetin-nanoparticles-co-loaded-in-microspheres-to-prolong-retention-time-for-pulmonary-drug-delivery
#10
Kang Liu, Weijuan Chen, Tingting Yang, Baofang Wen, Dejun Ding, Michael Keidar, Jinbao Tang, Weifen Zhang
High drug resistance, poor water solubility, short half-life, and low local drug concentration are obstacles for successful delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs for lung cancer. A new method involving the use of nanoparticles (NPs) for pulmonary delivery is proposed. However, use of NPs is limited by the particle size range for pulmonary drug delivery considering that NPs cannot be deposited directly into the lungs. NPs polymerized into microspheres (polymeric microspheres, PMs) will result in suitable particle sizes and retain the advantages of nanodrugs after redispersion when applied in pulmonary delivery...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180257/insights-on-animal-models-to-investigate-inhalation-therapy-relevance-for-biotherapeutics
#11
REVIEW
A Guillon, T Sécher, L A Dailey, L Vecellio, M De Monte, M Si-Tahar, P Diot, C P Page, N Heuzé-Vourc'h
Acute and chronic respiratory diseases account for major causes of illness and deaths worldwide. Recent developments of biotherapeutics opened a new era in the treatment and management of patients with respiratory diseases. When considering the delivery of therapeutics, the inhaled route offers great promises with a direct, non-invasive access to the diseased organ and has already proven efficient for several molecules. To assist in the future development of inhaled biotherapeutics, experimental models are crucial to assess lung deposition, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179446/targeted-interference-of-sin3a-tgif1-function-by-sid-decoy-treatment-inhibits-wnt-signaling-and-invasion-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Yeon-Jin Kwon, Boris A Leibovitch, Nidhi Bansal, Lutecia Pereira, Chi-Yeh Chung, Edgardo V Ariztia, Arthur Zelent, Eduardo F Farias, Samuel Waxman
Cancer cell invasion is an obligatory step for metastatic dissemination that contributes to rapid relapse and a poorer survival in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Development of novel therapeutic strategies to block tumor invasion is an unmet need in the treatment of cancer. We reported that the selective inhibition of the PAH2 domain of SIN3A protein function markedly suppressed metastatic dissemination to the lungs in TNBC xenograft bearing mice. Here, we show that TNBC cell lines treated with Sin3 interaction domain (SID) decoy peptides that bind to PAH2 display a strong in vitro inhibition of transwell invasion...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176059/multi-gpu-configuration-of-4d-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-inverse-planning-using-global-optimization
#13
Aaron Michael Hagan, Amit Sawant, Michael Folkerts, Arezoo Modiri
We report on the design, implementation and characterization of a multi-graphic processing unit (GPU) computational platform for higher-order optimization in radiotherapy treatment planning. In collaboration with a commercial vendor (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), a research prototype GPU-enabled Eclipse (V13.6) workstation was configured. The hardware consisted of dual 8-core xeon processors, 256 GB RAM and four NVIDIA Tesla K80 general purpose GPUs. We demonstrate the utility of this platform for large radiotherapy optimization problems through the development and characterization of a parallelized particle swarm optimization (PSO) four dimensional (4D) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique...
November 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175476/source-apportionment-of-aerosol-particles-at-a-european-air-pollution-hot-spot-using-particle-number-size-distributions-and-chemical-composition
#14
Cecilia Leoni, Petra Pokorná, Jan Hovorka, Mauro Masiol, Jan Topinka, Yongjing Zhao, Kamil Křůmal, Steven Cliff, Pavel Mikuška, Philip K Hopke
Ostrava in the Moravian-Silesian region (Czech Republic) is a European air pollution hot spot for airborne particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and ultrafine particles (UFPs). Air pollution source apportionment is essential for implementation of successful abatement strategies. UFPs or nanoparticles of diameter <100 nm exhibit the highest deposition efficiency in human lungs. To permit apportionment of PM sources at the hot-spot including nanoparticles, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to highly time resolved particle number size distributions (NSD, 14 nm-10 μm) and PM0...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174976/deposition-pattern-of-aerosolized-legionella-using-an-ex-vivo-human-porcine-respiratory-model
#15
Sophie Perinel, Valérie Forest, Mathilde Landraud, Jérémie Pourchez, Françoise Girardot, Serge Riffard, Magalie Stauffert, Jean-Michel Vergnon, Séverine Allegra
Legionella are bacteria responsible for severe lung pathologies. However how they enter and are deposited within the respiratory tract remains poorly documented. Data using animal testing led to the establishment of mathematical models allowing the estimation of aerosol dispersion risks. But direct extrapolation to humans is questionable and experimental models more physiologically representative of the inhalation route are welcome. The aim of this study was to develop a model as close as possible to the human anatomy and physiology allowing determining the deposition pattern of aerosolized Legionella while limiting in vivo experiments...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172290/multi-gene-expression-in-anthracosis-of-the-lungs-as-one-of-the-risk-factors-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Hamidreza Jamaati, Naghmeh Bahrami, Payam Tabarsi, Adnan Khosravi, Arda Kiani, Atefeh Abedini, Rahim Ahmadi, Somayeh Sharifynia, Abdolreza Mohamadnia
Background: Anthracosis of the lung occurs due to the deposition of carbon and silica in the mucosa and submucosa, manifested as black lesions. The association of anthracosis with lung cancer has remained to be clearly elucidated The current study aimed to assess the P16, CDH1 and LUNX genes expression level to evaluate the association of anthracotic lesions in the lungs with the occurrence of non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Forty biopsy samples were taken from the center and 40 from the margins of black anthracotic lesions in the lungs; RNA was extracted from the samples and cDNA was synthesized...
