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Colorectal tumour marker

Gholamreza Mohajeri, Kavak Hejab, Saba Sheikhbahaei, Mohammadreza Mohajeri, Negar Niknam, Alireza Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Micrometastasis (MM) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is not considered in tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) staging currently and also the prognostic significance of these occult tumoural cells is not proven yet. This study was designed to find whether MM to bone marrow (BM) and/or liver cause upstaging of the tumour according to conventional staging system and if it may alter the survival rate. METHODS: Thirty-eight CRC patients who were candidates of surgical procedure were enrolled in our cross-sectional study...
October 21, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Yaser Atlasi, Rubina Noori, Ivana Marolin, Patrick Franken, Joana Brandao, Katharina Biermann, Paola Collini, Mariam Grigorian, Eugene Lukanidin, Noona Ambartsumian, Riccardo Fodde
INTRODUCTION: S100a4 is a calcium-binding protein belonging to the family of S100-proteins, highly expressed in different stromal cell types. S100A4 has been reported as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer in association with tumour progression and metastasis. METHODS: In this study, we analysed the in vivo role of S100a4 in intestinal tumour initiation and progression using different transgenic and knockout mouse models. RESULTS: We found that genetic ablation or overexpression of S100a4 in both Apc- and Smad4-mutant mice do not affect tumour initiation in the intestinal tract...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Tamás Sticz, Anna Molnár, Ágnes Márk, Melinda Hajdu, Noémi Nagy, Gyula Végső, Tamás Micsik, László Kopper, Anna Sebestyén
AIMS: Tumour heterogeneity and altered activation of signalling pathways play important roles in therapy resistance. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling network is a well-known regulator of several functions that contribute to tumour growth. mTOR exists in two functionally different multiprotein complexes. We aimed to determine mTOR activity-related proteins in clinically followed, conventionally treated colon carcinomas and to analyse the correlation between clinical data and mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Anelisa Jaca, Padmini Govender, Michael Locketz, Richard Naidoo
AIMS: The study was conducted to assess the expression levels of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) proteins (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, snail-1 and vimentin) and miRNA-21. In addition, we correlated these data with clinicopathological features in Colorectal cancer. METHODS: H&E slides from a total of 59 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks were examined by a pathologist to demarcate normal and tumour regions. Immunohistochemical analysis of mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6) and EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, snail-1 and vimentin) was performed...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Alexandra R Lewis, Juan W Valle, Mairead G McNamara
Pancreatic cancer is a disease that carries a poor prognosis. Accurate tissue diagnosis is required. Tumours contain a high content of stromal tissue and therefore biopsies may be inconclusive. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have been investigated as a potential "liquid biopsy" in several malignancies and have proven to be of prognostic value in breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. They have been detected in patients with localised and metastatic pancreatic cancer with sensitivities ranging from 38%-100% using a variety of platforms...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Marie Stampe Ostenfeld, Steffen Grann Jensen, Dennis Kjølhede Jeppesen, Lise-Lotte Christensen, Stine Buch Thorsen, Jan Stenvang, Michael Lykke Hvam, Anni Thomsen, Peter Mouritzen, Mads Heilskov Rasmussen, Hans Jørgen Nielsen, Torben Falck Ørntoft, Claus Lindbjerg Andersen
Cancer cells secrete small membranous extracellular vesicles (EVs) into their microenvironment and circulation. These contain biomolecules, including proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs). Both circulating EVs and miRNAs have received much attention as biomarker candidates for non-invasive diagnostics. Here we describe a sensitive analytical method for isolation and subsequent miRNA profiling of epithelial-derived EVs from blood samples of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The epithelial-derived EVs were isolated by immunoaffinity-capture using the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) as marker...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Myriam Wartski
The existing recommendations for fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) use in digestive cancers (excluding neuroendocrine tumours) are summarized in the present article. FDG-PET/CT is nowadays a routine imaging modality for digestive malignancies and its use is currently increasing. FDG-PET/CT is considered to be a crucial tool in pretherapeutic assessment of esophageal, localized pancreatic and anal cancer. It represents a key exam in suspicion of recurrence of colorectal cancer in case of elevated serum tumor markers...
September 2016: La Presse Médicale
Sarah Koushyar, Guy H Grant, Pinar Uysal-Onganer
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer among the male population. Conventional therapies target androgen signalling, which drives tumour growth; however, they provide limited survival benefits for patients. It is essential, therefore, to develop a more specific biomarker than the current gold standard, PSA testing. The Wnt signalling pathway induces expression of target genes through cell surface receptors. A non-canonical member of this family, Wnt-11, is evolutionarily highly conserved and is normally expressed by various cells in the developing embryo, as well as in the heart, liver and skeletal muscle of adult humans...
