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resurrection plants

Ruiqi Huang, Andrew J O'Donnell, Jessica J Barboline, Todd J Barkman
Convergent evolution is a process that has occurred throughout the tree of life, but the historical genetic and biochemical context promoting the repeated independent origins of a trait is rarely understood. The well-known stimulant caffeine, and its xanthine alkaloid precursors, has evolved multiple times in flowering plant history for various roles in plant defense and pollination. We have shown that convergent caffeine production, surprisingly, has evolved by two previously unknown biochemical pathways in chocolate, citrus, and guaraná plants using either caffeine synthase- or xanthine methyltransferase-like enzymes...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Steven J Franks
When Charles Darwin was exploring the idea of evolution via natural selection, he looked to domesticated species, with the opening chapter of The Origin of Species titled 'Variation Under Domestication' (Darwin ). Domesticated species such as crops are a great example of artificial selection, which Darwin realized was analogous to natural selection. But growing among those carefully selected crop varieties are the unwelcome and unwanted plants we call weeds. Despite the importance of weeds and long-standing interest in their evolution (Baker ), we still know little about how agricultural weeds evolve, and we often fail to take evolution into account when attempting to manage them (Neve et al...
September 2016: Molecular Ecology
L Lombard, J Houbraken, C Decock, R A Samson, M Meijer, M Réblová, J Z Groenewald, P W Crous
The family Stachybotriaceae was recently introduced to include the genera Myrothecium, Peethambara and Stachybotrys. Members of this family include important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. However, the generic boundaries in Stachybotriaceae are still poorly defined, as type material and sequence data are not readily available for taxonomic studies. To address this issue, we performed multi-locus phylogenetic analyses using partial gene sequences of the 28S large subunit (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5...
June 2016: Persoonia
Claudia Engelhardt, Frank Petereit, Matthias Lechtenberg, Ursula Liefländer-Wulf, Andreas Hensel
The upper aerial parts and leaf tips of Myrothamnus flabellifolia Welw. (Myrothamnaceae), a resurrection plant indigenous to southern Africa, are used in African traditional medicine for infections of the respiratory and urinary system as well as for inflammation of mucosa and skin. Within a phytochemical investigation of the herbal material from M. flabellifolia the flavonoid fraction was shown to contain quercetin 10 as well as the respective 3-O-β-d-galactosides, glucosides, -glucuronides and 3-O-α-l-rhamnosides of quercetin (6, 7, 8, 26) and kaempferol (1, 2, 3, 9)...
October 2016: Fitoterapia
Dana Charuvi, Reinat Nevo, Ifat Kaplan-Ashiri, Eyal Shimoni, Ziv Reich
Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of freeze-fractured samples allows investigation of biological structures at near native conditions. Here, we describe a technique for studying the supramolecular organization of photosynthetic (thylakoid) membranes within leaf samples. This is achieved by high-pressure freezing of leaf tissues, freeze-fracturing, double-layer coating and finally cryo-SEM imaging. Use of the double-layer coating method allows acquiring high magnification (>100,000X) images with minimal beam damage to the frozen-hydrated samples as well as minimal charging effects...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ahmad Zia, Berkley J Walker, Hui Min Olivia Oung, Dana Charuvi, Peter Jahns, Asaph B Cousins, Jill M Farrant, Ziv Reich, Helmut Kirchhoff
The group of homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plants evolved the unique capability to survive severe drought stress without dismantling the photosynthetic machinery. This implies that they developed efficient strategies to protect the leaves from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by photosynthetic side reactions. These strategies, however, are poorly understood. Here, we performed a detailed study of the photosynthetic machinery in the homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plant Craterostigma pumilum during dehydration and upon recovery from desiccation...
