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Colorectal tumour marker

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458792/circulating-tumour-dna-a-promising-biomarker-for-the-management-of-colorectal-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Shelize Khakoo, Alexandros Georgiou, Marco Gerlinger, David Cunningham, Naureen Starling
Circulating cell free tumour DNA (ctDNA) maintains the same genomic alterations that are present in the corresponding tumour, thereby allowing for quantitative and qualitative real-time evaluation in body fluids as an alternative to onerous repeat biopsies. Improvements in the sensitivity of techniques used to identify ctDNA has led to a surge of research investigating its role in the detection of: early disease, relapse, response to therapy and emerging drug resistance mechanisms. Following curative surgery, ctDNA detection is a promising marker of minimal residual disease and could better select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy...
February 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440231/-ex-vivo-activity-of-cytotoxic-drugs-and-targeted-agents-in-small-intestinal-nets
#2
Kosmas Daskalakis, Olov Norlen, Andreas Karakatsanis, Per Hellman, Rolf Larsson, Peter Nygren, Peter Stalberg
Small intestinal endocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are generally considered resistant to systemic treatment. To date, predictive markers for drug activity are lacking. Tumour samples from 27 patients with SI-NETs were analyzed ex vivo for sensitivity to a panel of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents using a short-term total cell kill assay. Samples of renal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), ovarian cancer, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were included for comparison. For the SI-NET subset, drug sensitivity was analyzed in relation to clinico-pathological variables and pre-treatment biomarkers...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437871/gut-microbiota-modulate-t-cell-trafficking-into-human-colorectal-cancer
#3
Eleonora Cremonesi, Valeria Governa, Jesus Francisco Glaus Garzon, Valentina Mele, Francesca Amicarella, Manuele Giuseppe Muraro, Emanuele Trella, Virginie Galati-Fournier, Daniel Oertli, Silvio Raffael Däster, Raoul A Droeser, Benjamin Weixler, Martin Bolli, Raffaele Rosso, Ulrich Nitsche, Nina Khanna, Adrian Egli, Simone Keck, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Luigi M Terracciano, Paul Zajac, Giulio Cesare Spagnoli, Serenella Eppenberger-Castori, Klaus-Peter Janssen, Lubor Borsig, Giandomenica Iezzi
OBJECTIVE: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) favour survival in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotactic factors underlying their recruitment remain undefined. We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers. DESIGN: Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues...
February 6, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402700/chromatin-organisation-and-cancer-prognosis-a-pan-cancer-study
#4
Andreas Kleppe, Fritz Albregtsen, Ljiljana Vlatkovic, Manohar Pradhan, Birgitte Nielsen, Tarjei S Hveem, Hanne A Askautrud, Gunnar B Kristensen, Arild Nesbakken, Jone Trovik, Håkon Wæhre, Ian Tomlinson, Neil A Shepherd, Marco Novelli, David J Kerr, Håvard E Danielsen
BACKGROUND: Chromatin organisation affects gene expression and regional mutation frequencies and contributes to carcinogenesis. Aberrant organisation of DNA has been correlated with cancer prognosis in analyses of the chromatin component of tumour cell nuclei using image texture analysis. As yet, the methodology has not been sufficiently validated to permit its clinical application. We aimed to define and validate a novel prognostic biomarker for the automatic detection of heterogeneous chromatin organisation...
February 2, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382774/lymphocytic-response-to-tumour-and-deficient-dna-mismatch-repair-identify-subtypes-of-stage-ii-iii-colorectal-cancer-associated-with-patient-outcomes
#5
David S Williams, Dmitri Mouradov, Robert N Jorissen, Marsali R Newman, Elham Amini, David K Nickless, Julie A Teague, Catherine G Fang, Michelle Palmieri, Marie J Parsons, Anuratha Sakthianandeswaren, Shan Li, Robyn L Ward, Nicholas J Hawkins, Ian Faragher, Ian T Jones, Peter Gibbs, Oliver M Sieber
OBJECTIVE: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) response and deficient DNA mismatch repair (dMMR) are determinants of prognosis in colorectal cancer. Although highly correlated, evidence suggests that these are independent predictors of outcome. However, the prognostic significance of combined TIL/MMR classification and how this compares to the major genomic and transcriptomic subtypes remain unclear. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of 1265 patients with stage II/III cancer was examined for TIL/MMR status and BRAF/KRAS mutations...
