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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640745/the-amino-terminal-subdomain-of-glycoprotein-gc-of-schmallenberg-virus-disulfide-bonding-and-structural-determinants-of-neutralization
#1
Gleyder Roman-Sosa, Axel Karger, Franziska Kraatz, Andrea Aebischer, Kerstin Wernike, Pavlo Maksimov, Christopher H Lillig, Ilona Reimann, Emiliana Brocchi, Markus Keller, Martin Beer
Orthobunyaviruses are enveloped viruses that can cause human and animal diseases. A novel and major member is the Schmallenberg virus (SBV), the etiological agent of an emerging disease of ruminants that has been spreading all over Europe since 2011. The glycoproteins Gn and Gc of orthobunyaviruses mediate the viral entry, and specifically Gc is a major target for the humoral immune response. For example, the N terminal subdomain of the SBV glycoprotein Gc is targeted by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that recognize conformational epitopes...
June 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630078/what-are-the-primary-limitations-in-b-cell-affinity-maturation-and-how-much-affinity-maturation-can-we-drive-with-vaccination-a-role-for-antibody-feedback
#2
Kai-Michael Toellner, Daniel M-Y Sze, Yang Zhang
We discuss the impact of antibody feedback on affinity maturation of B cells. Competition from epitope-specific antibodies produced earlier during the immune response leads to immune complex formation, which is essential for transport and deposition of antigen onto follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). It also reduces the concentration of free epitopes into the μm to nm range, which is essential for B-cell receptors (BCRs) to sense affinity-dependent changes in binding capacity. Antibody feedback may also induce epitope spreading, leading to a broader selection of epitopes recognized by newly emerging B-cell clones...
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597552/branched-chain-%C3%AE-ketoacid-dehydrogenase-kinase-111-130-a-t-cell-epitope-that-induces-both-autoimmune-myocarditis-and-hepatitis-in-a-j-mice
#3
Bharathi Krishnan, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rakesh H Basavalingappa, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Francisco A Uzal, Jennifer L Strande, Gustavo A Delhon, Jean-Jack Riethoven, David Steffen, Jay Reddy
INTRODUCTION: Organ-specific autoimmune diseases are believed to result from immune responses generated against self-antigens specific to each organ. However, when such responses target antigens expressed promiscuously in multiple tissues, then the immune-mediated damage may be wide spread. METHODS: In this report, we describe a mitochondrial protein, branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDk ) that can act as a target autoantigen in the development of autoimmune inflammatory reactions in both heart and liver...
June 9, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577747/-membranous-nephropathy-pathophysiology-and-natural-history
#4
REVIEW
Barbara Seitz-Polski, Gérard Lambeau, Vincent Esnault
Membranous nephropathy is a major cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults, with various etiologies and outcomes. One third of patients enter spontaneous remission with blockade of the renin-angiotensin system, one third develop a persistent nephrotic syndrome, while another third of patients develop end-stage kidney disease and 40% of them relapse after kidney transplantation. Treatment of membranous nephropathy remains controversial. Immunosuppressive therapy is only recommended in case of renal function deterioration or persistent nephrotic syndrome after 6months of renin-angiotensin system blockade...
April 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557986/epitope-mapping-of-recombinant-leishmania-donovani-virulence-factor-a2-recldvfa2-and-canine-leishmaniasis-diagnosis-using-a-derived-synthetic-bi-epitope
#5
Thais Melo Mendes, Eric Henrique Roma, Fernanda Costal-Oliveira, Lucas de Carvalho Dhom-Lemos, Cristina Monerat Toledo-Machado, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Daniella Castanheiras Bartholomeu, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases spread in Latin America. Since many species are involved in dog infection with different clinical manifestations, the development of specific diagnostic tests is mandatory for more accurate disease control and vaccine strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventy-five 15-mer peptides covering the sequence of recombinant Leishmania donovani virulence factor A2 (recLdVFA2) protein were prepared by Spot synthesis...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553742/antiribonuclease-h2-antibodies-are-an-immune-biomarker-for-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#6
Kazuhisa Nozawa, Kentaro Doe, Kaori Uomori, Iwao Sekigawa, Yoshinari Takasaki, Ken Yamaji, Naoto Tamura
We previously reported that autoantibodies against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein (PCNA)-binding protein chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1) are specifically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PCNA and its complex constituents elicit autoimmune responses in patients with SLE, suggesting that autoantibody diversification likely occurs owing to epitope spreading. Therefore, we sought to clarify whether patients with SLE exhibit an autoimmune response to Ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2), another PCNA-binding protein that regulates cell division...