September 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Alexandre Fournier-Level, Emily O Perry, Jonathan A Wang, Peter T Braun, Andrew Migneault, Martha D Cooper, C Jessica E Metcalf, Johanna Schmitt
Predicting whether and how populations will adapt to rapid climate change is a critical goal for evolutionary biology. To examine the genetic basis of fitness and predict adaptive evolution in novel climates with seasonal variation, we grew a diverse panel of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana (multiparent advanced generation intercross lines) in controlled conditions simulating four climates: a present-day reference climate, an increased-temperature climate, a winter-warming only climate, and a poleward-migration climate with increased photoperiod amplitude...
May 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Qingwei Zhang, Thomas Vitus Linnemann, Lukas Schreiber, Dorothea Bartels
Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Craterostigma plantagineum has two transketolase genes (transketolase 7 and 10) which are separated from the other transketolase genes including transketolase 3 from C. plantagineum We obtained recombinant transketolase 3, 7, and 10 of C. plantagineum and showed that transketolase 7 and 10 of C. plantagineum, but not transketolase 3, catalyse the formation of octulose-8-phosphate in vitro Transketolase 7 and 10 of C. plantagineum performed the exchange reaction that produces octulose-8-phosphate using glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate as substrates...
May 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Farah Deeba, Ashutosh K Pandey, Vivek Pandey
To explore molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological response of Selaginella bryopteris, a comprehensive proteome analysis was carried out in roots and fronds undergoing dehydration and rehydration. Plants were dehydrated for 7 days followed by 2 and 24 h of rehydration. In roots out of 59 identified spots, 58 protein spots were found to be up-regulated during dehydration stress. The identified proteins were related to signaling, stress and defense, protein and nucleotide metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, storage and epigenetic control...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Steven J Franks, Nolan C Kane, Niamh B O'Hara, Silas Tittes, Joshua S Rest
There is increasing evidence that evolution can occur rapidly in response to selection. Recent advances in sequencing suggest the possibility of documenting genetic changes as they occur in populations, thus uncovering the genetic basis of evolution, particularly if samples are available from both before and after selection. Here, we had a unique opportunity to directly assess genetic changes in natural populations following an evolutionary response to a fluctuation in climate. We analysed genome-wide differences between ancestors and descendants of natural populations of Brassica rapa plants from two locations that rapidly evolved changes in multiple phenotypic traits, including flowering time, following a multiyear late-season drought in California...
August 2016: Molecular Ecology
Fabio Candotto Carniel, Marco Gerdol, Alice Montagner, Elisa Banchi, Gianluca De Moro, Chiara Manfrin, Lucia Muggia, Alberto Pallavicini, Mauro Tretiach
Trebouxia is the most common lichen-forming genus of aero-terrestrial green algae and all its species are desiccation tolerant (DT). The molecular bases of this remarkable adaptation are, however, still largely unknown. We applied a transcriptomic approach to a common member of the genus, T. gelatinosa, to investigate the alteration of gene expression occurring after dehydration and subsequent rehydration in comparison to cells kept constantly hydrated. We sequenced, de novo assembled and annotated the transcriptome of axenically cultured T...
June 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Andrea Pitzschke
Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Julie R Etterson, Steven J Franks, Susan J Mazer, Ruth G Shaw, Nicole L Soper Gorden, Heather E Schneider, Jennifer J Weber, Katharine J Winkler, Arthur E Weis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Project Baseline is a seed bank that offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of microevolution during an era of rapid environmental change. Over the upcoming 50 years, biologists will withdraw genetically representative samples of past populations from this time capsule of seeds and grow them contemporaneously with modern samples to detect any phenotypic and molecular evolution that has occurred during the intervening time. METHODS: We carefully developed this living genome bank using protocols to enhance its experimental value by collecting from multiple populations and species across a broad geographical range in sites that are likely to be preserved into the future...
January 2016: American Journal of Botany
K Georgieva, F Rapparini, G Bertazza, G Mihailova, É Sárvári, Á Solti, Á Keresztes
Haberlea rhodopensis belongs to the small group of resurrection plants having the unique ability to survive desiccation to air dry state retaining most of its chlorophyll content and then resume normal function upon rehydration. It prefers the shady valleys and northward facing slopes of limestone ridges in mountain zones with high average humidity. Nevertheless, it can be found rarely on rocks directly exposed to the sunlight, without the coverage of the canopy. In the present study, we follow the alterations in the subcellular organization of mesophyll cells and sugar metabolism upon desiccation of shade and sun H...
