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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812269/oxytocin-signaling-in-the-early-life-of-mammals-link-to-neurodevelopmental-disorders-associated-with-asd
#1
Françoise Muscatelli, Michel G Desarménien, Valery Matarazzo, Valery Grinevich
Oxytocin plays a role in various functions including endocrine and immune functions but also parent-infant bonding and social interactions. It might be considered as a main neuropeptide involved in mediating the regulation of adaptive interactions between an individual and his/her environment. Recently, a critical role of oxytocin in early life has been revealed in sensory processing and multi-modal integration that are essential for normal postnatal neurodevelopment. An early alteration in the oxytocin-system may disturb its maturation and may have short-term and long-term pathological consequences such as autism spectrum disorders...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801991/early-autism-symptoms-in-infants-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#2
Nicole M McDonald, Kandice J Varcin, Rujuta Bhatt, Joyce Y Wu, Mustafa Sahin, Charles A Nelson, Shafali S Jeste
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic syndrome that confers significantly increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with 50-60% of infants with TSC meeting criteria for ASD by 3 years of age. In a previous study of the current longitudinal cohort, we found that infants with TSC who develop ASD (TSC/ASD) evidence decreased cognitive abilities that diverge from infants with TSC and no ASD (TSC/no ASD). We extended this work by asking whether TSC/ASD infants (n = 13) differed from TSC/no ASD infants (n = 10) and infants with low developmental risk and no ASD (LR; n = 21) in their social communication functioning during the first year of life...
August 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748334/effect-of-omega-3-and-6-supplementation-on-language-in-preterm-toddlers-exhibiting-autism-spectrum-disorder-symptoms
#3
Kelly W Sheppard, Kelly M Boone, Barbara Gracious, Mark A Klebanoff, Lynette K Rogers, Joseph Rausch, Christopher Bartlett, Daniel L Coury, Sarah A Keim
Delayed language development may be an early indicator of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Early intervention is critical for children with ASD, and the present study presents pilot data on a clinical trial of omega-3 and -6 fatty acid supplementation and language development, a secondary trial outcome, in children at risk for ASD. We randomized 31 children to receive an omega-3 and -6 supplement or a placebo for 3 months, and measured their language abilities at baseline and after supplementation. Gesture use, but not word production, increased for children in the treatment group more than children in the placebo group...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744128/a-6-year-follow-up-of-children-assessed-for-suspected-autism-spectrum-disorder-parents-experiences-of-society-s-support
#4
Gunilla Westman Andersson, Carmela Miniscalco, Nanna Gillberg
BACKGROUND: Early support and interventions are suggested to be important for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental problems and their families. Parents are described to have a burdensome life situation where the child's problems have a great impact on the family's well-being. AIM: To obtain increased knowledge of parents' experiences of support and interventions 6 years after their child was assessed for ASD. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A semi-structured questionnaire was sent to all parents (n=101) whose preschool children (<4 years of age) had been assessed for ASD about 6 years prior in Gothenburg, Sweden...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735159/gender-comparisons-in-children-with-asd-entering-early-intervention
#5
Alexandra M Fulton, Jessica M Paynter, David Trembath
BACKGROUND: Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) approximately four times as often as females. This has led to interest in recent years of potential under-diagnosis of females, as well as negative consequences for females with ASD due to under-identification. A number of potential explanations for gender bias in diagnosis are discussed including that females and males may present differently despite showing the same core symptoms. Previous research has shown inconsistent findings in comparisons between genders in young children with ASD for whom early intervention is vital...
