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Faisal Usman, Ruqaiya Khalil, Zaheer Ul-Haq, Titpawan Nakpheng, Teerapol Srichana
We report nanomicelles of amphotericin B (AmB) using various molar ratios of AmB and sodium deoxycholate sulfate (SDCS) for inhalation with improved stability, solubility, bioactivity, and safety. The particle sizes of all aerosolized formulations are expressed as mass median aerodynamic diameter (0.9-1.6 μm), fine particle fraction (70.3-86.5%), and geometric standard deviation (1.4-2.1) which indicated their sizes are appropriate for use as an inhaler. In vitro cytotoxicity studies conducted using respiratory and kidney cell lines demonstrated that the marketed Fungizone® was toxic to macrophage and embryonic kidney cells and cell viability decreased from 96 to 48% and from 97 to 67%, respectively when the AmB equivalent concentration was increased from 1 to 16 μg/mL...
April 24, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
X Wang, X N Zhang, M L Wu, L C Jia, L N Xie, Y Meng, S H Feng, W Ma
Objective: To explore the dynamic variation trend of bronchial wall thickness (BWT) in severely burned patients combined with inhalation injury, and to determine the value of BWT to prognosis of patients. Methods: Forty-three severely burned patients with inhalation injury hospitalized in Intensive Burn Department of the Affiliated Hospital of Nankai University (Tianjin No.4 Hospital) from July to November 2016, conforming to the study criteria, were divided into survival group ( n =27) and death group ( n =16) according to the prognosis of patients within 14 days after admission...
April 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
J Wu, Q Zhang, J Liu, J J Tang, J X Zheng
Objective: To analyze the influencing factors and clinical significance of severe hypocalcemia in patients with extremely severe burns in early stage. Methods: Clinical data of 142 patients with extremely severe burns admitted to our wards from January 2010 to July 2015, conforming to the study criteria, were retrospectively analyzed. (1) The incidence of hypocalcemia and severe hypocalcemia on admission were calculated. (2) Patients were divided into the male group ( n =113) and the female group ( n =29) according to gender...
April 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Daniel Stöckmann, Tim Spannbrucker, Niloofar Ale-Agha, Philipp Jakobs, Christine Goy, Nadine Dyballa-Rukes, Tamara Hornstein, Alexander Kümper, Annette Kraegeloh, Judith Haendeler, Klaus Unfried
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an abundant membrane protein, which is essential for regulating many cellular processes including cell proliferation. In our earlier studies, we observed an activation of the EGFR and subsequent signaling events after the exposure of epithelial cells to carbon nanoparticles. In the current study, we describe molecular mechanisms that allow for discriminating carbon nanoparticle-specific from ligand-dependent receptor activation. Caveolin-1 is a key player that co-localizes with the EGFR upon receptor activation by carbon nanoparticles...
April 23, 2018: Nanomaterials
Justin Yong Soon Tay, Celine Valeria Liew, Paul Wan Sia Heng
Dissolution testing for inhalers were previously conducted either on unfractionated drug-carrier powders or drug of specific aerodynamic particle size. In this study, the collection of the full fine particle fraction (FPF) was attempted on a single stage. Capsules containing 30 mg of 2% salbutamol sulfate (SS) was tested to have a FPF of 9 ± 1% using the full set of Andersen cascade impactor (ACI) and a modified Rotahaler® capable of achieving 4.0 kPa pressure drop at 60 L/min air flow rate. A truncated ACI comprising the USP throat, pre-separator, stage 0, stage 4, stage F, polytetrafluoroethylene funnel (TF) and small collection plate (sCP) was found to be capable of achieving a FPF of 9% collected on TF and sCP...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Mina Suh, Deborah Proctor, Grace Chappell, Julia Rager, Chad Thompson, Susan Borghoff, Lavorgie Finch, Robert Ellis-Hutchings, Karin Wiench
Lower alkyl acrylate monomers include methyl-, ethyl-, n-butyl-, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. These acrylates are used in the manufacture of acrylic polymers and copolymers for plastics, food packaging, adhesives, and cosmetic formulations. Although there is limited potential for human environmental exposure, occupational exposure can occur via inhalation and dermal contact. Recently, new genotoxicity data have been generated, along with in silico and in vitro read-cross analyses, for these acrylates. The availability of high-throughput screening (HTS) data through the ToxCast™/Tox21 databases allows for consideration of computational toxicology and organization of these data according to the ten key characteristics of carcinogens...
