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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904384/mapping-determinants-of-virus-neutralization-and-viral-escape-for-rational-design-of-a-hepatitis-c-virus-vaccine
#1
REVIEW
Mei-Le Keck, Florian Wrensch, Brian G Pierce, Thomas F Baumert, Steven K H Foung
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to spread worldwide with an annual increase of 1.75 million new infections. The number of HCV cases in the U.S. is now greater than the number of HIV cases and is increasing in young adults because of the opioid epidemic sweeping the country. HCV-related liver disease is the leading indication of liver transplantation. An effective vaccine is of paramount importance to control and prevent HCV infection. While this vaccine will need to induce both cellular and humoral immunity, this review is focused on the required antibody responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900580/designing-b-and-t-cell-multi-epitope-based-subunit-vaccine-using-immunoinformatics-approach-to-control-zika-virus-infection
#2
Rajan Kumar Pandey, Rupal Ojha, Amit Mishra, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
The Zika virus is a rapidly spreading Aedes mosquito-borne sickness, which creates an unanticipated linkage birth deformity and neurological turmoil. This study represents the use of the combinatorial immunoinformatics approach to develop a multiepitope subunit vaccine using the structural and nonstructural proteins of the Zika virus. The designed subunit vaccine consists of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes accompanied by suitable adjuvant and linkers. The presence of humoral immune response specific B-cell epitopes was also confirmed by B-cell epitope mapping among vaccine protein...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885301/unmasking-pancreatic-cancer-epitope-spreading-after-single-antigen-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-in-a-human-phase-i-trial
#3
EDITORIAL
Max Heckler, Stephanie K Dougan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866906/identification-of-surface-epitopes-associated-with-protection-against-highly-immune-evasive-vlse-expressing-lyme-disease-spirochetes
#4
Maliha Batool, Salvador Eugenio C Caoili, Lawrence J Dangott, Ekaterina Gerasimov, Yurij Ionov, Helen Piontkivska, Alex Zelikovsky, Suryakant D Waghela, Artem S Rogovskyy
The tick-borne pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi , is responsible for approximately 300,000 Lyme disease (LD) cases per year in the United States. Recent increases in the number of LD cases in addition to the spread of the tick vector and a lack of vaccine highlights an urgent need for designing and developing an efficacious LD vaccine. Identification of protective epitopes that could be used to develop a second-generation vaccine is therefore imperative. Despite the antigenicity of several lipoproteins and integral outer membrane proteins (OMPs) on B...
June 4, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842980/upsurge-and-spread-of-g3-rotaviruses-in-eastern-india-2014-2016-full-genome-analyses-reveals-heterogeneity-within-wa-like-genomic-constellation
#5
Anindita Banerjee, Mahadeb Lo, Pallavi Indwar, Alok K Deb, Santasabuj Das, Byomkesh Manna, Shanta Dutta, Uchhal K Bhadra, Mala Bhattacharya, Keinosuke Okamoto, Mamta Chawla-Sarkar
Advent of new strains and shift in predominantly circulating genotypes are characteristics of group- A rotavirus (RVA), one of the major causes of childhood gastroenteritis. During diarrheal disease surveillance at Kolkata, India (2014-2016), a shift in circulating RVA strains from G1P[8] to G3P[8] was seen. Stool samples from children (n = 3048) with acute gastroenteritis were tested of which 38.7% were RVA positive. G1 was the predominant strain (65.3%) in 2014-2015 whereas in late 2015 and 2016, G3 became the preponderant strain (44...
May 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791513/vaccine-induced-antibodies-to-herpes-simplex-virus-glycoprotein-d-epitopes-involved-in-virus-entry-and-cell-to-cell-spread-correlate-with-protection-against-genital-disease-in-guinea-pigs
#6
Lauren M Hook, Tina M Cairns, Sita Awasthi, Benjamin D Brooks, Noah T Ditto, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen, Harvey M Friedman
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) subunit antigen is included in many preclinical candidate vaccines. The rationale for including gD2 is to produce antibodies that block crucial gD2 epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. HSV-2 gD2 was the only antigen in the Herpevac Trial for Women that protected against HSV-1 genital infection but not HSV-2. In that trial, a correlation was detected between gD2 ELISA titers and protection against HSV-1, supporting the importance of antibodies...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769138/geographic-distribution-and-molecular-analysis-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-viruses-circulating-in-swine-farms-in-the-republic-of-korea-between-2013-and-2016
#7
Hyeonjeong Kang, Ji Eun Yu, Ji-Eun Shin, Areum Kang, Won-Il Kim, Changhee Lee, Jienny Lee, In-Soo Cho, Se-Eun Choe, Sang-Ho Cha
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes devastating disease characterized by reproductive failure and respiratory problems in the swine industry. To understand the recent prevalence and genetic diversity of field PRRSVs in the Republic of Korea, open reading frames (ORFs) 5 and 7 of PRRSV field isolates from 631 PRRS-affected swine farms nationwide in 2013-2016 were analyzed along with 200 Korean field viruses isolated in 2003-2010, and 113 foreign field and vaccine strains...
