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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913241/evaluation-of-highly-branched-cyclic-dextrin-in-inhalable-particles-of-combined-antibiotics-for-the-pulmonary-delivery-of-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#1
Kazunori Kadota, Arisa Senda, Hideaki Tagishi, John Oluwasogo Ayorinde, Yuichi Tozuka
This work aims to identify a suitable formulation for the pulmonary delivery of combinations of inhalational drugs using highly branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD) macromolecules. We compared the effectiveness between powders prepared from HBCD with those prepared from five alternative excipients (lactose, maltose, sucrose, β-cyclodextrin and methyl β-cyclodextrin) in the pulmonary delivery of a single-dosage form of two anti-tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin). Fine particles of untreated active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and combination products using excipients were prepared by spray drying...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913125/apomorphine-therapy-in-parkinson-s-and-future-directions
#2
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Apomorphine infusion or injection is an important dopamine agonist non-oral therapy usually used in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with refractory motor fluctuations. The drug also has appreciable efficacy for nonmotor fluctuations and is the quickest to reverse predictable "off" periods. Current subcutaneous administration, however, is complicated by problems associated with needle-based therapies, such as skin nodule formation, skin irritation, and avoidance of this treatment option by needle-phobic subjects...
November 30, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910061/inhaled-gene-transfer-for-pulmonary-circulation
#3
Jaume Aguero, Lahouaria Hadri, Nadjib Hammoudi, Lauren Leonardson, Roger J Hajjar, Kiyotake Ishikawa
Chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with right ventricular failure and high mortality regardless of the underlying disease. Currently, therapies can improve clinical outcomes in specific subsets of patients, but have little impact on the progression of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Upon new advances in vector development and delivery techniques, gene therapy is a novel strategy in this field with the potential of overcoming the main limitations of approved drug therapies: modulation of novel anti-remodeling targets and selective pulmonary vasculature targeting with minimal systemic effects...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905700/use-of-ozone-depleting-substances-direct-final-rule
#4
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is amending its regulation on uses of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), to remove the designation for certain products as "essential uses" under the Clean Air Act. Essential-use products are exempt from the ban by FDA on the use of CFCs and other ODS propellants in FDA-regulated products and from the ban by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the use of ODSs in pressurized dispensers. The products that will no longer constitute an essential use are: Sterile aerosol talc administered intrapleurally by thoracoscopy for human use and metered-dose atropine sulfate aerosol human drugs administered by oral inhalation...
October 26, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898071/are-adolescents-more-vulnerable-to-the-harmful-effects-of-cannabis-than-adults-a-placebo-controlled-study-in-human-males
#5
C Mokrysz, T P Freeman, S Korkki, K Griffiths, H V Curran
Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16-17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24-28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, 'stoned', 'want to have cannabis')...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891350/hypersensitivity-with-inhalational-budesonide-an-under-recognised-entity
#6
Pramod Kumar Sharma, Neeraj Gupta, Najmul Hasan, Bhaskar Krishnamurthy, Surjit Singh
Hypersensitivity reactions are commonly encountered with drugs such as beta lactams, sulphonamides, allopurinol etc., Corticosteroids are frequently employed in the treatment of drug induced allergic reactions. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that a corticosteroid itself may cause such a reaction as an adverse effect. We had encountered a rare case of hypersensitivity reaction with inhalational budesonide in an eight-year-old boy. The patient developed maculopapular rashes over the back, buttocks and legs accompanied with pruritus within four hours of administration of the first dose...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888990/a-randomized-controlled-multicentric-study-of-inhaled-budesonide-and-intravenous-methylprednisolone-in-the-treatment-on-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
Zhen Ding, Xiu Li, Youjin Lu, Guangsheng Rong, Ruiqing Yang, Ruixia Zhang, Guiqin Wang, Xiqiang Wei, Yongqing Ye, Zhaoxia Qian, Hongyan Liu, Daifeng Zhu, Ruiqing Zhou, Kun Zhu, Rongping Ni, Kui Xia, Nan Luo, Cong Pei
BACKGROUND: Almost all international guidelines recommend corticosteroids for management of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), because it leads to improved outcomes of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Nevertheless, due to its side effects, there are still concerns regarding the use of systemic corticosteroid (SC). Inhaled corticosteroids (IC) can be used as an alternative to SC, while reducing the risk of occurrence of side effects...