January 30, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378497/postoperative-cea-is-a-better-prognostic-marker-than-ca19-9-hcg%C3%AE-or-tati-after-resection-of-colorectal-liver-metastases
#6
Reetta Peltonen, Pia Österlund, Marko Lempinen, Arno Nordin, Ulf-Håkan Stenman, Helena Isoniemi
Liver metastases of colorectal cancer can be operated with a curative intent in selected cases. However, more than half of the patients have a recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), human chorionic gonadotropin β (hCGβ) and tumour-associated trypsin-inhibitor (TATI) in colorectal cancer patients before and 3 months after resection of liver metastases. Marker concentrations were determined in blood samples from 168 colorectal cancer patients, who underwent liver resection between the years 1998 and 2007 at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland...
January 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374142/the-bax-bak-like-protein-bok-is-a-prognostic-marker-in-colorectal-cancer
#7
Steven Carberry, Beatrice D'Orsi, Naser Monsefi, Manuela Salvucci, Orna Bacon, Joanna Fay, Markus Rehm, Deborah McNamara, Elaine W Kay, Jochen M H Prehn
The intrinsic or mitochondrial apoptosis pathway is controlled by the interaction of antiapoptotic and pro-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 protein family. Activation of this death pathway plays a crucial role in cancer progression and chemotherapy responses. The BCL-2-related ovarian killer (BOK) possesses three BCL-2 homology domains and has been proposed to act in a similar pro-apoptotic pathway as the pro-apoptotic proteins BAX and BAK. In this study, we showed that stage II and III colorectal cancer patients possessed decreased levels of BOK protein in their tumours compared to matched normal tissue...
January 26, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365058/colorectal-cancer-crc-monitoring-by-six-monthly-18fdg-pet-ct-an-open-label-multicentre-randomised-trial
#8
I Sobhani, E Itti, A Luciani, I Baumgaertner, R Layese, T André, M Ducreux, J-M Gornet, G Goujon, T Aparicio, J Taieb, J-B Bachet, F Hemery, A Retbi, M Mons, R Flicoteaux, B Rhein, S Baron, I Cherrak, P Rufat, P Le Corvoisier, N De'Angelis, P-A Natella, H Maoulida, C Tournigand, I Durand Zaleski, S Bastuji-Garin
Background: 18FDG-PET/CT has high sensitivity for detecting recurrences of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our objective was to determine whether adding routine 6-monthly 18FDG-PET/CT to our usual monitoring strategy improved patient outcomes and to assess the effect on costs. Patients and Methods: In this open-label multicentre trial, patients in remission of CRC (stage II perforated, stage III, or stage IV) after curative surgery were randomly assigned (1:1) to usual monitoring alone (3-monthly physical and tumour marker assays, 6-monthly liver ultrasound and chest radiograph, and 6-monthly whole-body computed tomography) or with 6-monthly 18FDG-PET/CT, for 3 years...
January 22, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328371/cd133-expression-predicts-post-operative-recurrence-in-patients-with-colon-cancer-with-peritoneal-metastasis
#9
Hiroshi Nagata, Soichiro Ishihara, Junko Kishikawa, Hirofumi Sonoda, Koji Murono, Shigenobu Emoto, Manabu Kaneko, Kazuhito Sasaki, Kensuke Otani, Takeshi Nishikawa, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Keisuke Hata, Kazushige Kawai, Hiroaki Nozawa
Despite extensive research on cancer stem cells in colorectal cancer, the impact of stem cell markers on patient survival remains unclear, particularly in those with distant metastasis. In this study, we focused on colon cancer with peritoneal metastasis and investigated the association between the expression of CD133, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) and leucine-rich repeating G-protein coupled receptor-5 (Lgr5), and disease prognosis. Putative stem cell marker expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in samples from 142 primary tumours and 75 peritoneal nodules...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318692/promoter-hypermethylation-inactivate-tumour-suppressor-fam134b-and-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
Farhadul Islam, Vinod Gopalan, Suja Pillai, Cu-Tai Lu, Kais Kasem, Alfred King-Yin Lam
The present study aims to examine promoter methylation status of FAM134B in a large cohort of patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical significances and correlations of FAM134B promoter methylation with its expression are also analysed. Methylation-specific high-resolution melt-curve analysis followed by sequencing was used to identify FAM134B promoter methylation in colorectal adenomas (n=32), colorectal adenocarcinomas (n=164), matched adjacent non-neoplastic colorectal mucosae (n=83) and colon cancer cell lines (n=4)...
