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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148851/airway-geometry-airway-flow-and-particle-measurement-methods-implications-on-pulmonary-drug-delivery
#1
A Kourmatzis, S Cheng, H-K Chan
The effectiveness of drug delivery to the lungs is inextricably linked to the fundamental interactions that occur between particles and flow in the extrathoracic airway. Research in this field requires time resolved in-vivo and in-vitro measurements of three separate, yet intricately linked parameters: i) airway flow, ii) airway geometry, and iii) drug particle characteristics. A number of recent significant developments have been made in the experimental diagnostic tools used to characterise these parameters...
November 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145764/plasma-corticosterone-epinephrine-and-norepinephrine-levels-increase-during-administration-of-nitrous-oxide-in-rats
#2
Salwa Al-Noori, Andreas Cimpan, Zoe Maltzer, Karl J Kaiyala, Douglas S Ramsay
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a gaseous drug with abuse potential. Despite its common clinical use, little is known about whether N2O administration activates the HPA axis and/or the sympathetic adrenomedullary system. The goal of this study was to determine whether 60% N2O alters plasma concentrations of corticosterone (CORT), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE) in male Long-Evans rats. A gas-tight swivel assembly in the lid of a gas administration chamber allowed the remote collection of blood samples from an indwelling jugular vein catheter at four time-points: baseline and at 30, 60, and 120 min during a two-hour administration of 60% N2O...
November 16, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138547/efficacy-of-tiotropium-and-indacaterol-monotherapy-and-their-combination-on-dynamic-lung-hyperinflation-in-copd-a-random-open-label-crossover-study
#3
Keisaku Fujimoto, Haruna Yamazaki, Midori Ura, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi
Background and objective: The difference in efficacy of long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) and long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) for dynamic lung hyperinflation (DLH) in COPD is unclear. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the difference in efficacy of LAMA and LABA alone and the combination thereof for DLH. Subjects and methods: Thirty stable patients were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups following baseline measurements. One group was treated with 5 μg tiotropium (Respimat inhaler) for 4 weeks following a 4-week treatment with 150 μg indacaterol, while the other group was treated with indacaterol for 4 weeks following a 4-week treatment with tiotropium...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135485/update-on-questionnaires-for-assessing-adherence-to-inhaler-devices-in-respiratory-patients
#4
Vicente Plaza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has been estimated that adherence to inhaled medications in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is around 50%. This low adherence rate increases morbidity and mortality of these disorders. The objective of this review was to update information on main questionnaires used in daily for assessing adherence to inhalers of patients with chronic respiratory diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The test of the adherence to inhalers (TAI) is a recently developed and validated 12-item questionnaire to assess adherence to inhalers of aerosolized drugs in patients with asthma or COPD...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133975/severe-eosinophilic-asthma-from-the-pathogenic-role-of-interleukin-5-to-the-therapeutic-action-of-mepolizumab
#5
REVIEW
Corrado Pelaia, Alessandro Vatrella, Maria Teresa Busceti, Luca Gallelli, Rosa Terracciano, Rocco Savino, Girolamo Pelaia
Mepolizumab is an anti-interleukin-5 (IL-5) humanized monoclonal antibody that has been recently approved as an add-on biological treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma, by both the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Moreover, mepolizumab is also currently included within the step 5 of the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines, as an add-on therapy for severe uncontrolled asthma. The relevant therapeutic benefits detectable in patients with refractory eosinophilic asthma receiving mepolizumab depend on the pivotal pathogenic role played by IL-5 in these subjects...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133824/comparison-and-evaluation-of-two-different-methods-to-establish-the-cigarette-smoke-exposure-mouse-model-of-copd
#6
Jiaze Shu, Defu Li, Haiping Ouyang, Junyi Huang, Zhen Long, Zhihao Liang, Yuqin Chen, Yiguan Chen, Qiuyu Zheng, Meidan Kuang, Haiyang Tang, Jian Wang, Wenju Lu
Animal model of cigarette smoke (CS) -induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the primary testing methodology for drug therapies and studies on pathogenic mechanisms of disease. However, researchers have rarely run simultaneous or side-by-side tests of whole-body and nose-only CS exposure in building their mouse models of COPD. We compared and evaluated these two different methods of CS exposure, plus airway Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) inhalation, in building our COPD mouse model. Compared with the control group, CS exposed mice showed significant increased inspiratory resistance, functional residual capacity, right ventricular hypertrophy index, and total cell count in BALF...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133571/development-of-protective-immunity-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-challenged-with-bacillus-anthracis-spores-and-treated-with-antibiotics-and-obiltoxaximab-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-protective-antigen
#7
Lisa N Henning, Sarah Carpenter, Gregory V Stark, Natalya V Serbina