August 11, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Ana T Pinto, Marta L Pinto, Sérgia Velho, Marta T Pinto, Ana P Cardoso, Rita Figueira, Armanda Monteiro, Margarida Marques, Raquel Seruca, Mário A Barbosa, Marc Mareel, Maria J Oliveira, Sónia Rocha
Both cancer and tumour-associated host cells are exposed to ionizing radiation when a tumour is subjected to radiotherapy. Macrophages frequently constitute the most abundant tumour-associated immune population, playing a role in tumour progression and response to therapy. The present work aimed to evaluate the importance of macrophage-cancer cell communication in the cellular response to radiation. To address this question, we established monocultures and indirect co-cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages with RKO or SW1463 colorectal cancer cells, which exhibit higher and lower radiation sensitivity, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Agnes Ling, Ida V Lundberg, Vincy Eklöf, Maria L Wikberg, Åke Öberg, Sofia Edin, Richard Palmqvist
Giving strong prognostic information, T-cell infiltration is on the verge of becoming an additional component in the routine clinical setting for classification of colorectal cancer (CRC). With a view to further improving the tools for prognostic evaluation, we have studied how Th1 lymphocyte infiltration correlates with prognosis not only by quantity, but also by subsite, within CRCs with different molecular characteristics (microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype status, and BRAF and KRAS mutational status)...
January 2016: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
Goro Nakayama, Tsutomu Fujii, Kenta Murotani, Keisuke Uehara, Norifumi Hattori, Masamichi Hayashi, Chie Tanaka, Daisuke Kobayashi, Mitsuro Kanda, Suguru Yamada, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Masahiko Koike, Michitaka Fujiwara, Yuichi Ando, Yasuhiro Kodera
The identification of surrogate markers for long-term outcomes in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) may help in designing treatment regimens. The aim of this study was to assess whether two-dimensional response (2-DR) can serve as a new surrogate marker for overall survival (OS) in patients with mCRC. The study population consisted of 99 patients with mCRC from two independent cohorts who were treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. 2-DR was defined as an area enclosed by coordinate points, including early tumour shrinkage (ETS) at 8 weeks, depth of response (DpR) at nadir and 20% increase over nadir at progression...
August 1, 2016: Cancer Science
Li Du, Yi-Jia Li, Marwan Fakih, Rebecca L Wiatrek, Marjun Duldulao, Zhenbin Chen, Peiguo Chu, Julio Garcia-Aguilar, Yuan Chen
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have key roles in treatment resistance, tumour metastasis and relapse. Using colorectal cancer (CC) cell lines, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tissues and patient tissues, here we report that CC CSCs, which resist chemoradiation, have higher SUMO activating enzyme (E1) and global SUMOylation levels than non-CSCs. Knockdown of SUMO E1 or SUMO conjugating enzyme (E2) inhibits CC CSC maintenance and self-renewal, while overexpression of SUMO E1 or E2 increases CC cell stemness. We found that SUMOylation regulates CSCs through Oct-1, a transcription factor for aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs)...
2016: Nature Communications
S N Kehlet, R Sanz-Pamplona, S Brix, D J Leeming, M A Karsdal, V Moreno
During cancer progression, the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix becomes imbalanced with an excessive collagen remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, small protein fragments of degraded collagens are released into the circulation. We have investigated the potential of protein fragments of collagen type I, III and IV as novel biomarkers for colorectal cancer. Specific fragments of degraded type I, III and IV collagen (C1M, C3M, C4M) and type III collagen formation (Pro-C3) were assessed in serum from colorectal cancer patients, subjects with adenomas and matched healthy controls using well-characterized and validated ELISAs...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anne Trinh, Kari Trumpi, Felipe de Sousa E Melo, Xin Wang, Joan H de Jong, Evelyn Fessler, Peter J K Kuppen, Marlies S Reimers, Marloes Swets, Miriam Koopman, Iris D Nagtegaal, Marnix Jansen, Gerrit K J Hooijer, G Johan Offerhaus, Onno Kranenburg, Cornelis J A Punt, Jan Paul Medema, Florian Markowetz, Louis Vermeulen
PURPOSE: Recent transcriptomic analyses have identified four distinct molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer (CRC) with evident clinical relevance. However, the requirement for sufficient quantities of bulk tumor and difficulties in obtaining high quality genome-wide transcriptome data from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue are obstacles towards widespread adoption of this taxonomy. Here, we develop an immunohistochemistry-based classifier to validate the prognostic and predictive value of molecular CRC subtyping in a multi-center study...
