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epitope spreading

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923570/recombinant-dna-vaccine-of-hantavirus-gn-and-lamp1-induced-long-term-immune-protection-in-mice
#1
Dong-Bo Jiang, Li-Juan Sun, Lin-Feng Cheng, Jin-Peng Zhang, Shao-Bo Xiao, Yuan-Jie Sun, Shu-Ya Yang, Jing Wang, Fang-Lin Zhang, Kun Yang
BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis is widely adopted the best choice against Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Hantavirus. However, loss of memory immune response maintenance remains as major shortcoming in current HFRS vaccine. A recombinant DNA vaccine, pVAX-LAMP/Gn was previously proved efficient, requiring long-term evaluations. METHODS & RESULTS: Immune responses of Balb/c mice were assessed by specific and neutralizing antibodies, interferon-γ ELISpot assay, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay...
December 3, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891225/unraveling-the-role-of-preexisting-immunity-in-prostate-cancer-patients-vaccinated-with-a-her-2-neu-hybrid-peptide
#2
Ioannis F Voutsas, Eleftheria A Anastasopoulou, Panagiotis Tzonis, Michael Papamichail, Sonia A Perez, Constantin N Baxevanis
BACKGROUND: Cancer vaccines aim at eliciting not only an immune response against specific tumor antigens, but also at enhancing a preexisting immunity against the tumor. In this context, we recently reported on the levels of preexisting immunity in prostate cancer patients vaccinated with the HER-2 hybrid peptide (AE37), during a phase I clinical trial. The purpose of the current study was to correlate between preexisting immunity to the native HER-2 peptide, AE36, and expression of HLA-A2 and -A24 molecules with the clinical outcome...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860539/epitope-specific-antitumor-immunity-suppresses-tumor-spread-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#3
Margret Ehlers, Anne Kuebart, Hubertus Hautzel, Juergen Enczmann, Anna-Carinna Reis, Matthias Haase, Stephanie Allelein, Till Dringenberg, Christine Schmid, Matthias Schott
CONTEXT: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is characterized by a lymphocytic infiltration. PTC patients with lymphocytic infiltration may have a better clinical outcome. OBJECTIVE: Characterization of tumor epitope-specific immunity and correlation analyses with the clinical outcome. PATIENTS: 150 PTC patients; 40 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) patients; 21 healthy controls; 27.239 healthy Caucasians (for HLA typing). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HLA class I restricted thyroperoxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) epitope-specific T cells (tetramer analyses), correlation analyses between HLA class II phenotypes, T cell immunity, and the clinical course...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835913/circulation-autoantibody-against-lamin-a-c-in-patients-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#4
Wen Zhang, Chunyan Zhang, Peng Chen, Chunhe Yang, Xianfeng Gan, Muhammad Hussain, Yiping Xun, Yaping Tian, Hongwu Du
Lamin A/C proteins are major components of nuclear laminae and were encoded by the LMNA gene. Recent studies have found that in addition to provides nuclear-membrane strength; it also regulates the gene expression. Lamin A/C has been confirmed as an autoantigen in RA, SLE and vasculitis. Anti-Lamin A/C antibodies also have been found by indirect immunofluorescence method. In this study, we used various research methods to confirm Lamin A/C is an autoantigen in Han Chinese patients with confirmed Sjögren's syndrome (SS)...
November 9, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834908/epitope-identification-and-application-for-diagnosis-of-duck-tembusu-virus-infections-in-ducks
#5
Chenxi Li, Junyan Liu, Wulin Shaozhou, Xiaofei Bai, Qingshan Zhang, Ronghong Hua, Jyung-Hurng Liu, Ming Liu, Yun Zhang
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to (221)LD/NLPW(225) and (87)YAEYI(91) by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding...