Recommended management of inhalational anthrax, a high-priority bioterrorist threat, includes antibiotics and antitoxins. Obiltoxaximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against anthrax Protective Antigen (PA) is licensed under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule for treatment of inhalational anthrax. Because of spore latency, disease re-emergence after treatment cessation is a concern and there is a need to understand development of endogenous protective immune responses following antitoxin-containing anthrax treatment regimens...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131874/association-between-inhaled-corticosteroid-use-and-bone-fracture-in-children-with-asthma
#8
Natasha Gray, Andrew Howard, Jingqin Zhu, Laura Y Feldman, Teresa To
Importance: Daily use of inhaled corticosteroids is a widely recommended treatment for mild persistent asthma in children. There is concern that, similar to systemic corticosteroids, inhaled corticosteroids may have adverse effects on bone health. Objective: To determine whether there is an increased risk of bone fracture associated with inhaled corticosteroid use in children with asthma. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this population-based nested case-control study, we used health administrative databases to identify a cohort of children aged 2 to 18 years with a physician diagnosis of asthma between April 1, 2003, and March 31, 2014, who were eligible for public drug coverage through the Ontario Drug Benefit Program (Ontario, Canada)...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128524/numerical-study-of-the-airflow-structures-in-an-idealized-mouth-throat-under-light-and-heavy-breathing-intensities-using-large-eddy-simulation
#9
Xinguang Cui, Wenwang Wu, Eva Gutheil
An excellent understanding of the airflow structures is critical to enhance the efficiency of drug delivery via the human oral airway. The present paper investigates the characteristics of both steady and unsteady airflow structures in an idealized mouth-throat using large eddy simulation (LES). Representative inhalation flow rates of 15L/min at rest and 60L/min in exercise are considered. The study shows that there are more secondary vortices in the pharynx and the laryngeal jet is much longer and more concave in the steady flow field at 15L/min compared to the higher inspiration rate, which decreases the possibility of drug impinging on the wall...
November 8, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128126/inhaled-cyanide-poisoning-as-a-vital-sign-in-a-room-fire-victim
#10
Christoph G Birngruber, Florian Veit, Juliane Lang, Marcel A Verhoff
The corpse of a 71-year-old woman was found on the floor of her smoke-filled room. The source of the fire was the mattress of a double bed on which newspapers had apparently been set aflame. The woman's history in conjunction with the finding situation suggested an act of suicide. No signs of soot inhalation or soot swallowing were found at autopsy. Other vital signs were absent. Severe cardiac disease was the most notable pre-existing medical condition. Although the concentration of COHb in heart blood was low (3%), the concentration of cyanide was found to be 4...
November 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126097/cue-induced-craving-among-inhalant-users-development-and-preliminary-validation-of-a-visual-cue-paradigm
#11
Shobhit Jain, Anju Dhawan, S Senthil Kumaran, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Raka Jain
INTRODUCTION: Cue-induced craving is known to be associated with a higher risk of relapse, wherein drug-specific cues become conditioned stimuli, eliciting conditioned responses. Cue-reactivity paradigm are important tools to study psychological responses and functional neuroimaging changes. However, till date, there has been no specific study or a validated paradigm for inhalant cue-induced craving research. The study aimed to develop and validate visual cue stimulus for inhalant cue-associated craving...
October 16, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125719/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-immunogenicity-of-obiltoxaximab-after-intramuscular-administration-to-healthy-humans
#12
Christa F Nagy, Timothy S Leach, Alex King, Robert Guttendorf
Inhalational anthrax is a highly lethal infection caused by Bacillus anthracis and a serious bioterrorism threat. Protective antigen (PA) is a critical component required for the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. Obiltoxaximab, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that neutralizes PA, is approved in the United States for intravenous use for the treatment of inhalational anthrax in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or appropriate...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125536/are-some-of-the-cigar-warnings-mandated-in-the-u-s-more-believable-than-others
#13
Kristen L Jarman, Sarah D Kowitt, Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Adam O Goldstein
Background: Text warnings are mandated on cigars sold in the United States (U.S.), however little published research has examined effectiveness of cigar warnings. This is the first study examining the believability of cigar warnings among adults in the U.S. Methods: Adults in the U.S. (n = 5014) were randomized in a phone survey to receive one of three cigar-specific mandated warning messages ("Cigar smoking can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, even if you do not inhale", "Cigar smoking can cause lung cancer and heart disease", and "Cigars are not a safe alternative to cigarettes") with one of four warning sources (no source, Surgeon General, CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), FDA (Food and Drug Administration))...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125064/pulmonary-aerosol-delivery-and-the-importance-of-growth-dynamics
#14
Allen E Haddrell, David Lewis, Tanya Church, Reinhard Vehring, Darragh Murnane, Jonathan P Reid
Aerosols are dynamic systems, responding to variations in the surrounding environmental conditions by changing in size, composition and phase. Although, widely used in inhalation therapies, details of the processes occurring on aerosol generation and during inhalation have received little attention. Instead, research has focused on improvements to the formulation of the drug prior to aerosolization and the resulting clinical efficacy of the treatment. Here, we highlight the processes that occur during aerosol generation and inhalation, affecting aerosol disposition when deposited and, potentially, impacting total and regional doses...