May 27, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536706/plasma-levels-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-during-peptide-vaccination-in-patients-with-recurrent-ovarian-cancer
#7
Kayoko Waki, Kouichiro Kawano, Naotake Tsuda, Kimio Ushijima, Kyogo Itoh, Akira Yamada
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that is known to be secreted into extracellular fluids from injured cells, activated macrophages, and tumor cells. The clinical correlation of circulating HMGB1 levels with various diseases including cancer has been reported. However, there is no information on HMGB1 levels in cancer patients treated with peptide vaccination. In the present study, we investigated the plasma levels of HMGB1 during personalized peptide vaccination in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520969/cell-mediated-immunity-to-target-the-persistent-human-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoir
#8
James L Riley, Luis J Montaner
Effective clearance of virally infected cells requires the sequential activity of innate and adaptive immunity effectors. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, naturally induced cell-mediated immune responses rarely eradicate infection. However, optimized immune responses could potentially be leveraged in HIV cure efforts if epitope escape and lack of sustained effector memory responses were to be addressed. Here we review leading HIV cure strategies that harness cell-mediated control against HIV in stably suppressed antiretroviral-treated subjects...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512020/molecular-epidemiology-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-central-china-since-2014-the-prevalence-of-nadc30-like-prrsvs
#9
Lin-Jian Wang, Weitao Xie, Xin-Xin Chen, Songlin Qiao, Mengmeng Zhao, Yu Gu, Bao-Lei Zhao, Gaiping Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by respiratory disorders in piglets and reproductive failure in sows, is still the great threat of swine industry. Recently, Emergence of the novel NADC30-like PRRS viruses (PRRSVs) has caused widespread outbreaks of PRRS. To investigate the epidemic characteristics of PRRSVs in Central China since 2014, 6372 clinical serum samples were tested by ELISA, 250 tissue samples were tested by RT-PCR, and among these, 30 ORF5 and 17 Nsp2 genes sequences were analyzed...
May 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490724/infection-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-similarities-and-differences-with-lupus-flare
#10
REVIEW
Ju-Yang Jung, Chang-Hee Suh
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations, and its pathogenesis is unclear and complicated. Infection and SLE are similar in that they both cause inf lammatory reactions in the immune system; however, one functions to protect the body, whereas the other is activated to damage the body. Infection is known as one of the common trigger factors for SLE; there are a number of reports on infectious agents that provoke autoimmune response. Several viruses, bacteria, and protozoa were revealed to cause immune dysfunction by molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, and bystander activation...
