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Colorectal tumour marker

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666172/genetic-editing-of-colonic-organoids-provides-a-molecularly-distinct-and-orthotopic-preclinical-model-of-serrated-carcinogenesis
#1
Tamsin R M Lannagan, Young K Lee, Tongtong Wang, Jatin Roper, Mark L Bettington, Lochlan Fennell, Laura Vrbanac, Lisa Jonavicius, Roshini Somashekar, Krystyna Gieniec, Miao Yang, Jia Q Ng, Nobumi Suzuki, Mari Ichinose, Josephine A Wright, Hiroki Kobayashi, Tracey L Putoczki, Yoku Hayakawa, Simon J Leedham, Helen E Abud, Ömer H Yilmaz, Julie Marker, Sonja Klebe, Pratyaksha Wirapati, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Sabine Tejpar, Barbara A Leggett, Vicki L J Whitehall, Daniel L Worthley, Susan L Woods
OBJECTIVE: Serrated colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for approximately 25% of cases and includes tumours that are among the most treatment resistant and with worst outcomes. This CRC subtype is associated with activating mutations in the mitogen-activated kinase pathway gene, BRAF , and epigenetic modifications termed the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype, leading to epigenetic silencing of key tumour suppressor genes. It is still not clear which (epi-)genetic changes are most important in neoplastic progression and we begin to address this knowledge gap herein...
April 17, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653092/cd10-inhibits-cell-motility-but-expression-is-associated-with-advanced-stage-disease-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
Teresa P Raposo, Mireia Sueca Comes, Adeyemi Idowu, Bora Agit, James Hassall, Wakkas Fadhil, Robert Nica, Rupert Ecker, Takashi Yao, Mohammad Ilyas
INTRODUCTION: CD10 is a cell membrane-bound endopeptidase which is expressed in normal small bowel but not in normal colon. It is aberrantly expressed in a small proportion of colorectal cancers (CRC) and this has been associated with liver metastasis and poor prognosis. We sought to investigate the mechanism of CD10 activity and its association with clinicopathological features. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CD10 was stably knocked down by lentiviral shRNA transduction in the CRC cell lines SW480 and SW620 which are derived from a primary tumour and its corresponding metastasis respectively...
April 10, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588449/confirmation-of-a-metastasis-specific-microrna-signature-in-primary-colon-cancer
#3
Robert R J Coebergh van den Braak, Anieta M Sieuwerts, Zarina S Lalmahomed, Marcel Smid, Saskia M Wilting, Sandra I Bril, Shanshan Xiang, Michelle van der Vlugt-Daane, Vanja de Weerd, Anne van Galen, Katharina Biermann, J Han J M van Krieken, Wigard P Kloosterman, John A Foekens, John W M Martens, Jan N M IJzermans
The identification of patients with high-risk stage II colon cancer who may benefit from adjuvant therapy may allow the clinical approach to be tailored for these patients based on an understanding of tumour biology. MicroRNAs have been proposed as markers of the prognosis or treatment response in colorectal cancer. Recently, a 2-microRNA signature (let-7i and miR-10b) was proposed to identify colorectal cancer patients at risk of developing distant metastasis. We assessed the prognostic value of this signature and additional candidate microRNAs in an independent, clinically well-defined, prospectively collected cohort of primary colon cancer patients including stage I-II colon cancer without and stage III colon cancer with adjuvant treatment...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535825/tumour-vasculature-immaturity-oxidative-damage-and-systemic-inflammation-stratify-survival-of-colorectal-cancer-patients-on-bevacizumab-treatment
#4
Sinead A Noonan, Maria E Morrissey, Petra Martin, Monika Biniecka, Shane Ó'Meachair, Aoife Maguire, Miriam Tosetto, Blathnaid Nolan, John Hyland, Kieran Sheahan, Diarmuid O'Donoghue, Hugh Mulcahy, David Fennelly, Jacintha O'Sullivan
Despite treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy, response rates are modest and there are no biomarkers available that will predict response. The aim of this study was to assess if markers associated with three interconnected cancer-associated biological processes, specifically angiogenesis, inflammation and oxidative damage, could stratify the survival outcome of this cohort. Levels of angiogenesis, inflammation and oxidative damage markers were assessed in pre-bevacizumab resected tumour and serum samples of mCRC patients by dual immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and ELISA...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531839/prognostic-indices-of-inflammatory-markers-cognitive-function-and-fatigue-for-survival-in-patients-with-localised-colorectal-cancer
#5
Janette L Vardy, Haryana Mary Dhillon, Gregory R Pond, Corrinne Renton, Stephen J Clarke, Ian F Tannock
