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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803718/total-neoadjuvant-therapy-a-shifting-paradigm-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-management
#1
REVIEW
Aaron J Franke, Hiral Parekh, Jason S Starr, Sanda A Tan, Atif Iqbal, Thomas J George
Colorectal carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with rectal cancer accounting for approximately one-third of newly diagnosed cases, thus representing a major socioeconomic health burden. Although minimally invasive procedures (ie, transanal excision) may be appropriate for a subset of patients with small, superficially invasive tumors, a more comprehensive trimodality approach with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, total mesorectal excision, and systemic chemotherapy is recommended for medically operable patients with nonmetastatic, locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC)...
June 27, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802802/nodal-stage-migration-and-prognosis-in-anal-cancer-a-systematic-review-meta-regression-and-simulation-study
#2
Hema Sekhar, Marcel Zwahlen, Sven Trelle, Lee Malcomson, Rohit Kochhar, Mark P Saunders, Matthew Sperrin, Marcel van Herk, David Sebag-Montefiore, Matthias Egger, Andrew G Renehan
BACKGROUND: In patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA), lymph node positivity (LNP) indicates poor prognosis for survival and is central to radiotherapy planning. Over the past three decades, LNP proportion has increased, mainly reflecting enhanced detection with newer imaging modalities; a process known as nodal stage migration. If accompanied by constant T stage distributions, prognosis for both lymph node-positive and lymph node-negative groups may improve without any increase in overall survival for individual patients; a paradox termed the Will Rogers phenomenon...
August 9, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802022/microrna-492-overexpression-involves-in-cell-proliferation-migration-and-radiotherapy-response-of-cervical-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#3
Mei Liu, Jusheng An, Manni Huang, Liming Wang, Binbin Tu, Yan Song, Kai Ma, Yu Wang, Shuren Wang, Hongxia Zhu, Ningzhi Xu, Lingying Wu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA that target protein-coding mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. The aim of this study was to define the role of miR-492 in cervical squamous cell carcinomas. After microRNA profiling and comparison, we firstly detected miR-492 expression in 104 tumor tissues biopsies derived from advanced staged (FIGO IIB-IIIB) cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients before receiving concomitant chemoradiotherapy and found miR-492 expression was significantly higher in the specimens that were sensitive to concomitant chemoradiotherapy, as compared with insensitive cancer specimens (p < 0...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801584/differences-of-protein-expression-profiles-kras-and-braf-mutation-and-prognosis-in-right-sided-colon-left-sided-colon-and-rectal-cancer
#4
Xian Hua Gao, Guan Yu Yu, Hai Feng Gong, Lian Jie Liu, Yi Xu, Li Qiang Hao, Peng Liu, Zhi Hong Liu, Chen Guang Bai, Wei Zhang
To compare protein expression levels, gene mutation and survival among Right-Sided Colon Cancer (RSCC), Left-Sided Colon Cancer (LSCC) and rectal cancer patients, 57 cases of RSCC, 87 LSCC and 145 rectal cancer patients were included retrospectively. Our results demonstrated significant differences existed among RSCC, LSCC and rectal cancer regarding tumor diameter, differentiation, invasion depth and TNM stage. No significant difference was identified in expression levels of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, β-Tubulin III, P53, Ki67 and TOPIIα, and gene mutation of KRAS and BRAF among three groups...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801512/unresectable-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-upper-trachea-with-long-term-survival-after-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy
#5
Prahlad H Yathiraj, Sandeep Ail, Anshul Singh, Vidyasagar Mamidipudi
Upper tracheal malignancies are rare, and long-term survival is even rarer, especially among the unresectable malignancies. A 66-year-old chronic smoker was diagnosed as a locally advanced, non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the upper trachea. Being unresectable, he was treated with six cycles of concurrent weekly cisplatin and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks. Follow-up imaging at 6 and 12 months revealed no disease. Our patient is presently 36 months post-treatment and is disease free without tracheal necrosis, fistula or radiation pneumonitis but developed hypothyroidism and is presently euthyroid...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801062/perineural-invasion-through-the-sheath-in-posttherapy-esophagectomy-specimens-predicts-poor-survival-in-patients-with-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
C-Y Tsai, C-J Yeh, Y-K Chao, H-K Chang, C-K Tseng, Y-H Liu
BACKGROUND: The prognostic impact of perineural invasion (PNI) in patients with esophageal cancer who receive neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) remains unclear. METHODS: A thorough pathological review of PNI was performed on post-nCRT esophagectomy specimens obtained from non-ypT0 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). When PNI was identified, it was classified according to the presence or absence of penetration through the nerve sheath (i.e...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799211/expression-signatures-and-roles-of-micrornas-in-human-oesophageal-adenocarcinomas
#7
Xiangyi Kong, Shun Gong, Lijuan Su, Chen Li, Yanguo Kong
The most common forms of oesophageal cancers are adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Although the incidence of SCC in the United States tends to be declining, the adenocarcinoma incidence caused by Barrett's oesophagus has been increasing. Oesophageal cancer is regarded as one of the most fatal malignancies with a short prognosis. Systemic manifestations of patients with PCNSL keep backward in spite of recent development of chemoradiotherapy. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that can post-transcriptionally down-regulate the expression of genes by targeting mRNAs, causing their translational repression as well as degradation...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799004/phase-ii-trial-of-laparoscopic-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemoperfusion-for-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-or-positive-peritoneal-cytology-in-patients-with-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#8
Brian Badgwell, Mariela Blum, Prajnan Das, Jeannelyn Estrella, Xuemei Wang, Linus Ho, Keith Fournier, Richard Royal, Paul Mansfield, Jaffer Ajani
PURPOSE: The aim of this phase II study was to perform neoadjuvant hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) via a minimally invasive approach without cytoreduction for patients with gastric cancer and positive peritoneal cytology or low-volume peritoneal carcinomatosis. METHODS: Patients with gastric or gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma and positive peritoneal cytology or radiologically occult peritoneal carcinomatosis after systemic chemotherapy received laparoscopic HIPEC with mitomycin C 30 mg and cisplatin 200 mg...