December 2016: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888988/prevalence-and-incidence-of-bronchiectasis-in-catalonia-spain-a-population-based-study
#8
Mònica Monteagudo, Teresa Rodríguez-Blanco, Miriam Barrecheguren, Pere Simonet, Marc Miravitlles
BACKGROUND: Insufficient epidemiological data are available on bronchiectasis in southern European populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of bronchiectasis in Catalonia, Spain and describe the characteristics of patients with an active diagnosis of bronchiectasis in 2012. METHODS: This study used data from a population database containing information from 5.8 million people (80% of the population of Catalonia). Patients with bronchiectasis were identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes, and information on clinical characteristics and treatment was extracted...
December 2016: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884712/solid-lipid-nanoparticles-for-sustained-pulmonary-delivery-of-yuxingcao-essential-oil-preparation-characterization-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#9
Yun Zhao, Yue-Xing Chang, Xiao Hu, Chun-Yu Liu, Li-Hui Quan, Yong-Hong Liao
The objective of this study was to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for sustained pulmonary delivery of Yuxingcao essential oil (YEO). Three YEO loaded SLNs (SLN-200, SLN-400 and SLN-800) with different particle size were prepared and separated following a high-shear homogenization technique using Compritol 888 ATO as lipid and polyvinyl alcohol as an emulsifier. The particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of the SLNs were determined to be between 171 and 812nm, -17...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883946/pattern-and-risk-of-developing-alcohol-use-disorders-illegal-substance-use-and-psychiatric-disorders-after-early-onset-of-alcohol-use-results-of-the-thai-national-mental-health-survey-2013
#10
Athip Tanaree, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon
INTRODUCTION: Although underage drinking is a global concern, little is known about the relationship between age at first drink and development of various psychiatric comorbidities. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was done among 2928 lifetime drinkers from the Thai National Mental Health Survey 2013. Age at first drink, and onset of related psychiatric outcomes were inquired. Survival analysis using Cox regression was performed to estimate the risk over time for psychiatric problems across age ranges at first drink...
November 10, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881621/unusual-case-of-drug-facilitated-sexual-assault-using-chloroform
#11
Camille Richeval, Delphine Allorge, Vincent Lopez, Baptiste Boyer, Jean-Michel Gaulier
Despite its well-known sedative properties, chloroform is rarely used for drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) as its administration cannot be achieved without the victim's knowledge: we report an unusual case of DFSA using this solvent. A 26-year-old woman declared that her partner get her to sleep using chloroform the previous night. When she waked up at 3 am, her hands were tied. She immediately suspected violence and sexual penetration. Toxicological blood screening using a liquid chromatography-electrospray coupled tandem mass spectrometry method highlighted the presence of bamifylline and theophylline, two therapeutics of asthma...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879438/a-comparison-of-rodent-and-nonrodent-laryngeal-and-tracheal-bifurcation-sensitivities-in-inhalation-toxicity-studies-and-their-relevance-for-human-exposure
#12
Vasanthi Mowat, David J Alexander, Andrew M Pilling
In inhalation toxicity studies, drug-induced lesions are frequently reported in the larynx and sometimes at the tracheal bifurcation (carina) in the rat, but less so in the dog or monkey, bringing into question the relevance of these rodent findings for humans. The rat larynx is widely considered to be more sensitive than that of the dog and monkey in its response to inhaled xenobiotics, although we could find no published data to support this. In this review, data from 52 inhalation studies involving rodent and nonrodent species were collated and reviewed...
November 22, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869357/the-impact-of-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-on-paranasal-physiology-in-simulated-sinus-cavities
#13
Ravi Jain, Haribalan Kumar, Merryn Tawhai, Richard Douglas
BACKGROUND: Surgery improves symptoms for the majority of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients; however, physiological changes in the sinus cavities remain poorly characterized. Direct measurement of changes in airflow, pressure, temperature, humidity, and intranasal spray distribution following surgery is technically challenging. Accordingly, we have used computational fluid dynamic modeling to quantify how these parameters change postoperatively. METHODS: Computed tomography images from a normal control, a patient with CRS preoperatively and postoperatively, and a patient following an endoscopic Lothrop procedure (ELP) were used to create 4 three-dimensional models of the sinus cavities...
November 21, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868200/impact-of-copayment-changes-on-children-s-albuterol-inhaler-use-and-costs-after-the-clean-air-act-chlorofluorocarbon-ban
#14
Alison A Galbraith, Vicki Fung, Lingling Li, Melissa G Butler, James D Nordin, John Hsu, David Smith, William M Vollmer, Tracy A Lieu, Stephen B Soumerai, Ann Chen Wu
OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in children's albuterol use and out-of-pocket (OOP) costs in response to increased copayments after the Food and Drug Administration banned inhalers with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants. SETTING: Four health maintenance organizations (HMOs), two that increased copayments for albuterol inhalers that went from generic CFC-containing to branded CFC-free versions, and two that retained generic copayments for CFC-free inhalers (controls)...
