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PGC-1 alpha AND mitochondria

Shivona Gounden, Anil Chuturgoon
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) regulates mitochondrial antioxidant (AO) defense and improves mitochondrial disorders. Curcumin protects mitochondria; however, the mechanisms need investigation. We postulated that curcumin increases AO defense under hyperglycemic conditions in HepG2 cells through SIRT3-mediated mechanisms. Cell viability was determined in HepG2 cells cultured with 5 mM glucose, 19.9 mM mannitol, vehicle control, 10 mM glucose, and 30 mM glucose in the absence or presence of curcumin for 24 h. SIRT3, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and Lon protein expressions were determined using western blot...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
Zhen Su, Janet D Klein, Jie DU, Harold A Franch, Liping Zhang, Faten Hassounah, Matthew B Hudson, Xiaonan H Wang
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes loss of lean body mass by multiple mechanisms. This study examines whether autophagy-mediated proteolysis contributes to CKD-induced muscle wasting. We tested autophagy in the muscle of CKD mice with plantaris muscle overloading to mimic resistance exercise or with acupuncture plus low frequency electrical stimulation (Acu/LFES) treatment. In CKD muscle, Bnip3, Beclin-1, LC3II mRNAs and proteins were increased compared with control muscle, indicating autophagosome-lysosome formation induction...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Xiaobo Wang, Ning Huang, Min Yang, Dandan Wei, Haoran Tai, Xiaojuan Han, Hui Gong, Jiao Zhou, Jianqiong Qin, Xiawei Wei, Honghan Chen, Tingting Fang, Hengyi Xiao
Global germ line loss of fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene results in both the reduction of fat mass and lean mass in mice. The role of FTO in adipogenesis has been proposed, however, that in myogenesis has not. Skeletal muscle is the main component of body lean mass, so its connection with FTO physiologic significance need to be clarified. Here, we assessed the impact of FTO on murine skeletal muscle differentiation by in vitro and in vivo experiments. We found that FTO expression increased during myoblasts differentiation, while the silence of FTO inhibited the differentiation; in addition, skeletal muscle development was impaired in skeletal muscle FTO-deficient mice...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
Huiling Tang, Weikun Wei, Wang Wang, Zhengqi Zha, Ting Li, Zhijie Zhang, Chen Luo, Hongping Yin, Fengjie Huang, Ying Wang
Cordyceps sinensis mycelia polysaccharide A (CPS-A), was isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia by 65% alcohol extraction and ion-exchange column chromatography. The molecular weight of CPS-A was 1.2×10(4)Da and the backbone was mainly composed of (1→2)-linked β-d-mannopyranose, (1→2,4)-linked β-d-mannopyranose and (1→4)-linked α-d-glucopyranose with terminal β-d-mannopyranose and α-d-glucopyranose residues. CPS-A played a protective role against TNF-α induced mitochondria injury in L02 cells via up-regulation of mitofusin 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and membrane potential...
May 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Tai-Yu Huang, Donghai Zheng, Joseph A Houmard, Jeffrey J Brault, Robert C Hickner, Ronald N Cortright
Peroxisomes are indispensable organelles for lipid metabolism in humans, and their biogenesis has been assumed to be under regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, recent studies in hepatocytes suggest that the mitochondrial proliferator PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α) also acts as an upstream transcriptional regulator for enhancing peroxisomal abundance and associated activity. It is unknown whether the regulatory mechanism(s) for enhancing peroxisomal function is through the same node as mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle (HSkM) and whether fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is affected...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nady Golestaneh, Yi Chu, Shuk Kei Cheng, Hong Cao, Eugenia Poliakov, Daniel M Berinstein
BACKGROUND: Study of age related macular degeneration (AMD) has been hampered by lack of human models that represent the complexity of the disease. Here we have developed a human in vitro disease model of AMD to investigate the underlying AMD disease mechanisms. METHODS: Generation of iPSCs from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of AMD donors, age-matched normal donors, skin fibroblasts of a dry AMD patient, and differentiation of iPSCs into RPE (AMD RPE-iPSC-RPE, normal RPE-iPSC-RPE and AMD Skin-iPSC-RPE, respectively)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Guo-Min Zhang, Ming-Tian Deng, Yan-Li Zhang, Yi-Xuan Fan, Yong-Jie Wan, Hai-Tao Nie, Zi-Yu Wang, Feng Wang, Zhi-Hai Lei
During goat follicular development, abnormal expression of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) in granulosa cells (GCs) may contribute to follicular atresia with unknown regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we investigate the effect of ectopic expression or interference of PGC-1α on cell apoptosis of goat first passage granulosa cells (FGCs) in vitro. The results indicate that PGC-1α silencing by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in goat FGCs significantly reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number (P < 0...