April 21, 2018: Toxicology
Ibrahim Abdollahpour, Saharnaz Nedjat, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Tibor Schuster
There are only few reports regarding the role of lifetime drug or substance use in multiple sclerosis (MS) etiology. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of drug or substance exposure on the onset of MS diagnosis. We conducted a population-based incident case control study in Tehran. Cases (n = 547) were 15-50 years old persons with MS identified from the Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Society (IMSS) register during August 7, 2013, and November 17, 2015. Population-based controls (n = 1057) were 15-50 years old and were recruited by random digit telephone dialing...
2018: PloS One
Albert Z Muranda, Ludolf Greeff, Mike M Sathekge, Thabo Lengano, Victor O L Karusseit
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is an important opportunistic infection of organ transplant recipients. It is the third most common fungal infection of transplant patients and occurs especially in kidney recipients. Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous fungus which infects humans by inhalation of spores. C. gattii has more recently been recognised as a pathogen. Infection commonly is disseminated affecting mainly the central nervous system and the lungs. Cryptococcoma, a localised form of the disease, has been described in various organs...
April 23, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Ting-Ting Yang, Bao-Fang Wen, Kang Liu, Meng Qin, Yuan-Yuan Gao, De-Jun Ding, Wen-Tong Li, Yun-Xiang Zhang, Wei-Fen Zhang
N-[(2-Hydroxyl)-propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium] chitosan chloride (HTCC), a hydrosoluble chitosan derivative, has been extensively investigated as a class of drug delivery vehicles because of its unique features. However the studies on HTCC for pulmonary delivery systems have been rarely conducted. This study aimed to design porous microspheres (MS) containing cyclosporine A (CsA) using HTCC as the carrier. The physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of the MS were evaluated. The in vivo efficacy of MS was evaluated in an asthmatic rat model after pulmonary administration...
April 24, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Harpreet Sidhu, Max Kreifeldt, Candice Contet
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are characterized by a complex behavioral symptomatology, which includes the loss of control over alcohol consumption and the emergence of a negative affective state when alcohol is not consumed. Some of these symptoms can be recapitulated in rodent models, for instance following chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor inhalation (CIE). However, the detection of negative affect in mice withdrawn from CIE has proven challenging and variable between strains...
April 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Amani Abu-Shaheen, Isamme AlFayyad, Abdullah Nofal, Mohamad Al-Tannir, May AlMadaney, Humariya Heena
OBJECTIVE: To acquire more precise data on perceptions and practices adopted by Saudi parents of asthmatic children regarding asthma and its management. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through 2015 on 292 parents of children (aged 3-15 years) with asthma visiting the outpatient clinics and the emergency departments (ED) of two tertiary care medical centers in Riyadh city, using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of 292 parents who participated in this study, 60...
February 21, 2018: Curēus
Abdullah A AlKahtane, Saud Alarifi, Ahmed A Al-Qahtani, Daoud Ali, Suliman Y Alomar, Mohammed S Aleissia, Saad Alkahtani
Most of the agricultural workers are potentially exposed to pesticides through different routes. Inhalation exposures may result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual's health and capacity to perform at work. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic potential of cypermethrin pesticide on cultured human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. The HepG2 cells were exposed to cypermethrin (0, 5, 15, 40 ng/mL) for 24 and 48 hours. We observed that cypermethrin caused cell death of HepG2 cells using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiozolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase tests...