November 10, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821747/systematic-autoantigen-analysis-identifies-a-distinct-subtype-of-scleroderma-with-coincident-cancer
#6
George J Xu, Ami A Shah, Mamie Z Li, Qikai Xu, Antony Rosen, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Stephen J Elledge
Scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune rheumatic disease associated with widespread tissue fibrosis and vasculopathy. Approximately two-thirds of all patients with scleroderma present with three dominant autoantibody subsets. Here, we used a pair of complementary high-throughput methods for antibody epitope discovery to examine patients with scleroderma with or without known autoantibody specificities. We identified a specificity for the minor spliceosome complex containing RNA Binding Region (RNP1, RNA recognition motif) Containing 3 (RNPC3) that is found in patients with scleroderma without known specificities and is absent in unrelated autoimmune diseases...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795425/recombinant-receptor-binding-domains-of-multiple-mers-coronaviruses-induce-cross-neutralizing-antibodies-against-divergent-human-and-camel-mers-coronaviruses-and-antibody-escape-mutants
#7
Wanbo Tai, Yufei Wang, Craig A Fett, Guangyu Zhao, Fang Li, Stanley Perlman, Shibo Jiang, Yusen Zhou, Lanying Du
: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) binds to cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) via spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). The RBD contains critical neutralizing epitopes and serves as an important vaccine target. Since RBD mutations occur in different MERS-CoV isolates and antibody-escape mutants, cross-neutralization of divergent MERS-CoV strains by RBD-induced antibodies remains unknown. Here, we constructed four recombinant RBD (rRBD) proteins with single or multiple mutations detected in representative human MERS-CoV strains from the 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 outbreaks, respectively, and one rRBD protein with multiple changes derived from camel MERS-CoV strains...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783408/update-on-shigella-new-serogroups-serotypes-and-their-antimicrobial-resistance
#8
REVIEW
Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Shalini Anandan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Shigellosis represents a major burden of disease in developing countries. A low infectious dose allows the disease to be spread effectively. Although shigellosis is mostly a self-limiting disease, antibiotics are recommended to reduce deaths, disease symptoms, and organism-shedding time. However, In India, antimicrobial resistance among the genus Shigella is more common than among any other enteric bacteria. Notably, new serotypes or subserotypes in Shigella are reported from various parts of the world. Identification of new subserotypes of Shigella spp is becoming a major issue as these strains are non-typeable by conventional serotyping...
October 26, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760308/evaluation-of-a-synthetic-peptide-from-the-taenia-saginata-18kda-surface-secreted-oncospheral-adhesion-protein-for-serological-diagnosis-of-bovine-cysticercosis
#9
Rafaella Paola Meneguete Dos Guimarães-Peixoto, Paulo Sérgio de Arruda Pinto, Marcus Rebouças Santos, Marcelo Depólo Polêto, Letícia Ferreira da Silva, Abelardo Silva Júnior
Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic infection widely spread throughout Brazil, creating a burden on hygiene maintenance and the economy. Diagnosis of cysticercosis usually relies on post mortem inspection of carcasses in slaughterhouses. This detection method provides only low sensitivity. Recent advancements have improved the performance of serologic tests, such as ELISA, providing greater sensitivity and specificity. The objective of the current study was to identify and evaluate a synthetic peptide derived from the Taenia saginata 18kDa oncospheric surface protein for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in ELISA...
October 16, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743643/nodo-paranodopathy-internodopathy-and-cleftopathy-target-based-reclassification-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-like-immune-mediated-polyradiculoneuropathies-in-dogs-and-cats
#10
Simone Gross, Andrea Fischer, Marco Rosati, Lara Matiasek, Daniele Corlazzoli, Rodolfo Cappello, Laura Porcarelli, Tom Harcourt-Brown, Konrad Jurina, Laurent Garosi, Thomas Flegel, Pia Quitt, Jessica Molin, Velia-Isabel Huelsmeyer, Henning Schenk, Gualtiero Gandini, Kirsten Gnirs, Stéphane Blot, Aurélien Jeandel, Massimo Baroni, Shenja Loderstedt, Gianluca Abbiati, Carola Leithaeuser, Sabine Schulze, Marion Kornberg, Mark Lowrie, Kaspar Matiasek
Recent views on Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) question the accuracy of classification into axonal and demyelinating subtypes that represent convergent neurophysiological phenotypes rather than immunological targets. Instead it has been proposed to clarify the primarily affected fibre subunit in nerve biopsies. As nerve biopsies rarely are part of routine work-up in human patients we evaluated tissues taken from companion animals affected by GBS-like polyradiculoneuropathy to screen for distribution of immune cells, targeted fibre components and segregating non-inflammatory lesions...
