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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619443/cloning-and-expression-of-mce1a-gene-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-and-h37rv-strain-for-vaccine-candidate-development
#1
Desi Indriarini, Andriansjah Rukmana, Andi Yasmon
Background: Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death in the world, especially wherever poverty, malnutrition and poor housing prevail. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strain is the most common strain that causes tuberculosis in Indonesia. The wide spread of tuberculosis has been further aggravated by HIV-AIDS and drug resistance. Unfortunately, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) as the current vaccine has different protection function and efficacy. According to function analysis, mce1A gene was predicted to have a role in host invasion and survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619029/anti-type-vii-collagen-antibodies-are-identified-in-a-subpopulation-of-bullous-pemphigoid-patients-with-relapse
#2
Delphine Giusti, Grégory Gatouillat, Sébastien Le Jan, Julie Plée, Philippe Bernard, Frank Antonicelli, Bach-Nga Pham
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune bullous skin disease characterized by anti-BP180 and anti-BP230 autoantibodies (AAbs). Mucous membrane involvement is an uncommon clinical feature of BP which may evoke epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, another skin autoimmune disease characterized by anti-type VII collagen AAbs. We therefore evaluated the presence of anti-type VII collagen AAbs in the serum of BP patients with and without mucosal lesions at time of diagnosis and under therapy. Anti-BP180, anti-BP230, and anti-type VII collagen AAbs were measured by ELISA in the serum of unselected patients fulfilling clinical and histo/immunopathological BP criteria at baseline ( n  = 71) and at time of relapse ( n  = 24)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615497/novel-broadly-reactive-anticapsular-antibodies-against-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-protect-from-infection
#3
Elizabeth Diago-Navarro, Michael P Motley, Gonzalo Ruiz-Peréz, Winnie Yu, Julianne Austin, Bruna M S Seco, Guozhi Xiao, Aniska Chikhalya, Peter H Seeberger, Bettina C Fries
Carbapenem-resistant (CR) sequence type 258 (ST258) Klebsiella pneumoniae has become an urgent health care threat, causing an increasing number of high-mortality infections. Its resistance to numerous antibiotics and threat to immunocompromised patients necessitate finding new therapies to combat these infections. Previous successes in the laboratory, as well as the conservation of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) among the members of the ST258 clone, suggest that monoclonal antibody (MAb) therapy targeting the outer polysaccharide capsule of K...
April 3, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614860/a-rational-structured-epitope-defines-a-distinct-subclass-of-toxic-amyloid-beta-oligomers
#4
Judith Silverman, Ebrima Gibbs, Xubiao Peng, Kris Martens, Claudia Balducci, Jing Wang, Masoud Yousefi, Catherine M Cowan, Guillaume Lamour, Sarah Louadi, Yuxin Ban, Jerome Robert, Sophie Stukas, Gianluigi Forloni, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, Steven S Plotkin, Cheryl L Wellington, Neil R Cashman
Oligomers of Amyloid-β (AβO) are deemed key in synaptotoxicity and amyloid seeding of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of AβO, and inadequate markers for AβO subtypes, have stymied effective AβO identification and therapeutic targeting in vivo. We identified an AβO-subclass epitope defined by differential solvent orientation of the lysine 28 sidechain in a constrained loop of serine-asparagine-lysine (cSNK), rarely displayed in molecular dynamics simulations of monomer and fibril ensembles...
April 4, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576303/neutralization-effects-of-antibody-elicited-by-chimeric-hbv-s-antigen-viral-like-particles-presenting-hcv-neutralization-epitopes
#5
Sanhua Wei, Yingfeng Lei, Jie Yang, Xiaoyan Wang, Fang Shu, Xin Wei, Fang Lin, Bin Li, Ying Cui, Hai Zhang, Sanhua Wei
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem despite effectual direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy. Development of a prophylactic vaccine is essential to block spread of HCV infection. The HBV small surface antigen (HBsAg-S) can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs), has higher immunogenicity and is used as a vaccine against HBV infections. Chimeric HBsAg-S proteins with foreign epitopes allow VLP formation and induce the specific humoral and cellular immune responses against the foreign proteins...