May 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459074/leaps-vaccine-incorporating-her-2-neu-epitope-elicits-protection-that-prevents-and-limits-tumor-growth-and-spread-of-breast-cancer-in-a-mouse-model
#11
Ken S Rosenthal, Sarah Stone, Gary Koski, Daniel H Zimmerman
The prototype J-LEAPS T cell vaccine for HER-2/neu breast cancer (J-HER) consists of the murine HER-2/neu66-74 H-2(d) CD8 T cell epitope covalently attached through a triglycine linker to the J-immune cell binding ligand (ICBL) (human β2 microglobulin38-50 peptide). The J-ICBL was chosen for its potential to promote Th1/Tc1 responses. In this proof-of-concept study, the ability of J-HER to prevent or treat cancer was tested in the TUBO cell-challenged BALB/c mouse model for HER-2/neu-expressing tumors. The J-HER vaccine was administered as an emulsion in Montanide ISA-51 without the need for a more potent adjuvant...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456528/evaluation-of-tandem-chlamydia-trachomatis-momp-multi-epitopes-vaccine-in-balb-c-mice-model
#12
Pengfei Jiang, Yiqi Cai, Jun Chen, Xiaoxian Ye, Shanshan Mao, Shanli Zhu, Xiangyang Xue, Shao Chen, Lifang Zhang
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), an obligate intracellular parasite, is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The best solution to control the spread of Ct is to develop safe and effective vaccines. However, an effective vaccine has not been developed due to some challenges such as selection of appropriate candidate antigens and an effective delivery system. In our previous study, we have developed a Ct vaccine that comprises a multi-epitope peptide of Ct major outer membrane protein (MOMP370-387) and Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg)...
April 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408124/tau-antibody-targeting-pathological-species-blocks-neuronal-uptake-and-interneuron-propagation-of-tau-in%C3%A2-vitro
#13
Chloe K Nobuhara, Sarah L DeVos, Caitlin Commins, Susanne Wegmann, Benjamin D Moore, Allyson D Roe, Isabel Costantino, Matthew P Frosch, Rose Pitstick, George A Carlson, Christoph Hock, Roger M Nitsch, Fabio Montrasio, Jan Grimm, Anne E Cheung, Anthone W Dunah, Marion Wittmann, Thierry Bussiere, Paul H Weinreb, Bradley T Hyman, Shuko Takeda
The clinical progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with the accumulation of tau neurofibrillary tangles, which may spread throughout the cortex by interneuronal tau transfer. If so, targeting extracellular tau species may slow the spreading of tau pathology and possibly cognitive decline. To identify suitable target epitopes, we tested the effects of a panel of tau antibodies on neuronal uptake and aggregation in vitro. Immunodepletion was performed on brain extract from tau-transgenic mice and postmortem AD brain and added to a sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based tau uptake assay to assess blocking efficacy...
June 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381568/impact-of-antibodies-and-strain-polymorphisms-on-cytomegalovirus-entry-and-spread-in-fibroblasts-and-epithelial-cells
#14
Xiaohong Cui, Daniel C Freed, Dai Wang, Ping Qiu, Fengsheng Li, Tong-Ming Fu, Lawrence M Kauvar, Michael A McVoy
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) entry into fibroblasts differs from entry into epithelial cells. CMV also spreads cell-to-cell and can induce syncytia. To gain insights into these processes, 27 antibodies targeting epitopes in CMV virion glycoprotein complexes, including gB, gH/gL, and the pentamer, were evaluated for their effects on viral entry and spread. No antibodies inhibited CMV spread in fibroblasts, including those with potent neutralizing activity against fibroblast entry, while all antibodies that neutralized epithelial entry also inhibited spread in epithelial cells and a correlation existed between the potencies of these two activities...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321224/specific-igg-antibodies-react-to-mimotopes-of-bk-polyomavirus-a-small-dna-tumor-virus-in-healthy-adult-sera
#15
Silvia Pietrobon, Ilaria Bononi, Elisa Mazzoni, Francesca Lotito, Marco Manfrini, Andrea Puozzo, Federica Destro, Giovanni Guerra, Pier Francesco Nocini, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) was isolated in 1971 from the urine of a kidney transplant patient. Soon after its identification, BKPyV was characterized as a kidney-tropic virus, which is responsible of a significant fraction of the rejection of transplant kidney in the host. Moreover, in experimental conditions, BKPyV is able to transform different types of animal and human cells and to induce tumors of different histotypes in experimental animals. BKPyV DNA sequences have been detected in healthy individuals and cancer patients using polymerase chain reaction/Shouthern blot hybridization methods...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320458/b-cell-epitope-of-human-cytomegalovirus-phosphoprotein-65-hcmv-pp65-induced-anti-dsdna-antibody-in-balb-c-mice