November 26, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165430/subcutaneous-administration-of-infliximab-attenuated-silica-induced-lung-fibrosis
#17
Hua Zhang, Jun-Na Sui, Lei Gao, Jian Guo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of the anti-tumor necrosis factor-α infliximab (IFX) in the case of rats with silicosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. The study group (N = 16) - silicosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of 50 mg silica on day 1, and IFX was subcutaneously administered at a dose of 15 mg/kg of body weight from day 2 to day 6, the vehicle group (N = 16) - silica used as the study group but without IFX, the sham group (N = 16) - 1 ml of saline was intratracheal-used...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165103/occupation-exposed-to-road-traffic-emissions-and-respiratory-health-among-congolese-transit-workers-particularly-bus-conductors-in-kinshasa-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Etongola Papy Mbelambela, Ryoji Hirota, Masamitsu Eitoku, Sifa Marie Joelle Muchanga, Hidenori Kiyosawa, Kahoko Yasumitsu-Lovell, Ontshick Leader Lawanga, Narufumi Suganuma
OBJECTIVES: Road-traffic emissions (RTE) induce adverse health effects, notably respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases, as a result of pollutants deposited into the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupation groups of Congolese transit workers exposed to RTE, particularly bus conductors and respiratory health, in Kinshasa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 April 20(th) to May 14(th), whose participants were bus conductors (n = 110), bus drivers (n = 107), taxi-motorcyclists (n = 102) and high school teachers (control group; n = 106)...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163164/lassbio-897-reduces-lung-injury-induced-by-silica-particles-in-mice-potential-interaction-with-the-a2a-receptor
#19
Vinicius F Carvalho, Tatiana P T Ferreira, Ana C S de Arantes, François Noël, Roberta Tesch, Carlos M R Sant'Anna, Eliezer J L Barreiro, Carlos A M Fraga, Patrícia M Rodrigues E Silva, Marco A Martins
Silicosis is a lethal fibro-granulomatous pulmonary disease highly prevalent in developing countries, for which no proper therapy is available. Among a small series of N-acylhydrazones, the safrole-derived compound LASSBio-897 (3-thienylidene-3, 4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazide) raised interest due to its ability to bind to the adenosine A2A receptor. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic potential of LASSBio-897, exploring translation to a mouse model of silicosis and the A2A receptor as a site of action...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162596/lactadherin-promotes-microvesicle-clearance-to-prevent-coagulopathy-and-improves-survival-of-severe-tbi-mice
#20
Yuan Zhou, Wei Cai, Zilong Zhao, Tristan Hilton, Min Wang, Jason Yeon, Wei Liu, Fangyi Zhang, Fu-Dong Shi, Xiaoping Wu, Perumal Thiagarajan, Min Li, Jianning Zhang, Jing-Fei Dong
Coagulopathy is common in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and predicts poor clinical outcomes. We have shown that brain-derived extracellular microvesicles, including extracellular mitochondria, play a key role in the development of TBI-induced coagulopathy. Here, we further show in mouse models that the apoptotic cell-scavenging factor lactadherin, given at a single dose of 400 µg/kg 30 min before (preconditioning) or 30 min after cerebral fluid percussion injury, prevented coagulopathy as defined by clotting time, fibrinolysis, intravascular fibrin deposition, and microvascular bleeding of the lungs...
November 21, 2017: Blood
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