October 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Chi-Jing Choong, Hideki Mochizuki
Parkinson's disease (PD) presents a relative selective localization of pathology to substantia nigra and well-defined motor symptoms caused by dopaminergic degeneration that makes it an ideal target for gene therapy. Parallel progress in viral vector systems enables the delivery of therapeutic genes directly into brain with reasonable safety along with sustained transgene expression. To date, gene therapy for PD that has reached clinical trial evaluation is mainly based on symptomatic approach that involves enzyme replacement strategy and restorative approach that depends on the addition of neurotrophic factors...
February 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
Xi He, Yehui Duan, Kang Yao, Fengna Li, Yongqing Hou, Guoyao Wu, Yulong Yin
The metabolic roles of mitochondria go far beyond serving exclusively as the major producer of ATP in tissues and cells. Evidence has shown that mitochondria may function as a key regulator of skeletal muscle fiber types and overall well-being. Maintaining skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function is important for sustaining health throughout the lifespan. Of great importance, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB, a metabolite of L-leucine) has been proposed to enhance the protein deposition and efficiency of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, as well as muscle strength in both exercise and clinical settings...
March 2016: Amino Acids
Jon Sin, Allen M Andres, David J R Taylor, Thomas Weston, Yoshimi Hiraumi, Aleksandr Stotland, Brandon J Kim, Chengqun Huang, Kelly S Doran, Roberta A Gottlieb
Myogenesis is a crucial process governing skeletal muscle development and homeostasis. Differentiation of primitive myoblasts into mature myotubes requires a metabolic switch to support the increased energetic demand of contractile muscle. Skeletal myoblasts specifically shift from a highly glycolytic state to relying predominantly on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) upon differentiation. We have found that this phenomenon requires dramatic remodeling of the mitochondrial network involving both mitochondrial clearance and biogenesis...
2016: Autophagy
David A Cappel, Louise Lantier, Brian T Palmisano, David H Wasserman, John M Stafford
Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female but not male mice...
2015: PloS One
C De Nuccio, A Bernardo, C Cruciani, R De Simone, S Visentin, L Minghetti
The activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is known to exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and PPAR-γ agonists are considered potential therapeutic agents in brain diseases including those affecting myelin. In demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammation is one of the causes of myelin and axonal damage. Oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation is highly dependent on mitochondria, which are major targets of inflammatory insult...
September 2015: Experimental Neurology
Lamiaa A Ahmed, Hebatallah A Darwish, Rania M Abdelsalam, HebatAllah A Amin
3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity is an experimental model which mimics the pathology and motor abnormalities seen in Huntington's disease (HD) in human. The present investigation was directed to estimate the role of rho kinase (ROCK) inhibition in the possible protective effect of fasudil and simvastatin in 3-NP-induced striatal neurodegeneration in rats. Animals were injected s.c. with 3-NP (20 mg/kg/day) for 1 week with or without administration of fasudil (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day, p...
August 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Kur-Ta Cheng, Yu-Shiou Wang, Hsiu-Chu Chou, Chih-Cheng Chang, Ching-Kuo Lee, Shu-Hui Juan
BACKGROUND: Currently, more than one-third of the global population is overweight or obese, which is a risk factor for major causes of death including cardiovascular disease, numerous cancers, and diabetes. Kinsenoside, a major active component of Anoectochilus formosanus exhibits antihyperglycemic, antihyperliposis, and hepatoprotective effects and can be used to prevent and manage obesity. PURPOSE: This study examined the catabolic effects of kinsenoside on lipolysis in adipocytes transformed from C3H10T1/2 cells...
