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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868044/plant-life-in-extreme-environments-how-do-you-improve-drought-tolerance
#1
REVIEW
Ulrike Bechtold
Systems studies of drought stress in resurrection plants and other xerophytes are rapidly identifying a large number of genes, proteins and metabolites that respond to severe drought stress or desiccation. This has provided insight into drought resistance mechanisms, which allow xerophytes to persist under such extreme environmental conditions. Some of the mechanisms that ensure cellular protection during severe dehydration appear to be unique to desert species, while many other stress signaling pathways are in common with well-studied model and crop species...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800276/accelerated-diversification-and-functional-trait-evolution-in-velloziaceae-reveal-new-insights-into-the-origins-of-the-campos-rupestres-exceptional-floristic-richness
#2
Suzana Alcantara, Richard H Ree, Renato Mello-Silva
Background and Aims: The greater diversity of plant clades in the Neotropics compared to their relatives in Africa is a pervasive pattern in biogeography. To better understand the causes of this imbalance, we studied the diversification dynamics of the monocot family Velloziaceae. In addition to being conspicuously richer in the Neotropics compared to the Palaeotropics, many species of Velloziaceae exhibit extreme desiccation tolerance (i.e. 'resurrection' behaviour), and other ecological specializations to life on rocky outcrops, poor sandy soils, open vegetation and seasonally dry climates...
May 23, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778495/protection-of-photosynthesis-in-desiccation-tolerant-resurrection-plants
#3
Dinakar Challabathula, Qingwei Zhang, Dorothea Bartels
Inhibition of photosynthesis is a central, primary response that is observed in both desiccation-tolerant and desiccation-sensitive plants affected by drought stress. Decreased photosynthesis during drought stress can either be due to the limitation of carbon dioxide entry through the stomata and the mesophyll cells, due to increased oxidative stress or due to decreased activity of photosynthetic enzymes. Although the photosynthetic rates decrease in both desiccation-tolerant and sensitive plants during drought, the remarkable difference lies in the complete recovery of photosynthesis after rehydration in desiccation-tolerant plants...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777775/genome-analysis-of-the-ancient-tracheophyte-selaginella-tamariscina-reveals-evolutionary-features-relevant-to-the-acquisition-of-desiccation-tolerance
#4
Zhichao Xu, Tianyi Xin, Dorothea Bartels, Ying Li, Wei Gu, Hui Yao, Sai Liu, Haoying Yu, Xiangdong Pu, Jianguo Zhou, Jiang Xu, Caicai Xi, Hetian Lei, Jingyuan Song, Shilin Chen
Resurrection plants, which are the "gifts" of natural evolution, are ideal models for studying genetic basis of plant desiccation tolerance. Here, we report a high-quality genome assembly of 301 Mb for the diploid spike moss Selaginella tamariscina, a primitive vascular resurrection plant. We predicated 27,761 protein-coding genes from the assembled S. tamariscina genome, 11.38% (2363) of which showed significant expression changes in response to desiccation. Approximately 60.58% of the S. tamariscina genome was annotated as repetitive DNA, which is almost 2-fold increase of that in the genome of desiccation-sensitive S...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757404/analysis-of-pcc13-62-promoters-predicts-a-link-between-cis-element-variations-and-desiccation-tolerance-in-linderniaceae
#5
Valentino Giarola, Niklas Udo Jung, Aishwarya Singh, Pooja Satpathy, Dorothea Bartels
Reproductive structures of plants (e.g. seeds) and vegetative tissues of resurrection plants can tolerate desiccation. Many genes encoding desiccation-related proteins (DRP) have been identified in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum, but the function of these genes remains mainly hypothetical. Here the importance of the DRP gene pcC13-62 for desiccation tolerance is evaluated by analysing the expression of this gene in C. plantagineum and in the closely related desiccation tolerant species Lindernia brevidens and desiccation sensitive species Lindernia subracemosa...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650158/saving-for-a-rainy-day-control-of-energy-needs-in-resurrection-plants
#6
REVIEW
Pauline Asami, Sagadevan Mundree, Brett Williams
Plants constantly respond to threats in their environment by balancing their energy needs with growth, defence and survival. Some plants such as the small group of resilient angiosperms, the resurrection plants, do this better than most. Resurrection plants possess the capacity to tolerate desiccation in vegetative tissue and upon watering, regain full metabolic capacity within 72 h. Knowledge of how these plants survive such extremes has advanced in the last few decades, but the molecular mechanics remain elusive...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459287/application-of-a-diffusion-model-to-measure-ion-leakage-of-resurrection-plant-leaves-undergoing-desiccation
#7
Gergana Mihailova, Konstantina Kocheva, Vasilij Goltsev, Hazem M Kalaji, Katya Georgieva
Haberlea rhodopensis is a chlorophyll-retaining resurrection plant, which can survive desiccation to air dry state under both low light and sunny environments. Maintaining the integrity of the membrane during dehydration of resurrection plants is extremely important. In the present study, the diffusion model was improved and used for a first time to evaluate the changes in ion leakage through different cellular compartments upon desiccation of H. rhodopensis and to clarify the reasons for significant increase of electrolyte leakage from dry leaves...