January 10, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220096/hepatic-progenitor-cells-in-metastatic-liver-carcinomas
#11
Ioanna Delladetsima, Stratigoula Sakellariou, Olivier Govaere, Elpida Poulaki, Evangelos Felekouras, Dina Tiniakos
AIMS: Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are activated in various liver diseases but their role in carcinomatous environment remains unknown. We aimed to identify the possible presence and topography of HPCs in liver metastases. METHODS: We examined 14 liver resection specimens for colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) (n=13) and anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n=1) metastases. Immunohistochemical markers of colonic (keratin 20-K20, CDX2) and squamous cell origin (p63), HPC (K19, CD56) and stem cell (CD44) markers, and the biliary marker K7 which may also highlight HPCs were applied on routinely processed tissue sections...
December 8, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203974/deterministic-role-of-cea-and-msi-status-in-predicting-outcome-of-crc-patients-a-perspective-study-amongst-hospital-attending-eastern-indian-populations
#12
Banerjee Koyel, Das Priyabrata, Bhattacharya Rittwika, Dasgupta Swati, Mukhopadhyay Soma, Basak Jayasri, Mukhopadhyay Ashis
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an important deterministic factor in predicting colorectal carcinoma (CRC) progression. It is also evident that microsatellite instability (MSI) which results in a hypermutable phenotype of genomic DNA is common in CRC. Owing to the scarcity of reports from India, our aim of this study was to understand the clinicopathological correlations of CEA status with surgery and chemotherapy, correlate the same with socio-demographic status of the patients, determine the MSI status amongst them and understand the prognostic implications of CEA and MSI as CRC progression marker amongst patients...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188366/pre-operative-neutrophil-count-and-neutrophil-lymphocyte-count-ratio-nlcr-in-predicting-the-histological-grade-of-paediatric-brain-tumours-a-preliminary-study
#13
J R F Wilson, F Saeed, A K Tyagi, J R Goodden, G Sivakumar, D Crimmins, M Elliott, S Picton, P D Chumas
INTRODUCTION: The neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) is an established prognostic marker for renal, lung and colorectal carcinomas and has been suggested to be predictive of histological grade and outcome in adult intracranial tumours. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a correlation of the pre-operative neutrophil count (NC) and NLCR with the final histological grade exists in paediatric intracranial tumours. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken at a single centre...
November 29, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183892/treatment-of-advanced-colorectal-cancer-in-a-patient-with-cardiotoxic-reactions-to-5-fluorouracil-and-capecitabine-using-suboptimal-doses
#14
Joseph H Cioffi, Derek J Estes, Vaia Florou, Bach Ardalan
A 32-year-old female with stage IV colorectal cancer and metastasis to the liver experienced cardiotoxic reactions after treatment with 5-fluorouracil and its oral prodrug capecitabine even at two-thirds the recommended dose. After careful considerations, the decision was made to attempt capecitabine retrial at a further suboptimal dose with combination chemotherapy where she no longer experienced cardiac events. As a result, the liver tumour shrank and rectal mass stabilised, tumour markers dropped and she underwent surgical resection of both masses...
November 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178362/the-relationship-between-18f-fdg-petct-derived-markers-of-tumour-metabolism-and-systemic-inflammation-in-patients-with-recurrent-disease-following-surgery-for-colorectal-cancer
#15
Stephen T McSorley, Bo Y Khor, Kwong Tsang, David Colville, Sai Han, Paul G Horgan, Donald C McMillan
AIM: 18 F FDG-PETCT derived markers of tumour metabolism have been reported to have prognostic significance in a variety of tumours. Host inflammation is also recognised to have prognostic significance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between these markers and host systemic inflammation in patients undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer, who underwent elective surgery between 2008 and 2015, who also underwent 18 F FDG-PETCT, at a single centre were included (n =103)...