July 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733851/autism-and-equine-assisted-interventions-a-systematic-mapping-review
#6
B Caitlin McDaniel Peters, Wendy Wood
This systematic mapping review mapped current knowledge of equine-assisted interventions for people with autism to help guide future practice and research. Thirty-three studies including children and adolescents with autism, 3 of which confirmed diagnoses, were reviewed. Five types of equine-assisted activities were identified across 25 studies, with reported improvements in behavior, social interaction, and communication. Four types of equine-assisted therapies were identified across 8 studies, with reported improvements in motor control and self-care...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727482/atypical-preference-for-infant-directed-speech-as-an-early-marker-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-literature-review-and-directions-for-further-research
#7
Marisa G Filipe, Linda Watson, Selene G Vicente, Sónia Frota
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) refer to a complex group of neurodevelopmental disorders causing difficulties with communication and interpersonal relationships, as well as restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. As early identification, diagnosis, and intervention provide better long-term outcomes, early markers of ASD have gained increased research attention. This review examines evidence that auditory processing enhanced by social interest, in particular auditory preference of speech directed towards infants and young children (i...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704714/current-status-of-biological-treatment-options-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Valsamma Eapen, Laura Nicholls, Vanessa Spagnol, Nisha E Mathew
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterised by deficits in social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviours. With an onset in early childhood, ASDs are thought to be heterogeneous, both genetically and clinically. This has led to the notion that "autism" is "autisms", however, there has been limited progress in understanding the different subgroups and the unique pathogenesis that would then allow targeted intervention. Although existing treatments are mainly symptom focussed, research is beginning to unravel the underlying genetic and molecular pathways, structural and functional neuronal circuitry involvement and the associated neurochemicals...
July 6, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700096/peak-alpha-frequency-is-a-neural-marker-of-cognitive-function-across-the-autism-spectrum
#9
Abigail Dickinson, Charlotte DiStefano, Damla Senturk, Shafali Spurling Jeste
Cognitive function varies substantially and serves as a key predictor of outcome and response to intervention in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet we know little about the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie cognitive function in children with ASD. The dynamics of neuronal oscillations in the alpha range (6-12 Hz) are associated with cognition in typical development. Peak alpha frequency is also highly sensitive to developmental changes in neural networks, which underlie cognitive function, and therefore, it holds promise as a developmentally sensitive neural marker of cognitive function in ASD...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691542/cross-cultural-validation-of-the-york-measure-of-quality-of-intensive-behavioral-intervention
#10
Ulrika Långh, Elodie Cauvet, Martin Hammar, Sven Bölte
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is widely applied in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Little research has addressed the significance of adherence to EIBI practices for treatment outcomes. The York Measure of Quality of Intensive Behavioral Intervention (YMQI) was designed to assess EIBI quality delivery in Ontario, Canada. The objective of this study was to examine the cross-cultural validity of the YMQI in a clinical Swedish community sample of 30 boys and four girls with autism aged 2...
July 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690570/social-cognition-in-children-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-associations-with-executive-functions
#11
Ana Miranda, Carmen Berenguer, Belén Roselló, Inmaculada Baixauli, Carla Colomer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social impairments. The first objective of this study was to analyze social cognition deficits of children with ADHD, high-functioning ASD (HFASD), and typical development (TD) in their performance on explicit and applied measures of theory of mind (ToM). The second objective was to investigate the relationships between executive functions and social cognition in HFASD and ADHD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688939/mapping-geospatial-gaps-in-early-identification-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Pamela B DeGuzman, Paige Altrui, Marcus Allen, Cornelia Ramsey Deagle, Jessica Keim-Malpass
Despite the known developmental benefits of early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), diagnosis before age 5 years is often not achieved. Research suggests that lack of health insurance and living in rural areas and areas of severe provider shortages contribute significantly to these delays. The purpose of this project was to conduct a geospatial evaluation of potential gaps in early ASD diagnosis of uninsured children in Virginia. A secondary purpose was to show the use of geospatial analysis by pediatric nurse practitioners for policy advocacy...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685407/evaluating-the-social-validity-of-the-early-start-denver-model-a-convergent-mixed-methods-study
#13
Emily Ogilvie, Matthew T McCrudden
An intervention has social validity to the extent that it is socially acceptable to participants and stakeholders. This pilot convergent mixed methods study evaluated parents' perceptions of the social validity of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), a naturalistic behavioral intervention for children with autism. It focused on whether the parents viewed (a) the ESDM goals as appropriate for their children, (b) the intervention procedures as acceptable and appropriate, and (c) whether changes in their children's behavior was practically significant...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685398/developmental-changes-in-pretend-play-from-22-to-34-months-in-younger-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Susan B Campbell, Amanda S Mahoney, Jessie Northrup, Elizabeth L Moore, Nina B Leezenbaum, Celia A Brownell
Developmental trajectories of children's pretend play and social engagement, as well as parent sensitivity and stimulation, were examined in toddlers with an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, high risk; HR) and toddlers with typically-developing older siblings (low risk; LR). Children (N = 168, 97 boys, 71 girls) were observed at 22, 28, and 34 months during free play with a parent and elicited pretend play with an examiner. At 28 and 34 months, children were asked to imagine the consequences of actions pantomimed by the examiner on a pretend transformation task...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660313/early-motor-delays-as-diagnostic-clues-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Susan R Harris
Early identification of autism facilitates referral for early intervention services, shown to be effective in enhancing parent-child interaction as well as adaptive behavior, communication, and socialization. Traditional hallmarks for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include deficits in social communication and social interaction as well as stereotypic or repetitive behavioral patterns. Research during the past decade suggests that developmental motor delays during early childhood may also be important predictors of this difficult-to-make diagnosis...