April 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375765/prolonged-dry-periods-between-rainfall-events-shorten-the-growth-period-of-the-resurrection-plant-reaumuria-soongorica
#8
Zhengzhong Zhang, Lishan Shan, Yi Li
The resurrection plant Reaumuria soongorica is widespread across Asia, southern Europe, and North Africa and is considered to be a constructive keystone species in desert ecosystems, but the impacts of climate change on this species in desert ecosystems are unclear. Here, the morphological responses of R. soongorica to changes in rainfall quantity (30% reduction and 30% increase in rainfall quantity) and interval (50% longer drought interval between rainfall events) were tested. Stage-specific changes in growth were monitored by sampling at the beginning, middle, and end of the growing season...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345751/first-evidence-of-freezing-tolerance-in-a-resurrection-plant-insights-into-molecular-mobility-and-zeaxanthin-synthesis-in-the-dark
#9
Beatriz Fernández-Marín, Gilbert Neuner, Edith Kuprian, Jose Manuel Laza, J I José Ignacio García-Plazaola, Amy Verhoeven
The photoprotective mechanisms of desiccation tolerance and freezing tolerance and their relation to molecular mobility (cell vitrification) were assessed in a single model: the exceptional subalpine and resurrection plant Ramonda myconi. Dehydrated leaves showed a drop in Fv /Fm accompanied by synthesis of zeaxanthin (Z), even in the dark, which was limited by cell vitrification after complete desiccation. The recovery of Fv /Fm after a severe drying treatment (7 d at 50% RH) confirmed the tolerance of R. myconi leaves to desiccation...
January 18, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325054/dehydration-survival-of-crop-plants-and-its-measurement
#10
Abraham Blum, Roberto Tuberosa
Dehydration survival under drought stress is defined in this review as the transition from plant activity into a quiescent state of life preservation, which will be terminated by either recovery or death, depending on the stress regime and the plant's resilience. Dehydration survival is a popular phenotype by which functional genomics attempts to test gene function in drought resistance and survival. The available reports on phenotyping and genotyping of dehydration survival in genomic studies indicate that the measurement of this trait is often biased to the extent that misguided interpretations are likely to occur...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302274/detecting-the-invisible-fraction-bias-in-resurrection-experiments
#11
Arthur E Weis
The resurrection approach is a powerful tool for estimating phenotypic evolution in response to global change. Ancestral generations, revived from dormant propagules, are grown side by side with descendent generations in the same environment. Phenotypic differences between the generations can be attributed to genetic change over time. Project Baseline was established to capitalize on this potential in flowering plants. Project participants collected, froze, and stored seed from 10 or more natural populations of 61 North American plant species...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296019/extreme-haplotype-variation-in-the-desiccation-tolerant-clubmoss-selaginella-lepidophylla
#12
Robert VanBuren, Ching Man Wai, Shujun Ou, Jeremy Pardo, Doug Bryant, Ning Jiang, Todd C Mockler, Patrick Edger, Todd P Michael
Plant genome size varies by four orders of magnitude, and most of this variation stems from dynamic changes in repetitive DNA content. Here we report the small 109 Mb genome of Selaginella lepidophylla, a clubmoss with extreme desiccation tolerance. Single-molecule sequencing enables accurate haplotype assembly of a single heterozygous S. lepidophylla plant, revealing extensive structural variation. We observe numerous haplotype-specific deletions consisting of largely repetitive and heavily methylated sequences, with enrichment in young Gypsy LTR retrotransposons...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180830/-mycosphaerellaceae-chaos-or-clarity
#13
S I R Videira, J Z Groenewald, C Nakashima, U Braun, R W Barreto, P J G M de Wit, P W Crous
The Mycosphaerellaceae represent thousands of fungal species that are associated with diseases on a wide range of plant hosts. Understanding and stabilising the taxonomy of genera and species of Mycosphaerellaceae is therefore of the utmost importance given their impact on agriculture, horticulture and forestry. Based on previous molecular studies, several phylogenetic and morphologically distinct genera within the Mycosphaerellaceae have been delimited. In this study a multigene phylogenetic analysis (LSU, ITS and rpb2 ) was performed based on 415 isolates representing 297 taxa and incorporating ex-type strains where available...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080424/mechanisms-of-desiccation-tolerance-in-the-bromeliad-pitcairnia-burchellii-mez-biochemical-adjustments-and-structural-changes
#14
Evandro Alves Vieira, Kleber Resende Silva, Aline Oriani, Camila Fernandes Moro, Marcia Regina Braga
Rocky outcrops represent the diversity center of vascular desiccation tolerant (DT) plants. Vegetation in this environment is exposed to an extended dry season and extreme conditions due to rocky soils and high sun exposure. In this study, we demonstrated that Pitcairnia burchellii, a bromeliad from rocky outcrops, tolerates intense desiccation for about 90 days due to strategies as accumulation of compatible osmolytes and antioxidant substances together with leaf morphological changes. In dehydrated plants, an increase in antioxidant activity was observed and the vacuolization of parenchyma cells was accompanied by proline accumulation in leaves and rhizomes...