March 22, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572548/t-cells-from-induced-and-spontaneous-models-of-sle-recognize-a-common-t-cell-epitope-on-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i
#6
David Salem, Rebecca Subang, Masataka Kuwana, Jerrold S Levine, Joyce Rauch
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a prototypic model for B-cell epitope spread in autoimmunity. Autoantibodies to numerous molecularly distinct self-antigens emerge in a sequential manner over several years, leading to disease manifestations. Among the earliest autoantibodies to appear are those targeting phospholipid-binding proteins, particularly β2-glycoprotein I. Notably, mice immunized with β2-glycoprotein I and lipopolysaccharide develop a strong T cell response to β2-glycoprotein I that is associated with autoantibody production and renal disease, similar to that seen in human SLE...
March 23, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561846/role-of-genetic-heterogeneity-in-determining-the-epidemiological-severity-of-h1n1-influenza
#7
Narmada Sambaturu, Sumanta Mukherjee, Martín López-García, Carmen Molina-París, Gautam I Menon, Nagasuma Chandra
Genetic differences contribute to variations in the immune response mounted by different individuals to a pathogen. Such differential response can influence the spread of infectious disease, indicating why such diseases impact some populations more than others. Here, we study the impact of population-level genetic heterogeneity on the epidemic spread of different strains of H1N1 influenza. For a population with known HLA class-I allele frequency and for a given H1N1 viral strain, we classify individuals into sub-populations according to their level of susceptibility to infection...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533731/engineering-vaccines-to-reprogram-immunity-against-head-and-neck-cancer
#8
Y S Tan, K Sansanaphongpricha, M E P Prince, D Sun, G T Wolf, Y L Lei
The recent Food and Drug Administration's approval of monoclonal antibodies targeting immune checkpoint receptors (ICRs) for recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) offers exciting promise to improve patient outcome and reduce morbidities. A favorable response to ICR blockade relies on an extensive collection of preexisting tumor-specific T cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). ICR blockade reinvigorates exhausted CD8+ T cells and enhances immune killing. However, resistance to ICR blockade is observed in about 85% of patients with HNSCC, therefore highlighting the importance of characterizing the mechanisms underlying HNSCC immune escape and exploring combinatorial strategies to sensitize hypoimmunogenic cold HNSCC to ICR inhibition...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528865/autoimmune-manifestations-of-infections
#9
Luis J Jara, Gabriela Medina, Miguel A Saavedra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update about the interactions between infections and autoimmune diseases (AIDs), from the molecular perspective to the clinical spectrum and the differentiation between infection and disease activity. RECENT FINDINGS: Any kind of infection may modify the innate and adaptive immune response through the following mechanisms: molecular mimicry, superantigens, epitope spreading and B-cell activation. The consequence is the overproduction of antibodies shared with those found in AIDs...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496992/distinct-functions-for-the-membrane-proximal-ectodomain-region-mper-of-hiv-1-gp41-in-cell-free-and-cell-cell-viral-transmission-and-cell-cell-fusion
#10
Vani G S Narasimhulu, Anna K Bellamy-McIntyre, Annamarie E Laumaea, Chan-Sien Lay, David N Harrison, Hannah A D King, Heidi E Drummer, Pantelis Poumbourios
HIV-1 is spread by cell-free virions and by cell-cell viral transfer. We asked whether the structure and function of a broad neutralizing antibody (bNAb) epitope, the membrane-proximal ectodomain region (MPER) of the viral gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein, differ in cell-free and cell-cell transmitted viruses and whether this difference could be related to Ab neutralization sensitivity. Whereas cell-free viruses bearing W666A and I675A substitutions in the MPER lacked infectivity, cell-associated mutant viruses were able to initiate robust spreading infection...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495570/targeting-igg-in-arthritis-disease-pathways-and-therapeutic-avenues