Background: Inflammation promotes the development of malignancy, while a variety of systemic markers of inflammation predict for worse cancer outcomes including recurrence and survival. Here, we evaluate the prognostic impact of cytokine concentrations, full blood count (FBC) differential ratios, cognitive function and fatigue on survival in patients with localised colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and methods: Data are from a prospective longitudinal study comparing cognitive function and fatigue in patients with CRC who did (n=173) and did not (n=116) receive adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
2018: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519158/cd133-targeted-delivery-of-self-assembled-pegylated-carboxymethylcellulose-sn38-nanoparticles-to-colorectal-cancer
#6
Mona Alibolandi, Khalil Abnous, Sajjad Anvari, Marzieh Mohammadi, Mohammad Ramezani, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi
Poor aqueous solubility of chemotherapeutics such as SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin) and the associated systemic adverse effects are serious limitations of their clinical use. To improve the drug delivery efficiency of such compounds, they were covalently conjugated to hydrophilic macromolecular carriers that specifically deliver the drug moiety to the tumour cells. In the current study, we developed a PEGylated acetylated carboxymethylcellulose conjugate of SN38 which was covalently attached to an aptamer against a cancer stem cell marker, CD133...
March 8, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458792/circulating-tumour-dna-a-promising-biomarker-for-the-management-of-colorectal-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Shelize Khakoo, Alexandros Georgiou, Marco Gerlinger, David Cunningham, Naureen Starling
Circulating cell free tumour DNA (ctDNA) maintains the same genomic alterations that are present in the corresponding tumour, thereby allowing for quantitative and qualitative real-time evaluation in body fluids as an alternative to onerous repeat biopsies. Improvements in the sensitivity of techniques used to identify ctDNA has led to a surge of research investigating its role in the detection of: early disease, relapse, response to therapy and emerging drug resistance mechanisms. Following curative surgery, ctDNA detection is a promising marker of minimal residual disease and could better select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy...
February 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440231/-ex-vivo-activity-of-cytotoxic-drugs-and-targeted-agents-in-small-intestinal-nets
#8
Kosmas Daskalakis, Olov Norlen, Andreas Karakatsanis, Per Hellman, Rolf Larsson, Peter Nygren, Peter Stalberg
Small intestinal endocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are generally considered resistant to systemic treatment. To date, predictive markers for drug activity are lacking. Tumour samples from 27 patients with SI-NETs were analyzed ex vivo for sensitivity to a panel of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents using a short-term total cell kill assay. Samples of renal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), ovarian cancer, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were included for comparison. For the SI-NET subset, drug sensitivity was analyzed in relation to clinico-pathological variables and pre-treatment biomarkers...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437871/gut-microbiota-modulate-t-cell-trafficking-into-human-colorectal-cancer
#9
Eleonora Cremonesi, Valeria Governa, Jesus Francisco Glaus Garzon, Valentina Mele, Francesca Amicarella, Manuele Giuseppe Muraro, Emanuele Trella, Virginie Galati-Fournier, Daniel Oertli, Silvio Raffael Däster, Raoul A Droeser, Benjamin Weixler, Martin Bolli, Raffaele Rosso, Ulrich Nitsche, Nina Khanna, Adrian Egli, Simone Keck, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Luigi M Terracciano, Paul Zajac, Giulio Cesare Spagnoli, Serenella Eppenberger-Castori, Klaus-Peter Janssen, Lubor Borsig, Giandomenica Iezzi
OBJECTIVE: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) favour survival in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotactic factors underlying their recruitment remain undefined. We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers. DESIGN: Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues...
February 6, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402700/chromatin-organisation-and-cancer-prognosis-a-pan-cancer-study
#10
Andreas Kleppe, Fritz Albregtsen, Ljiljana Vlatkovic, Manohar Pradhan, Birgitte Nielsen, Tarjei S Hveem, Hanne A Askautrud, Gunnar B Kristensen, Arild Nesbakken, Jone Trovik, Håkon Wæhre, Ian Tomlinson, Neil A Shepherd, Marco Novelli, David J Kerr, Håvard E Danielsen
BACKGROUND: Chromatin organisation affects gene expression and regional mutation frequencies and contributes to carcinogenesis. Aberrant organisation of DNA has been correlated with cancer prognosis in analyses of the chromatin component of tumour cell nuclei using image texture analysis. As yet, the methodology has not been sufficiently validated to permit its clinical application. We aimed to define and validate a novel prognostic biomarker for the automatic detection of heterogeneous chromatin organisation...