May 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728570/identification-of-brain-antigens-recognized-by-autoantibodies-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-induced-animals-treated-with-etomoxir-or-interferon-%C3%AE
#8
Anne Skøttrup Mørkholt, Kenneth Kastaniegaard, Michael Sloth Trabjerg, Gopana Gopalasingam, Wanda Niganze, Agnete Larsen, Allan Stensballe, Søren Nielsen, John Dirk Nieland
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative autoimmune disease, where chronic inflammation plays an essential role in its pathology. A feature of MS is the production of autoantibodies stimulated by an altered-peptide-ligand response and epitope spreading, resulting in loss of tolerance for self-proteins. The involvement of autoantibodies in MS pathogenesis has been suggested to initiate and drive progression of inflammation; however, the etiology of MS remains unknown. The effect of etomoxir and interferon-β (IFN-β) was examined in an experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720698/exploring-leptospiral-proteomes-to-identify-potential-candidates-for-vaccine-design-against-leptospirosis-using-an-immunoinformatics-approach
#9
Kumari Snehkant Lata, Swapnil Kumar, Vibhisha Vaghasia, Priyanka Sharma, Shivarudrappa B Bhairappanvar, Subhash Soni, Jayashankar Das
Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease, estimated to cause severe infection in more than one million people each year, particularly in developing countries of tropical areas. Several factors such as variable and nonspecific clinical manifestation, existence of large number of serovars and asymptomatic hosts spreading infection, poor sanitation and lack of an effective vaccine make prophylaxis difficult. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine to halt its spread all over the world...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719538/humoral-epitope-spreading-in-autoimmune-bullous-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Dario Didona, Giovanni Di Zenzo
Autoimmune blistering diseases are characterized by autoantibodies against structural adhesion proteins of the skin and mucous membranes. Extensive characterization of their autoantibody targets has improved understanding of pathogenesis and laid the basis for the study of antigens/epitopes diversification, a process termed epitope spreading (ES). In this review, we have reported and discussed ES phenomena in autoimmune bullous diseases and underlined their functional role in disease pathogenesis. A functional ES has been proposed: (1) in bullous pemphigoid patients and correlates with the initial phase of the disease, (2) in pemphigus vulgaris patients with mucosal involvement during the clinical transition to a mucocutaneous form, (3) in endemic pemphigus foliaceus, underlining its role in disease pathogenesis, and (4) in numerous cases of disease transition associated with an intermolecular diversification of immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707776/epitope-spread-in-chronic-mucosal-gvhd-mucous-membrane-pemphigoid-resolution-with-rituximab
#11
Sara B Huff, Sumithira Vasu, Benjamin H Kaffenberger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 29, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706647/the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity-a-paradigm-from-the-gut-liver-axis
#12
REVIEW
Bo Li, Carlo Selmi, Ruqi Tang, M E Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects...
April 30, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678884/physiological-temperatures-reduce-dimerization-of-dengue-and-zika-virus-recombinant-envelope-proteins
#13
Stephan T Kudlacek, Lakshmanane Premkumar, Stefan W Metz, Ashutosh Tripathy, Andrey A Bobkov, Alexander Matthew Payne, Stephen Graham, James A Brackbill, Michael J Miley, Aravinda M de Silva, Brian Kuhlman
The spread of dengue (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) is a major public health concern. The primary target of antibodies that neutralize DENV and ZIKV is the envelope (E) glycoprotein, and there is interest in using soluble recombinant E (sRecE) proteins as subunit vaccines. However, the most potent neutralizing antibodies against DENV and ZIKV recognize epitopes on the virion surface that span two or more E proteins. Therefore, to create effective DENV and ZIKV vaccines, presentation of these quaternary epitopes may be necessary...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619443/cloning-and-expression-of-mce1a-gene-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-and-h37rv-strain-for-vaccine-candidate-development
#14
Desi Indriarini, Andriansjah Rukmana, Andi Yasmon
Background: Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death in the world, especially wherever poverty, malnutrition and poor housing prevail. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strain is the most common strain that causes tuberculosis in Indonesia. The wide spread of tuberculosis has been further aggravated by HIV-AIDS and drug resistance. Unfortunately, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) as the current vaccine has different protection function and efficacy. According to function analysis, mce1A gene was predicted to have a role in host invasion and survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619029/anti-type-vii-collagen-antibodies-are-identified-in-a-subpopulation-of-bullous-pemphigoid-patients-with-relapse
#15
Delphine Giusti, Grégory Gatouillat, Sébastien Le Jan, Julie Plée, Philippe Bernard, Frank Antonicelli, Bach-Nga Pham