#11
REVIEW
Kutty Selva Nandakumar
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a polygenic and multifactorial syndrome. Many complex immunological and genetic interactions are involved in the final outcome of the clinical disease. Autoantibodies (rheumatoid factors, anti-citrullinated peptide/protein antibodies) are present in RA patients' sera for a long time before the onset of clinical disease. Prior to arthritis onset, in the autoantibody response, epitope spreading, avidity maturation, and changes towards a pro-inflammatory Fc glycosylation phenotype occurs...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469749/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced-linear-iga-bullous-disease-presenting-as-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis
#12
T Baltazard, F Dhaille, S Duvert-Lehembre, C Lok, G Chaby
BACKGROUND: Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is an autoimmune blistering skin disorder characterized by linear IgA deposits along the dermoepidermal junction. Usually idiopathic, LABD can be drug-induced. OBJECTIVE: To report the atypical characteristics of a case of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced LABD presenting as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). METHODS: A 63-year-old woman treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis jirovecii infection developed a generalized maculopapular rash with herpetiform lesions, rosette-like lesions, and tense bullae with Nikolsky sign...
August 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440397/sex-bias-in-mhc-i-associated-shaping-of-the-adaptive-immune-system
#13
Tilman Schneider-Hohendorf, Dennis Görlich, Paula Savola, Tiina Kelkka, Satu Mustjoki, Catharina C Gross, Geoffrey C Owens, Luisa Klotz, Klaus Dornmair, Heinz Wiendl, Nicholas Schwab
HLA associations, T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire bias, and sex bias have independently been shown for many diseases. While some immunological differences between the sexes have been described, they do not fully explain bias in men toward many infections/cancers, and toward women in autoimmunity. Next-generation TCR variable beta chain (TCRBV) immunosequencing of 824 individuals was evaluated in a multiparametric analysis including HLA-A -B/MHC class I background, TCRBV usage, sex, age, ethnicity, and TCRBV selection/expansion dynamics...
February 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435493/conformational-occlusion-of-blockade-antibody-epitopes-a-novel-mechanism-of-gii-4-human-norovirus-immune-evasion
#14
Lisa C Lindesmith, Michael L Mallory, Kari Debbink, Eric F Donaldson, Paul D Brewer-Jensen, Excel W Swann, Timothy P Sheahan, Rachel L Graham, Martina Beltramello, Davide Corti, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Ralph S Baric
Extensive antigenic diversity within the GII.4 genotype of human norovirus is a major driver of pandemic emergence and a significant obstacle to development of cross-protective immunity after natural infection and vaccination. However, human and mouse monoclonal antibody studies indicate that, although rare, antibodies to conserved GII.4 blockade epitopes are generated. The mechanisms by which these epitopes evade immune surveillance are uncertain. Here, we developed a new approach for identifying conserved GII...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433534/identification-of-a-novel-autoantibody-against-self-vimentin-specific-in-secondary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#15
Yu-Hui Li, Ya-Ping Gao, Jie Dong, Lian-Jie Shi, Xiao-Lin Sun, Ru Li, Xue-Wu Zhang, Yu Liu, Li Long, Jing He, Qun-Jie Zhong, Eric Morand, Guang Yang, Zhan-Guo Li
BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a primary autoimmune disease (pSS) or secondarily associated with other autoimmune diseases (sSS). The mechanisms underlying immune dysregulation in this syndrome remain unknown, and clinically it is difficult to diagnose owing to a lack of specific biomarkers. METHODS: We extracted immunoglobulins (Igs) from the sera of patients with sSS associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and used them to screen a phage display library of peptides with random sequences...