August 10, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798282/feasibility-and-safety-of-extended-adjuvant-temozolomide-beyond-six-cycles-for-patients-with-glioblastoma
#9
S Yp Hsieh, D Tm Chan, M Km Kam, H Hf Loong, W K Tsang, D Mc Poon, S Cp Ng, W S Poon
INTRODUCTION: Temozolomide is the first chemotherapeutic agent proven effective for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The drug is well tolerated for its low toxicity. The current standard practice is concomitant chemoradiotherapy for 6 weeks followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. Some Caucasian studies have suggested that patients might benefit from extended adjuvant cycles of temozolomide (>6 cycles) to lengthen both progression-free survival and overall survival...
August 11, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798002/sarcomatoid-carcinoma-of-the-maxilla-a-case-report-with-literature-review
#10
Lahcen Khalfi, Yassine Ziani, Mouna Kairouani, Odry Agbessi, Mohammed Kamal Fiqhi, Alae Guerrouani, Karim El Khatib
Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a very rare malignant and aggressive tumor that can involve the maxillary sinus. We report the case of a 46 y/o male who presented a tumor of the right maxillary sinus with extension to the right nasal cavity. The diagnosis of sarcomatoid carcinoma was set by histology and immunohistochemistry. The patient received concomitant cisplatin based chemoradiotherapy with no response after 3 months of treatment. He died 6 months later. Through the present case and the review of literature we discuss all aspects of this entity: clinical presentation, differential diagnoses, pathology, treatment and prognosis...
May 2017: Gulf Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797869/association-of-inflammatory-cytokines-with-the-symptom-cluster-of-pain-fatigue-depression-and-sleep-disturbance-in-chinese-patients-with-cancer
#11
Yan-Bo Ji, Chun-Lu Bo, Xiu-Juan Xue, En-Ming Weng, Guang-Chao Gao, Bei-Bei Dai, Kai-Wen Ding, Cui-Ping Xu
CONTEXT: Pain, fatigue, depression, and sleep disturbance are common in patients with cancer and usually co-occur as a symptom cluster. However, the mechanism underlying this symptom cluster is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify subgroups of cluster symptoms, compare demographic and clinical characteristics between subgroups, and examine the associations between inflammatory cytokines and cluster symptoms. METHODS: Participants were 170 Chinese inpatients with cancer from two tertiary hospitals...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797461/the-importance-of-log-odds-of-positive-lymph-nodes-for-locoregional-recurrence-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Ali-Farid Safi, Martin Kauke, Andrea Grandoch, Hans-Joachim Nickenig, Uta Drebber, Joachim Zöller, Matthias Kreppel
OBJECTIVES: Log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) has been demonstrated as a very promising staging model for multiple cancer sites, as it avoids singularity and predicts prognosis significantly better than conventional nodal staging and lymph node ratio. However, published studies on the influence of LODDS for patients with OSCC are very seldom. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 499 patients with treatment-naive oral squamous cell carcinoma...
September 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797459/impact-of-dose-volume-parameters-and-clinical-factors-on-acute-radiation-oral-mucositis-for-locally-advanced-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients-treated-with-concurrent-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-and-chemoradiotherapy
#13
Kaixin Li, Ling Yang, Peiling Xin, Yuanyuan Chen, Qiang-Ying Hu, Xiao-Zhong Chen, Ming Chen
PURPOSE: To prospectively identify the predictive value of different dosimetric parameters and also assess the predictors of acute radiation oral mucositis (ROM). METHODS: In accordance with the RTOG scoring criteria, ninety-two patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy were evaluated for acute ROM which was defined as severe when the score ≥3. Patients' medical records and dosimetric data exported from IMRT plan enable the authors to perform a statistical analysis for the parameters as potential predictors of severe ROM...