November 25, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166282/adenocarcinoma-of-the-posterior-segment-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-dogs-clinical-endoscopic-histopathological-and-immunohistochemical-findings
#16
J Spużak, R Ciaputa, K Kubiak, M Jankowski, K Glińska-Suchocka, D Poradowski, M Nowak
Of all the tumours in dogs, three percent are located in the intestines, and 36-60% of those tumours affect the large intestine. Adenocarcinomas of the intestines account for 20-35% of the gastrointestinal tumours and for almost 60% of the large intestine tumours. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical disorders and endoscopic, histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in colorectal adenocarcinomas in dogs with the use of the E-cadherin, β-catenin, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), Ki-67 and minichromosome maintenance 3 (MCM-3)...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156712/radiolabelled-polymeric-iga-from-biodistribution-to-a-new-molecular-imaging-tool-in-colorectal-cancer-lung-metastases
#17
Helene Carpenet, Armelle Cuvillier, Aurélie Perraud, Ophélie Martin, Gaël Champier, Marie-Odile Jauberteau, Jacques Monteil, Isabelle Quelven
By radiolabelling monomeric (m) and polymeric (p) IgA with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc), this study assessed IgA biodistribution and tumour-targeting potency. IgA directed against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a colorectal cancer marker, was selected to involve IgA mucosal tropism. Ig was radiolabelled with (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl after derivatisation by 2-iminothiolane. (99m)Tc-IgA was evaluated by in vitro analysis. The biodistributions of radiolabelled anti-CEA mIgA, pIgA and IgG were compared in normal mice. Anti-CEA pIgA tumour uptake was studied in mice bearing the WiDr caecal orthotopic graft...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128614/gene-expression-profiling-in-colon-of-mice-exposed-to-food-additive-titanium-dioxide-e171
#18
Héloïse Proquin, Marlon J Jetten, Marloes C M Jonkhout, Luis G Garduño-Balderas, Jacob J Briedé, Theo M de Kok, Yolanda I Chirino, Henk van Loveren
Dietary factors that may influence the risks of colorectal cancer, including specific supplements, are under investigation. Previous studies showed the capacity of food additive titanium dioxide (E171) to induce DNA damage in vitro and facilitate growth of colorectal tumours in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these effects after E171 exposure. BALB/c mice were exposed by gavage to 5 mg/kgbw/day of E171 for 2, 7, 14, and 21 days. Transcriptome changes were studied by whole genome mRNA microarray analysis on the mice's distal colons...
November 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104111/clinical-and-biological-significance-of-mir-193a-3p-targeted-kras-in-colorectal-cancer-pathogenesis
#19
Afraa Mamoori, Riajul Wahab, Farhadul Islam, Katherine Lee, Jelena Vider, Cu-Tai Lu, Vinod Gopalan, Alfred King-Yin Lam
This study was to investigate the expression pattern, mechanisms and clinicopathological implications of miR-193a-3p in colorectal cancer. Fresh frozen tissues from 70 matched colorectal adenocarciomas and the adjacent non-neoplastic mucosae were prospectively collected. Two colorectal cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW48) and a non-neoplastic colon cell line (FHC) were also used. The expression levels of miR193a-3p in the cells and tissues were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of KRAS protein as a predicted downstream target for miR-193a was studied by immunohistochemistry...
November 2, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101300/pharmacoproteomic-characterisation-of-human-colon-and-rectal-cancer
#20
Martin Frejno, Riccardo Zenezini Chiozzi, Mathias Wilhelm, Heiner Koch, Runsheng Zheng, Susan Klaeger, Benjamin Ruprecht, Chen Meng, Karl Kramer, Anna Jarzab, Stephanie Heinzlmeir, Elaine Johnstone, Enric Domingo, David Kerr, Moritz Jesinghaus, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Wilko Weichert, Stefan Knapp, Stephan M Feller, Bernhard Kuster
Most molecular cancer therapies act on protein targets but data on the proteome status of patients and cellular models for proteome-guided pre-clinical drug sensitivity studies are only beginning to emerge. Here, we profiled the proteomes of 65 colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines to a depth of > 10,000 proteins using mass spectrometry. Integration with proteomes of 90 CRC patients and matched transcriptomics data defined integrated CRC subtypes, highlighting cell lines representative of each tumour subtype...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
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