February 12, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423024/a-novel-multiplex-detection-array-revealed-systemic-complement-activation-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Juliane Gallenkamp, Gerrit Spanier, Elisabeth Wörle, Markus Englbrecht, Michael Kirschfink, Roman Greslechner, Regine Braun, Nicole Schäfer, Richard J Bauer, Diana Pauly
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common tumors within the oral cavity. Early diagnosis and prognosis tools are urgently needed. This study aimed to investigate the activation of the complement system in OSCC patients as potential biomarker. Therefore, an innovative complement activation array was developed. Characterized antibodies detecting the complement activation specific epitopes C3a, C5a and sC5b-9 along with control antibodies were implemented into a suspension bead array. Human serum from a healthy (n = 46) and OSCC patient (n = 57) cohort were used to investigate the role of complement activation in oral tumor progression...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412159/molecular-characteristics-of-the-spike-gene-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhoea-virus-strains-in-eastern-china-in-2016
#17
Jing Yu, Xulan Chai, Yao Cheng, Gang Xing, Ao Liao, Liuyang Du, Yue Wang, Jing Lei, Jinyan Gu, Jiyong Zhou
The outbreak of piglet diarrhoea caused by porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) began to spread in Southern China in late 2010 and resulted in significant economic losses throughout the country. To determine the prevalence and the molecular characteristics of common PEDV strains in China, 1272 faeces and small intestine samples in pigs were collected from 17 provinces and inspected for PEDV; the full-length spike (S) gene of 18 detected PEDV strains collected from five eastern provinces were sequenced and analysed...
February 3, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390440/myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-anca-associated-systemic-vasculitis-developed-from-anca-negative-renal-limited-vasculitis-a-case-report
#18
Xiao-Li Li, Peng-Cheng Xu, Tong Chen, Tie-Kun Yan, Jian-Qing Jiang, Jun-Ya Jia, Li Wei, Wen-Ya Shang, Shui-Yi Hu
RATIONALE: The relationship between antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and ANCA-negative vasculitis has not been elucidated. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old female with edema and proteinuria was admitted. A kidney biopsy indicated focal proliferative nephritis with crescents in 25% of glomeruli. Serum ANCA was negative. Eighteen months later, systemic symptoms emerged and acute kidney injury occurred. Serum ANCA against myeloperoxidase (MPO) turned positive...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374266/monoclonal-and-oligoclonal-tcr-av-and-bv-gene-usage-in-cd4-t-cells-from-pigs-immunised-with-c-strain-csfv-vaccine
#19
Chunyan Wang, Shoujie Li, Huaijie Jia, Guohua Chen, Yongxiang Fang, Shuang Zeng, Xiaobing He, Wenjuan Yao, Qiwang Jin, Wenyu Cheng, Yuan Feng, Hong Yin, Zhizhong Jing
The classical swine fever virus C-strain vaccine (C-strain vaccine) plays a vital role in preventing and controlling the spread of classical swine fever (CSF). However, the protective mechanisms of C-strain vaccine and cellular immunity conferred by T cell receptors (TCRs) are less well defined. We aimed to analyse the association between the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) spectratype of αβTCR in CD4+ T cells and C-strain vaccine; and to find conserved CDR3 amino acid motifs in specific TCR α- and β-chains...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370726/cancer-immunotherapy-using-tumor-antigen-reactive-t-cells
#20
Beom K Choi, Seon-Hee Kim, Young H Kim, Byoung S Kwon
Studies over the last 30 years have shown the promise of cancer immunotherapy using T cells. In particular, since the report by Rosenberg and colleagues in 2002 that adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT) under lymphopenic conditions substantially increased response rates in melanoma patients, ACT has become a promising immunotherapeutic route to cancer treatment. Here we provide a brief history of ACT and review the characteristics of T-cell therapeutics that are specific to this approach. Since every T-cell treatment has its own unique properties in terms of number and type of target antigens, and number of epitopes and type of T cells, we review the main strategies for designing ACT: how Ag specificity is determined, how is it standardized and the need for lymphodepletion to induce epitope spreading...
March 2018: Immunotherapy
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