February 2, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382774/lymphocytic-response-to-tumour-and-deficient-dna-mismatch-repair-identify-subtypes-of-stage-ii-iii-colorectal-cancer-associated-with-patient-outcomes
#11
David S Williams, Dmitri Mouradov, Robert N Jorissen, Marsali R Newman, Elham Amini, David K Nickless, Julie A Teague, Catherine G Fang, Michelle Palmieri, Marie J Parsons, Anuratha Sakthianandeswaren, Shan Li, Robyn L Ward, Nicholas J Hawkins, Ian Faragher, Ian T Jones, Peter Gibbs, Oliver M Sieber
OBJECTIVE: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) response and deficient DNA mismatch repair (dMMR) are determinants of prognosis in colorectal cancer. Although highly correlated, evidence suggests that these are independent predictors of outcome. However, the prognostic significance of combined TIL/MMR classification and how this compares to the major genomic and transcriptomic subtypes remain unclear. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of 1265 patients with stage II/III cancer was examined for TIL/MMR status and BRAF / KRAS mutations...
January 30, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378497/postoperative-cea-is-a-better-prognostic-marker-than-ca19-9-hcg%C3%AE-or-tati-after-resection-of-colorectal-liver-metastases
#12
Reetta Peltonen, Pia Österlund, Marko Lempinen, Arno Nordin, Ulf-Håkan Stenman, Helena Isoniemi
Liver metastases of colorectal cancer can be operated with a curative intent in selected cases. However, more than half of the patients have a recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), human chorionic gonadotropin β (hCGβ) and tumour-associated trypsin-inhibitor (TATI) in colorectal cancer patients before and 3 months after resection of liver metastases. Marker concentrations were determined in blood samples from 168 colorectal cancer patients, who underwent liver resection between the years 1998 and 2007 at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland...
January 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374142/the-bax-bak-like-protein-bok-is-a-prognostic-marker-in-colorectal-cancer
#13
Steven Carberry, Beatrice D'Orsi, Naser Monsefi, Manuela Salvucci, Orna Bacon, Joanna Fay, Markus Rehm, Deborah McNamara, Elaine W Kay, Jochen H M Prehn
The intrinsic or mitochondrial apoptosis pathway is controlled by the interaction of antiapoptotic and pro-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 protein family. Activation of this death pathway plays a crucial role in cancer progression and chemotherapy responses. The BCL-2-related ovarian killer (BOK) possesses three BCL-2 homology domains and has been proposed to act in a similar pro-apoptotic pathway as the pro-apoptotic proteins BAX and BAK. In this study, we showed that stage II and III colorectal cancer patients possessed decreased levels of BOK protein in their tumours compared to matched normal tissue...
January 26, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365058/colorectal-cancer-crc-monitoring-by-six-monthly-18fdg-pet-ct-an-open-label-multicentre-randomised-trial
#14
I Sobhani, E Itti, A Luciani, I Baumgaertner, R Layese, T André, M Ducreux, J-M Gornet, G Goujon, T Aparicio, J Taieb, J-B Bachet, F Hemery, A Retbi, M Mons, R Flicoteaux, B Rhein, S Baron, I Cherrak, P Rufat, P Le Corvoisier, N De'Angelis, P-A Natella, H Maoulida, C Tournigand, I Durand Zaleski, S Bastuji-Garin
Background: 18FDG-PET/CT has high sensitivity for detecting recurrences of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our objective was to determine whether adding routine 6-monthly 18FDG-PET/CT to our usual monitoring strategy improved patient outcomes and to assess the effect on costs. Patients and Methods: In this open-label multicentre trial, patients in remission of CRC (stage II perforated, stage III, or stage IV) after curative surgery were randomly assigned (1:1) to usual monitoring alone (3-monthly physical and tumour marker assays, 6-monthly liver ultrasound and chest radiograph, and 6-monthly whole-body computed tomography) or with 6-monthly 18FDG-PET/CT, for 3 years...