September 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797456/rebamipide-gargle-in-preventive-management-of-chemo-radiotherapy-induced-oral-mucositis
#14
B Chaitanya, Keerthilatha M Pai, Prahlad H Yathiraj, Donald Fernandes, Yogesh Chhaparwal
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis is inflammation of mucosa of oral cavity which is an inevitable and acute side effect in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for head & neck cancer. Though many agents have been tried in prevention & treatment of oral mucositis, until date no single agent exists that is universally established to be effective. METHODS: 60 Patients diagnosed with Head & Neck cancer recruited for concurrent chemo-radiotherapy were assigned in a double blind fashion into 2 groups using computer based 1:1 ratio randomization...
September 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797454/impact-of-early-prophylactic-feeding-on-long-term-tube-dependency-outcomes-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#15
Teresa Brown, Merrilyn Banks, Brett G M Hughes, Charles Lin, Lizbeth M Kenny, Judith D Bauer
OBJECTIVES: Prophylactic gastrostomy tube (PGT) is frequently used in patients with head and neck cancer (HNSCC). There are concerns this leads to tube dependency but this phenomena is not well defined. This study aimed to determine whether early feeding via PGT impacted on longer term tube feeding outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with HNSCC with PGT were observed monthly post-treatment regarding tube use and time to removal up to twelve months. Patients were from a randomised controlled trial comparing an early feeding intervention via the PGT (n=57) versus usual care which commenced feeding when clinically indicated (n=67)...
September 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797450/tube-feeding-during-treatment-for-head-and-neck-cancer-adherence-and-patient-reported-barriers
#16
Teresa Brown, Merrilyn Banks, Brett G M Hughes, Charles Lin, Lizbeth Kenny, Judith Bauer
OBJECTIVES: The main aim was to investigate the incidence of patient adherence to nutritional tube feeding recommendations in patients with head and neck cancer and to determine patient barriers to meeting tube feeding prescription. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational study from a randomised controlled trial in patients with head and neck cancer deemed at high nutritional risk with prophylactic gastrostomy (n=125). Patients were randomised to receive early tube feeding prior to treatment (intervention group) or standard care...
September 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797254/relationship-between-radiation-dose-and-microbleed-formation-in-patients-with-malignant-glioma
#17
Michael Wahl, Mekhail Anwar, Christopher P Hess, Susan M Chang, Janine M Lupo
BACKGROUND: Cranial irradiation is associated with long-term cognitive changes. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have been identified on susceptibility-weighted MRI (SWI) in patients who have received prior cranial radiation, and serve as radiographic markers for microvascular injury thought to contribute to late cognitive decline. The relationship between CMB formation and radiation dose has not previously been quantified. METHODS: SWI was performed on 13 patients with stable WHO grade III-IV gliomas between 2 and 4 years after chemoradiotherapy to 60 Gy...
August 10, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797063/ct-texture-analysis-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-a-potential-imaging-biomarker-for-treatment-response-and-prognosis
#18
Choong Guen Chee, Young Hoon Kim, Kyoung Ho Lee, Yoon Jin Lee, Ji Hoon Park, Hye Seung Lee, Soyeon Ahn, Bohyoung Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association of computed tomography (CT) texture features of locally advanced rectal cancer with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) response and disease-free survival (DFS). METHODS AND FINDINGS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. 95 patients who received neoadjuvant CRT, followed by surgery, for locally advanced rectal cancer were included. Texture features (entropy, uniformity, kurtosis, skewness, and standard deviation) were assessed in pretreatment CT images and obtained without filtration and with Laplacian of Gaussian spatial filter of various filter values (1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796730/squamous-cancers-of-the-rectum-demonstrate-poorer-survival-and-increased-need-for-salvage-surgery-compared-with-squamous-cancers-of-the-anus
#19
Audrey S Kulaylat, Christopher S Hollenbeak, David B Stewart
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell cancers of the anus are rare GI malignancies for which neoadjuvant chemoradiation is the first-line treatment for nonmetastatic disease. Squamous cancers of the rectum are far less common, and it is unclear to what degree chemoradiotherapy improves their outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare stage-specific survival for anal and rectal squamous cancers stratified by treatment approach. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study...
September 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796729/postoperative-chemoradiotherapy-after-local-resection-for-high-risk-t1-to-t2-low-rectal-cancer-results-of-a-single-arm-multi-institutional-phase-ii-clinical-trial
#20
Takeshi Sasaki, Yoshinori Ito, Masayuki Ohue, Yukihide Kanemitsu, Takaya Kobatake, Masaaki Ito, Yoshihiro Moriya, Norio Saito
BACKGROUND: After treatment with local excision for TNM stage I low rectal cancer, the risk of local recurrence is not only high for T2 lesions but also for T1 lesions with features of massive invasion to the submucosal layer and/or lymphovascular invasion. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of chemoradiotherapy combined with local excision in the treatment of T1 to T2 low rectal cancer. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective, single-arm, phase II trial...
September 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
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