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune bullous skin disease characterized by anti-BP180 and anti-BP230 autoantibodies (AAbs). Mucous membrane involvement is an uncommon clinical feature of BP which may evoke epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, another skin autoimmune disease characterized by anti-type VII collagen AAbs. We therefore evaluated the presence of anti-type VII collagen AAbs in the serum of BP patients with and without mucosal lesions at time of diagnosis and under therapy. Anti-BP180, anti-BP230, and anti-type VII collagen AAbs were measured by ELISA in the serum of unselected patients fulfilling clinical and histo/immunopathological BP criteria at baseline ( n  = 71) and at time of relapse ( n  = 24)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615497/novel-broadly-reactive-anticapsular-antibodies-against-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-protect-from-infection
#16
Elizabeth Diago-Navarro, Michael P Motley, Gonzalo Ruiz-Peréz, Winnie Yu, Julianne Austin, Bruna M S Seco, Guozhi Xiao, Aniska Chikhalya, Peter H Seeberger, Bettina C Fries
Carbapenem-resistant (CR) sequence type 258 (ST258) Klebsiella pneumoniae has become an urgent health care threat, causing an increasing number of high-mortality infections. Its resistance to numerous antibiotics and threat to immunocompromised patients necessitate finding new therapies to combat these infections. Previous successes in the laboratory, as well as the conservation of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) among the members of the ST258 clone, suggest that monoclonal antibody (MAb) therapy targeting the outer polysaccharide capsule of K...
April 3, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614860/a-rational-structured-epitope-defines-a-distinct-subclass-of-toxic-amyloid-beta-oligomers
#17
Judith M Silverman, Ebrima Gibbs, Xubiao Peng, Kris M Martens, Claudia Balducci, Jing Wang, Masoud Yousefi, Catherine M Cowan, Guillaume Lamour, Sarah Louadi, Yuxin Ban, Jerome Robert, Sophie Stukas, Gianluigi Forloni, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, Steven S Plotkin, Cheryl L Wellington, Neil R Cashman
Oligomers of amyloid-β (AβO) are deemed key in synaptotoxicity and amyloid seeding of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of AβO and inadequate markers for AβO subtypes have stymied effective AβO identification and therapeutic targeting in vivo. We identified an AβO-subclass epitope defined by differential solvent orientation of the lysine 28 side chain in a constrained loop of serine-asparagine-lysine (cSNK), rarely displayed in molecular dynamics simulations of monomer and fibril ensembles...
April 16, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576303/neutralization-effects-of-antibody-elicited-by-chimeric-hbv-s-antigen-viral-like-particles-presenting-hcv-neutralization-epitopes
#18
Sanhua Wei, Yingfeng Lei, Jie Yang, Xiaoyan Wang, Fang Shu, Xin Wei, Fang Lin, Bin Li, Ying Cui, Hai Zhang, Sanhua Wei
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem despite effectual direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy. Development of a prophylactic vaccine is essential to block spread of HCV infection. The HBV small surface antigen (HBsAg-S) can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs), has higher immunogenicity and is used as a vaccine against HBV infections. Chimeric HBsAg-S proteins with foreign epitopes allow VLP formation and induce the specific humoral and cellular immune responses against the foreign proteins...
April 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572548/t-cells-from-induced-and-spontaneous-models-of-sle-recognize-a-common-t-cell-epitope-on-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i
#19
David Salem, Rebecca Subang, Masataka Kuwana, Jerrold S Levine, Joyce Rauch
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a prototypic model for B-cell epitope spread in autoimmunity. Autoantibodies to numerous molecularly distinct self-antigens emerge in a sequential manner over several years, leading to disease manifestations. Among the earliest autoantibodies to appear are those targeting phospholipid-binding proteins, particularly β2-glycoprotein I. Notably, mice immunized with β2-glycoprotein I and lipopolysaccharide develop a strong T cell response to β2-glycoprotein I that is associated with autoantibody production and renal disease, similar to that seen in human SLE...
March 23, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561846/role-of-genetic-heterogeneity-in-determining-the-epidemiological-severity-of-h1n1-influenza
#20
Narmada Sambaturu, Sumanta Mukherjee, Martín López-García, Carmen Molina-París, Gautam I Menon, Nagasuma Chandra
Genetic differences contribute to variations in the immune response mounted by different individuals to a pathogen. Such differential response can influence the spread of infectious disease, indicating why such diseases impact some populations more than others. Here, we study the impact of population-level genetic heterogeneity on the epidemic spread of different strains of H1N1 influenza. For a population with known HLA class-I allele frequency and for a given H1N1 viral strain, we classify individuals into sub-populations according to their level of susceptibility to infection...
March 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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