October 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036694/efficient-modulation-of-photosynthetic-apparatus-confers-desiccation-tolerance-in-the-resurrection-plant-boea-hygrometrica
#15
Tinghong Tan, Yanni Sun, Shishuai Luo, Chao Zhang, Huapeng Zhou, Honghui Lin
Boea hygrometrica (B. hygrometrica) can tolerate severe desiccation and resume photosynthetic activity rapidly upon water availability. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which B. hygrometrica adapts to dehydration and resumes competence upon rehydration. Here we determine how B. hygrometrica deals with oxidative stress, excessive excitation/electron pressures as well as photosynthetic apparatus modulation during dehydration/rehydration. By measuring ROS generation and scavenging efficiency, we found that B...
November 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865108/glycerolipid-analysis-during-desiccation-and-recovery-of-the-resurrection-plant-xerophyta-humilis-bak-dur-and-schinz
#16
Freedom Tshabuse, Jill M Farrant, Lydie Humbert, Deborah Moura, Dominique Rainteau, Christophe Espinasse, Abdelghani Idrissi, Franck Merlier, Sébastien Acket, Mohamad S Rafudeen, Brigitte Thomasset, Eric Ruelland
Xerophyta humilis is a poikilochlorophyllous monocot resurrection plant used as a model to study vegetative desiccation tolerance. Dehydration imposes tension and ultimate loss of integrity of membranes in desiccation sensitive species. We investigated the predominant molecular species of glycerolipids present in root and leaf tissues, using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry, and then analysed changes therein during dehydration and subsequent rehydration of whole plants. The presence of fatty acids with long carbon chains and with odd numbers of carbons were detected and confirmed by gas chromatography...
March 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851758/orthodox-seeds-and-resurrection-plants-two-of-a-kind
#17
Maria-Cecília D Costa, Keren Cooper, Henk W M Hilhorst, Jill M Farrant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746763/reclaiming-hope-in-extinction-storytelling
#18
Patrice Kohl
Critics often take conservationists to task for delivering a constant barrage of bad news without offering a compelling vision of the future. Could recent advances in synthetic biology-an optimistic, forward-looking field with a can-do attitude-let conservationists develop a new vision and generate some better news? Synthetic biology and related gene-editing applications could be used to address threats to species. Genetic interventions might also be used in plants to better protect biodiversity in U.S. rangelands and forests...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622918/angiosperm-plant-desiccation-tolerance-hints-from-transcriptomics-and-genome-sequencing
#19
REVIEW
Valentino Giarola, Quancan Hou, Dorothea Bartels
Desiccation tolerance (DT) in angiosperms is present in the small group of resurrection plants and in seeds. DT requires the presence of protective proteins, specific carbohydrates, restructuring of membrane lipids, and regulatory mechanisms directing a dedicated gene expression program. Many components are common to resurrection plants and seeds; however, some are specific for resurrection plants. Understanding how each component contributes to DT is challenging. Recent transcriptome analyses and genome sequencing indicate that increased expression is essential of genes encoding protective components, recently evolved, species-specific genes and non-protein-coding RNAs...
August 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494872/using-resurrected-ancestral-proviral-proteins-to-engineer-virus-resistance
#20
Asunción Delgado, Rocio Arco, Beatriz Ibarra-Molero, Jose M Sanchez-Ruiz
Proviral factors are host proteins hijacked by viruses for processes essential for virus propagation such as cellular entry and replication. Pathogens and their hosts co-evolve. It follows that replacing a proviral factor with a functional ancestral form of the same protein could prevent viral propagation without fatally compromising organismal fitness. Here, we provide proof of concept of this notion. Thioredoxins serve as general oxidoreductases in all known cells. We report that several laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins display substantial levels of functionality within Escherichia coli...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
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