April 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Chariton Moschopoulos, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Bhairav V Shah, Anja Mowes, Vineet Bhandari
This state-of-the-art review article aims to highlight the most recent evidence about the therapeutic options of surgical necrotizing enterocolitis, focusing on the molecular basis of the gut-brain axis in relevance to the neurodevelopmental outcomes of primary peritoneal drainage and primary laparotomy. Current evidence favors primary laparotomy over primary peritoneal drainage as regards neurodevelopment in the surgical treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis. The added exposure to inhalational anesthesia in infants undergoing primary laparotomy is an additional confounding variable but requires further study...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Parth N Shah, Kush N Shah, Justin A Smolen, Jasur A Tagaev, Jose Torrealba, Lan Zhou, Shiyi Zhang, Fuwu Zhang, Patrick O Wagers, Matthew J Panzner, Wiley J Youngs, Karen L Wooley, Carolyn L Cannon
To address the escalating problem of antimicrobial resistance and the dwindling antimicrobial pipeline, we have developed a library of novel aerosolizable silver-based antimicrobials, particularly for the treatment of pulmonary infections. To rapidly screen this library and identify promising candidates, we have devised a novel in vitro metric, named the "drug efficacy metric" (DEM), which integrates both the antibacterial activity and the on-target, host cell cytotoxicity. DEMs calculated using an on-target human bronchial epithelial cell-line correlates well (R2  > 0...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Felix Ratjen, Alexander Moeller, Martha L McKinney, Irina Asherova, Nipa Alon, Robert Maykut, Gerhild Angyalosi
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic eradication treatment is the standard-of-care for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with early Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa)-infection; however, evidence from placebo-controlled trials is limited. METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomised CF patients <7 years (N = 51) with early Pa-infection to tobramycin inhalation solution (TOBI 300 mg) or placebo (twice daily) for 28 days with an optional cross-over on Day 35...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
C Godillot, A Laprie, C Eid, J-C Fricain, S Boulinguez, E Casassa, E Vigarios, V Sibaud
BACKGROUND: Regular cannabis use may be associated with several oral changes not usually identified by dermatologists: xerostomia, increased risk of caries, periodontitis, leukoedema, gingival hyperplasia, and higher prevalence and density of Candida albicans, leukoplakia or gingivitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report herein the appearance of a characteristic green tongue in a patient following intensive marijuana inhalation. DISCUSSION: This complication has rarely been reported in the medical literature...
April 21, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Roger W Byard
A study was undertaken of autopsy cases of suicide where either helium or nitrogen gas had been used (taken from Forensic Science SA files, 2003-2017). 33 deaths involved helium (age range 19-94yrs, average 47yrs; M:F-2.7:1), compared to 23 cases of nitrogen inhalation (age range 29-93yrs, average 66yrs; M:F-2.3:1). The combined numbers of deaths due to both helium and nitrogen inhalation showed a steady increase (5: 2003-2007; 31: 2013-2017); however, while helium deaths plateaued (14: 2008-2012, 15: 2013-2017) nitrogen-related deaths increased 16-fold...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Lijuan Zhang, Dingjie Xu, Qian Li, Yi Yang, Hong Xu, Zhongqiu Wei, Ruimin Wang, Wenli Zhang, Yan Liu, Yucong Geng, Shifeng Li, Xuemin Gao, Fang Yang
Damage to alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) caused by long-term inhalation of large amounts of silica dust plays a significant role in the pathology of silicosis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the regulatory mechanism(s) involved in type II AEC damage from silicon dioxide (SiO2 ) as well as the mechanism(s) related to the prevention of silicosis by the antifibrotic tetra peptide, N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP). The 2-DE results showed that SiO2 induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in A549 cells...
April 20, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Tadayoshi Kurita, Shingo Kawashima, Koji Morita, Yoshiki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Patients with a brain tumor are susceptible to the hypnotic effect of anesthetics depending on the tumor's size. We investigated whether intracranial space-occupying lesions (ICSOLs) inducing intracranial hypertension increase isoflurane's effect on electroencephalographic (EEG) results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After anesthetic induction with isoflurane, 11 swine were studied with regard to isoflurane's effect on EEGs at 0.5% to 2.0% inhalational concentration at sequential stages: baseline 1, ICSOL 1, baseline 2, ICSOL 2, baseline 3...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Jean-Marc Jacquet, Hélène Peyriere, Alain Makinson, Marianne Peries, Nicolas Nagot, Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, Jacques Reynes
OBJECTIVES: To assess the alcohol consumption, tobacco addiction and psychoactive substance use (PSU) of people living with HIV (PLHIV). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in an HIV outpatient unit. METHODS: Autoquestionnaire systematically proposed to all patients during their usual clinical care visit during a 6-months period, for alcohol (AUDIT test), tobacco (Short Fagerstrom Test) and PSU (ASSIST V3.0 test). RESULTS: Of 1334 distributed questionnaires, 1018 PLHIV responded: 76...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
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