December 23, 2015: Protoplasma
Eduardo Guajardo, Juan A Correa, Loretto Contreras-Porcia
The hormone ABA regulates the oxidative stress state under desiccation in seaweed species; an environmental condition generated during daily tidal changes. Desiccation is one of the most important factors that determine the distribution pattern of intertidal seaweeds. Among most tolerant seaweed is Pyropia orbicularis, which colonizes upper intertidal zones along the Chilean coast. P. orbicularis employs diverse mechanisms of desiccation tolerance (DT) (among others, e.g., antioxidant activation, photoinhibition, and osmo-compatible solute overproduction) such as those used by resurrection plants and bryophytes...
March 2016: Planta
Alissa Rauwerdink, Mark Lunzer, Titu Devamani, Bryan Jones, Joanna Mooney, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Jian-He Xu, Romas J Kazlauskas, Antony M Dean
The means by which superfamilies of specialized enzymes arise by gene duplication and functional divergence are poorly understood. The escape from adaptive conflict hypothesis, which posits multiple copies of a gene encoding a primitive inefficient and highly promiscuous generalist ancestor, receives support from experiments showing that resurrected ancestral enzymes are indeed more substrate-promiscuous than their modern descendants. Here, we provide evidence in support of an alternative model, the innovation-amplification-divergence hypothesis, which posits a single-copied ancestor as efficient and specific as any modern enzyme...
April 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Niamh B O'Hara, Joshua S Rest, Steven J Franks
Recent studies have demonstrated adaptive evolutionary responses to climate change, but little is known about how these responses may influence ecological interactions with other organisms, including natural enemies. We used a resurrection experiment in the greenhouse to examine the effect of evolutionary responses to drought on the susceptibility of Brassica rapa plants to a fungal pathogen, Alternaria brassicae. In agreement with previous studies in this population, we found an evolutionary shift to earlier flowering postdrought, which was previously shown to be adaptive...
January 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Brett Williams, Isaac Njaci, Lalehvash Moghaddam, Hao Long, Martin B Dickman, Xiuren Zhang, Sagadevan Mundree
Global climate change, increasingly erratic weather and a burgeoning global population are significant threats to the sustainability of future crop production. There is an urgent need for the development of robust measures that enable crops to withstand the uncertainty of climate change whilst still producing maximum yields. Resurrection plants possess the unique ability to withstand desiccation for prolonged periods, can be restored upon watering and represent great potential for the development of stress tolerant crops...
December 2015: PLoS Genetics
Chao Ma, Hong Wang, Andrew J Macnish, Alejandro C Estrada-Melo, Jing Lin, Youhong Chang, Michael S Reid, Cai-Zhong Jiang
The woody resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia has remarkable tolerance to desiccation. Pyro-sequencing technology permitted us to analyze the transcriptome of M. flabellifolia during both dehydration and rehydration. We identified a total of 8287 and 8542 differentially transcribed genes during dehydration and rehydration treatments respectively. Approximately 295 transcription factors (TFs) and 484 protein kinases (PKs) were up- or down-regulated in response to desiccation stress. Among these, the transcript levels of 53 TFs and 91 PKs increased rapidly and peaked early during dehydration...
2015: Horticulture Research
Sonia E Sultan, Silvia Matesanz
The introduced Asian plant Polygonum cespitosum has only recently become invasive in northeastern North America, spreading into sunny as well as shaded habitats. We present findings from a multiyear case study of this ongoing species invasion, drawing on field environmental measurements, glasshouse plasticity and resurrection experiments, and molecular genetic (microsatellite) data. We focus in particular on patterns of individual phenotypic plasticity (norms of reaction), their diversity within and among populations in the species' introduced range, and their contribution to its potential to evolve even greater invasiveness...
December 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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