September 1, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736723/biofunctionalized-peptide-based-hydrogels-provide-permissive-scaffolds-to-attract-neurite-outgrowth-from-spiral-ganglion-neurons
#11
Claudia Frick, Marcus Müller, Ute Wank, Anke Tropitzsch, Benedikt Kramer, Pascal Senn, Helge Rask-Andersen, Karl-Heinz Wiesmüller, Hubert Löwenheim
Cochlear implants (CI) allow for hearing rehabilitation in patients with sensorineural hearing loss or deafness. Restricted CI performance results from the spatial gap between spiral ganglion neurons and the CI, causing current spread that limits spatially restricted stimulation and impairs frequency resolution. This may be substantially improved by guiding peripheral processes of spiral ganglion neurons towards and onto the CI electrode contacts. An injectable, peptide-based hydrogel was developed which may provide a permissive scaffold to facilitate neurite growth towards the CI...
October 4, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713074/an-influenza-a-virus-h7n9-anti-neuraminidase-monoclonal-antibody-with-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-activity-in%C3%A2-vivo
#12
Jason R Wilson, Zhu Guo, Adrian Reber, Ram P Kamal, Nedzad Music, Shane Gansebom, Yaohui Bai, Min Levine, Paul Carney, Wen-Pin Tzeng, James Stevens, Ian A York
Zoonotic A(H7N9) avian influenza viruses emerged in China in 2013 and continue to be a threat to human public health, having infected over 800 individuals with a mortality rate approaching 40%. Treatment options for people infected with A(H7N9) include the use of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors. However, like other influenza viruses, A(H7N9) can become resistant to these drugs. The use of monoclonal antibodies is a rapidly developing strategy for controlling influenza virus infection. Here we generated a murine monoclonal antibody (3c10-3) directed against the NA of A(H7N9) and show that prophylactic systemic administration of 3c10-3 fully protected mice from lethal challenge with wild-type A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9)...
October 3, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712463/peptide-19-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-heat-shock-protein-is-a-potent-inducer-of-low-density-lipoprotein-oxidation
#13
Ji-Young Joo, Gil Sun Cha, Jin Chung, Ju-Youn Lee, Sung-Jo Kim, Jeomil Choi
BACKGROUND: Although periodontal pathogens show a strong association with the development of atherosclerosis, little is known about how a microorganism contributes to disease onset and progression. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a major risk factor of atherogenesis. The principal objective of our study was to evaluate the ability of peptide 19 (Pep19) of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) heat shock protein (HSP) as a potent inducer of LDL oxidation, and as a secondary objective, to compare this ability with that of Pep19 from different bacteria...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708643/differential-regulation-of-self-reactive-cd4-t-cells-in-cervical-lymph-nodes-and-central-nervous-system-during-viral-encephalomyelitis
#14
Carine Savarin, Cornelia C Bergmann, David R Hinton, Stephen A Stohlman
Viral infections have long been implicated as triggers of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disorder. Epitope spreading, molecular mimicry, cryptic antigen, and bystander activation have been implicated as mechanisms responsible for activating self-reactive (SR) immune cells, ultimately leading to organ-specific autoimmune disease. Taking advantage of coronavirus JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV)-induced demyelination, this study demonstrates that the host also mounts counteractive measures to specifically limit expansion of endogenous SR T cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707930/protective-capacity-of-the-human-anamnestic-antibody-response-during-acute-dengue-virus-infection
#15
Meihui Xu, Roland Züst, Ying Xiu Toh, Jennifer M Pfaff, Kristen M Kahle, Edgar Davidson, Benjamin J Doranz, Sumathy Velumani, Farhana Tukijan, Cheng-I Wang, Katja Fink
Half of the world's population is exposed to the risk of dengue virus infection. Although a vaccine for dengue virus is now available in a few countries, its reported overall efficacy of about 60% is not ideal. Protective immune correlates following natural dengue virus infection remain undefined, which makes it difficult to predict the efficacy of new vaccines. In this study, we address the protective capacity of dengue virus-specific antibodies that are produced by plasmablasts a few days after natural secondary infection...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693020/novel-lipopeptides-of-esat-6-induce-strong-protective-immunity-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-routes-of-immunization-and-tlr-agonists-critically-impact-vaccine-s-efficacy
#16
Nancy Gupta, Satish Vedi, Dennis Y Kunimoto, Babita Agrawal, Rakesh Kumar
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the bacterial cause of tuberculosis, is a leading infectious agent worldwide. The development of a new vaccine against Mtb is essential to control global spread of tuberculosis, since the current vaccine BCG is not very effective and antibiotic resistance is a serious, burgeoning problem. ESAT-6 is a secreted protein of Mtb, which is absent in BCG but has been implicated in inducing protective immunity against Mtb. Peptide based subunit vaccines are attractive due to their safety and high specificity in eliciting immune responses, but small synthetic peptides are usually not very immunogenic...