January 22, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328371/cd133-expression-predicts-post-operative-recurrence-in-patients-with-colon-cancer-with-peritoneal-metastasis
#15
Hiroshi Nagata, Soichiro Ishihara, Junko Kishikawa, Hirofumi Sonoda, Koji Murono, Shigenobu Emoto, Manabu Kaneko, Kazuhito Sasaki, Kensuke Otani, Takeshi Nishikawa, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Keisuke Hata, Kazushige Kawai, Hiroaki Nozawa
Despite extensive research on cancer stem cells in colorectal cancer, the impact of stem cell markers on patient survival remains unclear, particularly in those with distant metastasis. In this study, we focused on colon cancer with peritoneal metastasis and investigated the association between the expression of CD133, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) and leucine-rich repeating G-protein coupled receptor-5 (Lgr5), and disease prognosis. Putative stem cell marker expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in samples from 142 primary tumours and 75 peritoneal nodules...
March 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318692/promoter-hypermethylation-inactivate-tumor-suppressor-fam134b-and-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Farhadul Islam, Vinod Gopalan, Suja Pillai, Cu-Tai Lu, Kais Kasem, Alfred King-Yin Lam
The present study aims to examine promoter methylation status of FAM134B in a large cohort of patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical significances and correlations of FAM134B promoter methylation with its expression are also analysed. Methylation-specific high-resolution melt-curve analysis followed by sequencing was used to identify FAM134B promoter methylation in colorectal adenomas (N = 32), colorectal adenocarcinomas (N = 164), matched adjacent non-neoplastic colorectal mucosae (N = 83) and colon cancer cell lines (N = 4)...
May 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220096/hepatic-progenitor-cells-in-metastatic-liver-carcinomas
#17
Ioanna Delladetsima, Stratigoula Sakellariou, Olivier Govaere, Elpida Poulaki, Evangelos Felekouras, Dina Tiniakos
AIMS: Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are activated in various liver diseases, but their role in the carcinomatous environment remains unknown. We aimed to identify the possible presence and topography of HPCs in liver metastases. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 14 liver resection specimens for colorectal adenocarcinoma (n = 13) and anal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1) metastases. Immunohistochemical markers of colonic origin (keratin 20 and CDX2) and squamous cell origin (p63), HPC [keratin 19 (K19) and CD56] and stem cell (CD44) markers, and the biliary marker keratin 7 (K7), which may also highlight HPCs, were applied on routinely processed tissue sections...
December 8, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203974/deterministic-role-of-cea-and-msi-status-in-predicting-outcome-of-crc-patients-a-perspective-study-amongst-hospital-attending-eastern-indian-populations
#18
Banerjee Koyel, Das Priyabrata, Bhattacharya Rittwika, Dasgupta Swati, Mukhopadhyay Soma, Basak Jayasri, Mukhopadhyay Ashis
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an important deterministic factor in predicting colorectal carcinoma (CRC) progression. It is also evident that microsatellite instability (MSI) which results in a hypermutable phenotype of genomic DNA is common in CRC. Owing to the scarcity of reports from India, our aim of this study was to understand the clinicopathological correlations of CEA status with surgery and chemotherapy, correlate the same with socio-demographic status of the patients, determine the MSI status amongst them and understand the prognostic implications of CEA and MSI as CRC progression marker amongst patients...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188366/pre-operative-neutrophil-count-and-neutrophil-lymphocyte-count-ratio-nlcr-in-predicting-the-histological-grade-of-paediatric-brain-tumours-a-preliminary-study
#19
J R F Wilson, F Saeed, A K Tyagi, J R Goodden, G Sivakumar, D Crimmins, M Elliott, S Picton, P D Chumas
INTRODUCTION: The neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) is an established prognostic marker for renal, lung and colorectal carcinomas and has been suggested to be predictive of histological grade and outcome in adult intracranial tumours. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a correlation of the pre-operative neutrophil count (NC) and NLCR with the final histological grade exists in paediatric intracranial tumours. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken at a single centre...
November 29, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183892/treatment-of-advanced-colorectal-cancer-in-a-patient-with-cardiotoxic-reactions-to-5-fluorouracil-and-capecitabine-using-suboptimal-doses
#20
Joseph H Cioffi, Derek J Estes, Vaia Florou, Bach Ardalan
A 32-year-old female with stage IV colorectal cancer and metastasis to the liver experienced cardiotoxic reactions after treatment with 5-fluorouracil and its oral prodrug capecitabine even at two-thirds the recommended dose. After careful considerations, the decision was made to attempt capecitabine retrial at a further suboptimal dose with combination chemotherapy where she no longer experienced cardiac events. As a result, the liver tumour shrank and rectal mass stabilised, tumour markers dropped and she underwent surgical resection of both masses...
November 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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