July 26, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Fanny Grillet, Elsa Bayet, Olivia Villeronce, Luke Zappia, Ebba Louise Lagerqvist, Sebastian Lunke, Emmanuelle Charafe-Jauffret, Kym Pham, Christina Molck, Nathalie Rolland, Jean François Bourgaux, Michel Prudhomme, Claire Philippe, Sophie Bravo, Jean Christophe Boyer, Lucile Canterel-Thouennon, Graham Roy Taylor, Arthur Hsu, Jean Marc Pascussi, Frédéric Hollande, Julie Pannequin
OBJECTIVE: Although counting of circulating tumour cells (CTC) has attracted a broad interest as potential markers of tumour progression and treatment response, the lack of functional characterisation of these cells had become a bottleneck in taking these observations to the clinic. Our objective was to culture these cells in order to understand them and exploit their therapeutic potential to the full. DESIGN: Here, hypothesising that some CTC potentially have cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype, we generated several CTC lines from the blood of patients with advanced metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) based on their self-renewal abilities...
July 25, 2016: Gut
Lawrence F Lau, Carmel Murone, David S Williams, Richard Standish, Sze Ting Lee, Christopher Christophi, Andrew M Scott, Vijayaragavan Muralidharan
BACKGROUND: Tumour metabolic response to chemotherapy is increasingly recognized as a prognostic indicator for colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM). However, its clinical role and the underlying biological mechanism of its prognostic ability are unclear. This study compares metabolic to pathologic response for CRCLM, and correlates metabolic response to tumour expression of six key biomarkers. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients who had positron emission tomography imaging before and after pre-operative chemotherapy prior to liver resection for CRCLM were included...
July 24, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Klaus Juergen Schmitz, Ceflije Ademi, Stefanie Bertram, Schmid Kurt Werner, Hideo Andreas Baba
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a cellular pathway that regulates transportation of cytoplasmic macromolecules and organelles to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagy is involved in both tumorigenesis and tumour suppression. Here we investigated the potential prognostic value of the autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1, p62, LC3 and uncoordinated (UNC) 51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) in a cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens. METHODS: In this study, we analysed the immunoexpression of the autophagy-related proteins p62, LC3, Beclin-1 and ULK1 in 127 CRC patients with known KRAS mutational status and detailed clinical follow-up...
2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
H Bontinck, J Bontinck, T Rondou, P Pattyn, F Lockefeer
A peri-anal skin lesion, often eczema-like and with symptoms of pruritus, that does not resolve after classical local therapy should be biopsied. We present a case of peri-anal extramammary Paget's disease (EMDP) and associated anal adenocarcinoma. Reviewing the literature, more than 30% of patients with EMDP present a second primary tumour in their past, present or future history. In Europe, the risk of developing a new primary tumour in patients with this condition is increased compared with the standard population...
May 26, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Deborah Ryan, Steven Carberry, Áine C Murphy, Andreas U Lindner, Joanna Fay, Suzanne Hector, Niamh McCawley, Orna Bacon, Caoimhin G Concannon, Elaine W Kay, Deborah A McNamara, Jochen H M Prehn
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality in the Western world and commonly treated with genotoxic chemotherapy. Stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was implicated to contribute to chemotherapeutic resistance. Hence, ER stress related protein may be of prognostic or therapeutic significance. METHODS: The expression levels of ER stress proteins calnexin, calreticulin, GRP78 and GRP94 were determined in n = 23 Stage II and III colon cancer fresh frozen tumour and matched normal tissue samples...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Kjetil Søreide, Martin M Watson, Dordi Lea, Oddmund Nordgård, Jon Arne Søreide, Hanne R Hagland
BACKGROUND: More accurate predictive and prognostic biomarkers for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) primaries or colorectal liver metastasis (CLM) are needed. Outside clinical trials, the translational integration of emerging pathways and novel techniques should facilitate exploration of biomarkers for improved staging and prognosis. METHODS: An observational study exploring predictive and prognostic biomarkers in a population-based, consecutive cohort of surgically treated colorectal cancers and resected colorectal liver metastases...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
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