#16
Ao HoHsieh, Chin Man Wang, Yeong-Jian Jan Wu, Albert Chen, Ming-I Chang, Ji-Yih Chen
BACKGROUND: HCMV phosphoprotein 65 (HCMVpp65) is a putative immunogen that acts as an accelerator, inducing autoantibody and exacerbating autoimmune response in susceptible animals. The immunity to pp65336-439 instigates autoimmunity, suggesting that pp65336-439 contains crucial B cell epitope(s) for the development of nephritis. This study narrowed down the target epitope to pp65422-439 for immunization of BALB/c mice and mapping of B cell epitope. METHODS: The target epitope pp65422-439 reactivity and B cell epitope mapping was examined in serum from pp65422-439-immunized mice and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
March 21, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296059/the-pathogenicity-of-t-cell-epitopes-on-human-goodpasture-antigen-and-its-critical-amino-acid-motif
#17
Shui-Yi Hu, Qiu-Hua Gu, Jia Wang, Miao Wang, Xiao-Yu Jia, Zhao Cui, Ming-Hui Zhao
Goodpasture antigen, the non-collagenous domain of α3 chain of type IV collagen [α3(IV)NC1], is the target antigen of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies. The pathogenicity of T cell epitopes is not elucidated clearly. In this study, we aim to define the nephritogenic T cell epitopes and its critical amino acid residues. Twenty-four overlapping linear peptides were synthesized covering the whole sequence of human α3(IV)NC1. Wistar-Kyoto rats were immunized with linear peptides, and experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis was evaluated...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273384/computational-prediction-of-usutu-virus-e-protein-b-cell-and-t-cell-epitopes-for-potential-vaccine-development
#18
Navaneethan Palanisamy, Johan Lennerstrand
Usutu virus (family Flaviviridae), once confined to Africa, has emerged in Europe a decade ago. The virus has been spreading throughout Europe at a greater pace mostly affecting avian species. While most bird species remain asymptomatic carriers of this virus, few bird species are highly susceptible. Lately, Usutu virus (USUV) infections in humans were reported sporadically with severe neuroinvasive symptoms like meningoencephalitis. Since so much is unknown about this virus, which potentially may cause severe diseases in humans, there is a need for more studies of this virus...
March 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250119/new-connections-cell-to-cell-hiv-1-transmission-resistance-to-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-and-an-envelope-sorting-motif
#19
S Abigail Smith, Cynthia A Derdeyn
HIV-1 infection from cell-to-cell may provide an efficient mode of viral spread in vivo and could therefore present a significant challenge for preventative or therapeutic strategies based on broadly neutralizing antibodies. Indeed, Li et al. (H. Li, C. Zony, P. Chen, and B. K. Chen, J. Virol. 91:e02425-16, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02425-16) showed that the potency and magnitude of multiple HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody classes are decreased during cell-to-cell infection in a context-dependent manner...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248800/mixed-connective-tissue-disease-and-epitope-spreading-an-historical-cohort-study
#20
Laura Escolà-Vergé, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Andreu Fernandez-Codina, Eduardo L Callejas-Moraga, Juan Espinosa, Ana Marin, Moises Labrador-Horrillo, Albert Selva-O'Callaghan
OBJECTIVES: Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is characterized by the presence of anti-U1-snRNP autoantibodies and a variable set of associated clinical features. Some MCTD patients test positive over time to autoantibodies against Sm, proteins spatially related with U1-snRNP. This situation has been attributed to expanding of the autoimmune response by a phenomenon known as epitope spreading. Our aim was to study the frequency of this phenomenon in MCTD patients and the specific clinical features of those with epitope spreading...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
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