November 20, 2016: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867663/dry-powder-inhalers-a-focus-on-advancements-in-novel-drug-delivery-systems
#15
REVIEW
Piyush Mehta
Administration of drug molecules by inhalation route for treatment of respiratory diseases has the ability to deliver drugs, hormones, nucleic acids, steroids, proteins, and peptides, particularly to the site of action, improving the efficacy of the treatment and consequently lessening adverse effects of the treatment. Numerous inhalation delivery systems have been developed and studied to treat respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, and other pulmonary infections. The progress of disciplines such as biomaterials science, nanotechnology, particle engineering, molecular biology, and cell biology permits further improvement of the treatment capability...
2016: Journal of Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865984/fabrication-of-liposomal-doxorubicin-exhibiting-ultrasensitivity-against-phospholipase-a2-for-efficient-pulmonary-drug-delivery-to-lung-cancers
#16
Tatsuaki Tagami, Yuta Ando, Tetsuya Ozeki
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is expressed in inflammation-related tissue, including cancer tumors. We report that a hybrid liposome composed of phospholipid (DPPC) and PEGylated block-copolymer (Poloxamer 188) can rapidly release an encapsulated hydrophilic drug in the presence of PLA2. DPPC/P188 liposomes released approximately 80% of the encapsulated calcein (a fluorescence marker) within 10min in the presence of 120 mU of PLA2 at 37°C in vitro, whereas several other liposomal compositions used for inhalation therapy did not...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864677/glucocorticoids
#17
Ian M Adcock, Sharon Mumby
The most effective anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat patients with airways disease are topical glucocorticosteroids (GCs). These act on virtually all cells within the airway to suppress airway inflammation or prevent the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the airway. They also have profound effects on airway structural cells to reverse the effects of disease on their function. Glucorticosteroids act via specific receptors-the glucocorticosteroid receptor (GR)-which are a member of the nuclear receptor family...
November 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863663/preparation-of-theophylline-inhalable-microcomposite-particles-by-wet-milling-and-spray-drying-the-influence-of-mannitol-as-a-co-milling-agent
#18
Maria Malamatari, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Kyriakos Kachrimanis, Mark Bloxham, Kevin M G Taylor, Graham Buckton
Inhalable theophylline particles with various amounts of mannitol were prepared by combining wet milling in isopropanol followed by spray drying. The effect of mannitol as a co-milling agent on the micromeritic properties, solid state and aerosol performance of the engineered particles was investigated. Crystal morphology modelling and geometric lattice matching calculations were employed to gain insight into the intermolecular interactions that may influence the mechanical properties of theophylline and mannitol...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858495/asthma-associated-with-the-use-of-cocaine-heroin-and-marijuana-a-review-of-the-evidence
#19
Timothy H Self, Samarth Shah, Katherine L March, Christopher W Sands
OBJECTIVE: Review the evidence regarding asthma associated with use of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. DATA SOURCES: A search of the English literature via PubMed/Medline and EMBASE using the search terms asthma AND cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. When pertinent articles were found, salient references in those articles were assessed. STUDY SELECTION: Due to the relatively small number of studies, we included all studies and cases. RESULTS: For several decades, case reports, retrospective studies, and laboratory investigations have demonstrated that inhalation of cocaine or heroin is associated with increased asthma symptoms and reduced pulmonary function...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853742/psychomotor-and-cognitive-effects-of-15-minute-inhalation-of-methoxyflurane-in-healthy-volunteers-implication-for-post-colonoscopy-care
#20
Nam Q Nguyen, Jenna Burgess, Tamara L Debreceni, Leanne Toscano
Background and study aims: Colonoscopy with portal inhaled methoxyflurane (Penthrox) is highly feasible with low sedation risk and allows earlier discharge. It is unclear if subjects can return to highly skilled psychomotor skill task shortly after Penthrox assisted colonoscopy. We evaluated the psychomotor and cognitive effects of 15-minute inhalation of Penthrox in adults. Patients and methods: Sixty healthy volunteers (18 to 80 years) were studied on 2 occasions with either Penthrox or placebo in a randomized, double-blind fashion...
November 2016: Endoscopy International Open
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