September 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670692/phylogenesys-and-homology-modeling-in-zika-virus-epidemic-food-for-thought
#17
Silvia Angeletti, Alessandra Lo Presti, Marta Giovanetti, Alba Grifoni, Massimo Amicosante, Marco Ciotti, Luiz-Carlos J Alcantara, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging Flavivirus that have recently caused an outbreak in Brazil and rapid spread in several countries. In this study, the consequences of ZIKV evolution on protein recognition by the host immune system have been analyzed. Evolutionary analysis was combined with homology modeling and T-B cells epitope predictions. Two separate clades, the African one with the Uganda sequence, as the most probable ancestor, and the second one containing all the most recent sequences from the equatorial belt were identified...
September 27, 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665355/infectious-bronchitis-virus-poly-epitope-based-vaccine-protects-chickens-from-acute-infection
#18
Lei Tan, Yuqiang Zhang, Fang Liu, Yanmei Yuan, Yuan Zhan, Yingjie Sun, Xusheng Qiu, Chunchun Meng, Cuiping Song, Chan Ding
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes major losses in the poultry industry. The safe and effective vaccine to control IBV spread is imperative. In the present study, we developed IBV S1 glycoprotein poly-epitope-based DNA vaccine pV-S1B+S1T consisting of SH1208 and Holte strain BF2-restricted T cell epitopes and Australian T strain dominant B cell neutralization epitopes. Specific pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated with pV-S1B+S1T and control plasmids twice to elicit strong humoral and cellular immune response, as indicated by viral neutralization titers and results of CD8(+) T cell proliferation assays...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649572/temporal-evolutionary-dynamics-of-norovirus-gii-4-variants-in-china-between-2004-and-2015
#19
Niu Qiao, Xuan-Yi Wang, Lei Liu
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are one of the major causes of acute human nonbacterial gastroenteritis, and genotype II.4 (GII.4) has accounted for the majority of adult outbreaks. In addition, novel epidemic strain emerges every 2 to 3 years and spreads globally in months. There are little data reporting the evolutionary dynamics of GII.4 variants along a specific period in China. METHODS: All norovirus GII.4 sequences in China were downloaded from GenBank Database. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by MEGA and Bayesian evolutionary inference techniques were applied by BEAST software to study the genetic relationships, evolution rate, evolutionary time scale and the demographic history of GII...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633273/zikavr-an-integrated-zika-virus-resource-for-genomics-proteomics-phylogenetic-and-therapeutic-analysis
#20
Amit Kumar Gupta, Karambir Kaur, Akanksha Rajput, Sandeep Kumar Dhanda, Manika Sehgal, Md Shoaib Khan, Isha Monga, Showkat Ahmad Dar, Sandeep Singh, Gandharva Nagpal, Salman Sadullah Usmani, Anamika Thakur, Gazaldeep Kaur, Shivangi Sharma, Aman Bhardwaj, Abid Qureshi, Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava, Manoj Kumar
Current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks that spread in several areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and in pacific islands is declared as a global health emergency by World Health Organization (WHO). It causes Zika fever and illness ranging from severe autoimmune to neurological complications in humans. To facilitate research on this virus, we have developed an integrative multi-omics platform; ZikaVR (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/zikavr/), dedicated to the ZIKV genomic, proteomic and therapeutic knowledge. It comprises of whole genome sequences, their respective functional information regarding proteins, genes, and structural content...
2016: Scientific Reports
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