June 28, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644796/design-of-an-autonomous-social-orienting-training-system-asots-for-young-children-with-autism
#16
Zhi Zheng, Qiang Fu, Huan Zhao, Amy R Swanson, Amy S Weitlauf, Zachary E Warren, Nilanjan Sarkar
Social communication is among the core areas of impairment for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The training of social orientation is important for improving social communication of children with ASD. In recent years, technology-assisted ASD intervention had gained momentum due to its potential advantages in terms of precision, sustainability, flexibility and cost. In this paper, we propose a closed-loop autonomous computer system, named ASOTS, for training social orientation skills to young children with ASD...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642825/initial-development-of-the-early-intensive-behavioral-intervention-parental-self-efficacy-scale-a-pilot-study
#17
Aaron Blocher-Rubin, Paige Krabill
Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) is an effective treatment for children with autism. However, it is known that some parents struggle to fully implement the program, and providers are not always able to identify the specifics of each family's individualized challenges. The purpose of this pilot study was to begin the process of developing a new instrument, the EIBI Parental Self-Efficacy (EPSE) Scale, to help providers better assess and assist parents in regard to EIBI implementation. The methodology included four phases: scale construction, expert review, pretest administration, and a large sample pilot study (N = 192)...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610539/service-system-and-cognitive-outcomes-for-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-a-rural-area-of-taiwan
#18
Ching-Lin Chu, Chung-Hsin Chiang, Chin-Chin Wu, Yuh-Ming Hou, Jiun-Horng Liu
Chiayi is a rural county located in southwestern Taiwan, and the effectiveness of its early intervention service system for autism spectrum disorders was studied in detail. A total of 71 children with autism spectrum disorders ( n = 35) and developmental delay ( n = 36) aged 2.5 years were referred from the only Early Intervention Reporting and Referral Center in Chiayi and followed up at 4 years. Results showed relatively low and varied services of early intervention for both groups during two time-point periods and a relative lack of specific early intervention programs for children with autism spectrum disorders...
July 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599002/social-orienting-and-joint-attention-in-preschoolers-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Martina Franchini, Bronwyn Glaser, Hilary Wood de Wilde, Edouard Gentaz, Stephan Eliez, Marie Schaer
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) orient less to socially salient stimuli, such as dynamic social images, than typically developing children. In turn, this lack of social orienting is thought to impair affected individuals' socio communicative development. Here, we aim to explore the relationship between time spent on dynamic social images and ASD behaviors, such as joint attention and communication, in preschoolers on the autism spectrum. In this study, social orienting is measured using eye-tracking during a task consisting of side-by-side presentations of dynamic social images and dynamic geometric images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592562/functional-neuroimaging-of-high-risk-6-month-old-infants-predicts-a-diagnosis-of-autism-at-24-months-of-age
#20
Robert W Emerson, Chloe Adams, Tomoyuki Nishino, Heather Cody Hazlett, Jason J Wolff, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, John N Constantino, Mark D Shen, Meghan R Swanson, Jed T Elison, Sridhar Kandala, Annette M Estes, Kelly N Botteron, Louis Collins, Stephen R Dager, Alan C Evans, Guido Gerig, Hongbin Gu, Robert C McKinstry, Sarah Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin Styner, Bradley L Schlaggar, John R Pruett, Joseph Piven
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits and repetitive behaviors that typically emerge by 24 months of age. To develop effective early interventions that can potentially ameliorate the defining deficits of ASD and improve long-term outcomes, early detection is essential. Using prospective neuroimaging of 59 6-month-old infants with a high familial risk for ASD, we show that functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging correctly identified which individual children would receive a research clinical best-estimate diagnosis of ASD at 24 months of age...
June 7, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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