December 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120502/necrotizing-microascus-tracheo-bronchitis-in-a-bilateral-lung-transplant-recipient
#15
Olivier Taton, Benjamin Bernier, Isabelle Etienne, Benjamin Bondue, Sophie Lecomte, Christiane Knoop, Frederique Jacob, Isabel Montesinos
Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of mortality among solid organ transplant recipients. Scopulariopsis species and their teleomorph Microascus are molds found in soil and decaying organic matter. We report here the case of a woman who underwent bilateral lung transplantation for severe emphysema. On day 25 after transplantation, endobronchial green-black lesions were detected during routine endoscopy. Endobronchial swabs, biopsies, and broncho-alveolar lavage samples were positive for Microascus cirrosus...
November 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119403/evaluation-of-the-efficiency-of-single-inhaler-combination-therapy-with-budesonide-formoterol-fumarate-in-patients-with-bronchial-asthma-in-daily-clinical-practice
#16
Michał Pirożyński, Piotr Hantulik, Agnieszka Almgren-Rachtan, Jerzy Chudek
INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of single-inhaler budesonide/formoterol fumarate combination therapy for asthma has been previously shown for the original product. The aim of this nonrandomized, open-label, postauthorization efficacy study (PAES) real-life clinical assessment was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a second product (Bufomix Easyhaler(®)) in the daily clinical practice of asthma therapy. METHODS: This multicenter PAES was conducted by 220 unselected allergologists and pulmonologists who enrolled 2200 adult outpatients (age 49...
November 8, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118359/visualization-and-quantification-of-injury-to-the-ciliated-epithelium-using-quantitative-flow-imaging-and-speckle-variance-optical-coherence-tomography
#17
Ute A Gamm, Brendan K Huang, Emily K Mis, Mustafa K Khokha, Michael A Choma
Mucociliary flow is an important defense mechanism in the lung to remove inhaled pathogens and pollutants. Disruption of ciliary flow can lead to respiratory infections. Multiple factors, from drugs to disease can cause an alteration in ciliary flow. However, less attention has been given to injury of the ciliated epithelium. In this study, we show how optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to investigate injury to the ciliated epithelium in a multi-contrast setting. We used particle tracking velocimetry (PTV-OCT) to investigate the cilia-driven flow field and 3D speckle variance imaging to investigate size and extent of injury caused to the skin of Xenopus embryos...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114903/occupational-generalized-urticaria-and-anaphylaxis-after-inhalation-of-cefuroxime-in-a-nurse
#18
Rolf Merget, Ingrid Sander, Manigé Fartasch, Vera van Kampen, Stefani Röseler, Hans Merk, Gerda Wurpts, Monika Raulf, Thomas Brüning
We present the case of a 53 years old nonatopic female nurse who experienced repeated anaphylactic reactions at work without involvement in drug-specific tasks such as crushing of tablets or preparation of injections. The causal allergen was not identified until a further severe anaphylactic reaction occurred after oral use of cefuroxime during a respiratory infection. Sensitization to cefuroxime was demonstrated by specific IgE, basophil activation test and skin prick test. An inhalation challenge with a dosimeter induced generalized urticaria after a cumulative dose of about 10 μg of the drug, but no asthmatic reaction...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114890/total-septal-perforation-repair-with-a-pericranial-flap-radio-anatomical-and-clinical-findings
#19
Isam Alobid, Cristóbal Langdon, Mauricio López-Chacon, Joaquim Enseñat, Ricardo Carrau, Manuel Bernal-Sprekelsen, Alfonso Santamaría
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Endonasal surgeries are the primary cause of septal perforation (SP). However, trauma, inflammation, infections, neoplasms, or abuse of inhaled drugs can also cause SP. Septal repair is indicated in patients who experience nasal obstruction, crusting, intermittent epistaxis, purulent discharge, or nasal whistling and in those who fail conservative treatment. Multiple approaches have been suggested to repair the SP; however, none has been universally adopted. This study explores the feasibility of repairing a total SP using the pericranial flap (PCF)...
November 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112511/an-anesthesiologist-s-perspective-on-the-history-of-basic-airway-management-the-progressive-era-1904-to-1960
#20
Adrian A Matioc
This third installment of the history of basic airway management discusses the transitional-"progressive"-years of anesthesia from 1904 to 1960. During these 56 yr, airway management was provided primarily by basic techniques with or without the use of a face mask. Airway maneuvers were inherited from the artisanal era: head extension and mandibular advancement. The most common maneuver was head extension, also used in bronchoscopy and laryngoscopy. Basic airway management success was essential for traditional inhalation anesthesia (ether, chloroform) and for the use of the new anesthetic agents (cyclopropane, halothane) and intravenous drugs (thiopental, curare, succinylcholine)...
November 7, 2017: Anesthesiology
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