June 1, 2015: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Mohammed Ihsan, James F Markworth, Greig Watson, Hui Cheng Choo, Andrew Govus, Toan Pham, Anthony Hickey, David Cameron-Smith, Chris R Abbiss
This study investigated the effect of regular postexercise cold water immersion (CWI) on muscle aerobic adaptations to endurance training. Eight males performed 3 sessions/wk of endurance training for 4 wk. Following each session, subjects immersed one leg in a cold water bath (10°C; COLD) for 15 min, while the contralateral leg served as a control (CON). Muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis of both CON and COLD legs prior to training and 48 h following the last training session. Samples were analyzed for signaling kinases: p38 MAPK and AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), enzyme activities indicative of mitochondrial biogenesis, and protein subunits representative of respiratory chain complexes I-V...
August 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Parkyong Song, Yonghoon Kwon, Kyungmoo Yea, Hyo-Youl Moon, Jong Hyuk Yoon, Jaewang Ghim, Hyunjung Hyun, Dayea Kim, Ara Koh, Per-Olof Berggren, Pann-Ghill Suh, Sung Ho Ryu
Apolipoprotein a1, which is a major lipoprotein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), was reported to decrease plasma glucose in type 2 diabetes. Although recent studies also have shown that apolipoprotein a1 is involved in triglyceride (TG) metabolism, the mechanisms by which apolipoprotein a1 modulates TG levels remain largely unexplored. Here we demonstrated that apolipoprotein a1 increased mitochondrial DNA and mitochondria contents through sustained AMPK activation in myotubes. This resulted in enhanced fatty acid oxidation and attenuation of free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance features in skeletal muscle...
September 2015: Cellular Signalling
Ashish Kumar Singh, Sumeet Kumar Pandey, Gourav Saha, Naresh Kumar Gattupalli
BACKGROUND: Ageing involves oxidative stress mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. The present work demonstrates the protective effect of PQQ producing EcN against rotenone induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and consequence of mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction in naturally ageing rat model. PQQ is a potent antioxidant molecule also known to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function in mammals. METHODS: Firstly, adult rats (16-18 weeks old) were treated with rotenone (2...
June 2015: Experimental Gerontology
Anna Vainshtein, Eric Ma Desjardins, Andrea Armani, Marco Sandri, David A Hood
BACKGROUND: Alterations in skeletal muscle contractile activity necessitate an efficient remodeling mechanism. In particular, mitochondrial turnover is essential for tissue homeostasis during muscle adaptations to chronic use and disuse. While mitochondrial biogenesis appears to be largely governed by the transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), selective mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) is thought to mediate organelle degradation. However, whether PGC-1α plays a direct role in autophagy is currently unclear...
2015: Skeletal Muscle
G Zhang, Y Wan, Y Zhang, S Lan, R Jia, Z Wang, Y Fan, F Wang
Most follicles undergo atresia during the developmental process. Follicular atresia is predominantly regulated by apoptosis of granulosa cells, but the mechanism underlying apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether the mitochondria-associated genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, coactivator1-alpha (PPARGC1A), nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) played a role in follicular atresia through this pathway...
June 2015: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Alexander Michael Tabony, Tadashi Yoshida, Sergiy Sukhanov, Patrice Delafontaine
BACKGROUND: Circulating angiotensin II (AngII) is elevated in congestive heart failure (CHF), and leads to skeletal muscle wasting, which is strongly associated with poor patient outcomes. We previously found that AngII upregulates protein phosphatase 2C-alpha (PP2Cα) and dephosphorylates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critical regulator of cellular metabolism, in skeletal muscle. METHODS: To determine the role of PP2Cα in AngII-induced wasting, gastrocnemius (Gas) muscles of FVB mice were injected with scrambled or PP2Cα siRNA and mice were infused with saline or AngII for 4 days...
2014: Skeletal Muscle
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