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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584569/setting-the-stage-for-the-review-of-the-international-estimate-of-short-term-intake-iesti-equation
#1
Anke Richter, Christian Sieke, Hermine Reich, Bernadette C Ossendorp, Nicolas Breysse, Jason Lutze, Karin Mahieu, Sam Margerison, Anton Rietveld, Xavier Sarda, Gaelle Vial, Trijntje van der Velde-Koerts
In the framework of setting Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) for pesticides, both chronic and acute health risks to consumers arising from the long-term and short-term dietary exposure to pesticide residues have to be assessed. The current internationally harmonized approach for assessing the acute dietary exposure is based on deterministic methods for calculating the IESTI (International Estimate of Short-Term Intake). Recently, it became apparent that the IESTI approach needs a revision in the light of new scientific and political aspects...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577253/antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-by-australian-veterinary-diagnostic-laboratories
#2
L Y Hardefeldt, M Marenda, H Crabb, M A Stevenson, J R Gilkerson, H Billman-Jacobe, G F Browning
BACKGROUND: The national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance highlights the need for antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary practice and for surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility in veterinary pathogens. Diagnostic laboratories have an important role in facilitating both of these processes, but it is unclear whether data from veterinary diagnostic laboratories are similar enough to allow for compilation and if there is consistent promotion of appropriate antimicrobial use embedded in the approaches of different laboratories to susceptibility testing...
April 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573053/barriers-to-and-enablers-of-implementing-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs-in-veterinary-practices
#3
Laura Y Hardefeldt, J R Gilkerson, H Billman-Jacobe, M A Stevenson, K Thursky, K E Bailey, G F Browning
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs are yet to be widely implemented in veterinary practice and medical programs are unlikely to be directly applicable to veterinary settings. OBJECTIVE: To gain an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence effective AMS in veterinary practices in Australia. METHODS: A concurrent explanatory mixed methods design was used. The quantitative phase of the study consisted of an online questionnaire to assess veterinarians' attitudes to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antimicrobial use in animals, and the extent to which AMS currently is implemented (knowingly or unknowingly)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570719/avian-viral-surveillance-in-victoria-australia-and-detection-of-two-novel-avian-herpesviruses
#4
Jemima Amery-Gale, Carol A Hartley, Paola K Vaz, Marc S Marenda, Jane Owens, Paul A Eden, Joanne M Devlin
Viruses in avian hosts can pose threats to avian health and some have zoonotic potential. Hospitals that provide veterinary care for avian patients may serve as a site of exposure of other birds and human staff in the facility to these viruses. They can also provide a useful location to collect samples from avian patients in order to examine the viruses present in wild birds. This study aimed to investigate viruses of biosecurity and/or zoonotic significance in Australian birds by screening samples collected from 409 birds presented to the Australian Wildlife Health Centre at Zoos Victoria's Healesville Sanctuary for veterinary care between December 2014 and December 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451368/public-health-response-to-an-imported-case-of-canine-melioidosis
#5
C W Ryan, K Bishop, D D Blaney, S J Britton, F Cantone, C Egan, M G Elrod, C W Frye, A M Maxted, G Perkins
Melioidosis in humans presents variably as fulminant sepsis, pneumonia, skin infection and solid organ abscesses. It is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, which in the United States is classified as a select agent, with "potential to pose a severe threat to both human and animal health, to plant health or to animal and plant products" (Federal Select Agent Program, http://www.selectagents.gov/, accessed 22 September 2016). Burkholderia pseudomallei is found in soil and surface water in the tropics, especially South-East Asia and northern Australia, where melioidosis is endemic...
February 16, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427156/monogenean-parasites-infect-ornamental-fish-imported-to-australia
#6
A Trujillo-González, J A Becker, D B Vaughan, K S Hutson
The ornamental fish trade provides a pathway for the global translocation of aquatic parasites. We examined a total of 1020 fish imported from Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, or Sri Lanka to Australia (including freshwater and marine fish species) for monogenean ectoparasites. Fish were received following veterinary certification that they showed no clinical signs of pests and diseases from the exporting country and visual inspection at Australian border control. Australian import conditions require mandatory treatment for goldfish with parasiticides (e...
February 9, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379689/molecular-and-serological-dynamics-of-chlamydia-pecorum-infection-in-a-longitudinal-study-of-prime-lamb-production
#7
Sankhya Bommana, Evelyn Walker, Marion Desclozeaux, Martina Jelocnik, Peter Timms, Adam Polkinghorne, Scott Carver
Background: Chlamydia pecorum is a globally significant livestock pathogen causing pathology and production losses. The on-farm infection and serological dynamics and the relevance of existing diagnostic tools for diagnosing C. pecorum in livestock remains poorly characterized. In this study, we characterized the antigen and antibody dynamics of this pathogen in a longitudinal study of prime lamb production, utilizing the infection focused C. pecorum-specific 16S rRNA qPCR assay and serology based chlamydial Complement fixation Test (CFT)...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378034/characterization-of-inappetent-sheep-in-a-feedlot-using-radio-tracking-technology
#8
A L Barnes, S L Wickham, R Admiraal, D W Miller, T Collins, C Stockman, P A Fleming
The feeding and drinking behaviour of sheep was monitored using RFID technology at a commercial pre-embarkation feedlot in Western Australia with the aim of characterising feeding and drinking patterns of inappetent sheep that might allow them to be treated. Feeding and drinking behaviour of sheep were compared with their survival and change in body condition. Patterns of number of visits and the time spent at feed and water troughs were analysed for a total of 8,206 sheep, representing four consignments that were monitored for a range of 6-31 d...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295577/attitudes-of-veterinary-teaching-staff-and-exposure-of-veterinary-students-to-early-age-desexing-with-review-of-current-early-age-desexing-literature
#9
Alannah Jupe, Jacquie Rand, John Morton, Sophie Fleming
Approximately 50% of cats admitted to Australian shelters are kittens, and 26% of dogs are puppies, and, particularly for cats, euthanasia rates are often high. Cats can be pregnant by 4 months of age, yet the traditional desexing age is 5-6 months, and studies in Australasia and Nth America reveal that only a minority of veterinarians routinely perform early age desexing (EAD) of cats or dogs, suggesting they are not graduating with these skills. This study aimed to describe the attitudes of veterinary teaching staff in Australian and New Zealand universities towards EAD, and to determine if these changed from 2008 to 2015...
December 25, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231249/analysis-of-the-costs-of-veterinary-education-and-factors-associated-with-financial-stress-among-veterinary-students-in-australia
#10
K P Gregory, S M Matthew, J A Baguley
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the course-related and other costs involved in obtaining a veterinary education in Australia and how these costs are met. The study also aimed to identify sociodemographic and course-related factors associated with increased financial stress. METHODS: Students from seven Australian veterinary schools were surveyed using an online questionnaire. A total of 443 students participated (response rate 17%). Responses to survey items relating to finances, employment and course-related costs were compared with sociodemographic factors and prior research in the area of student financial stress...
January 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226606/the-challenges-of-implementing-an-integrated-one-health-surveillance-system-in-australia
#11
I Johnson, A Hansen, P Bi
As 75 per cent of emerging infectious diseases are of animal origin, a One Health approach that integrates the health of humans, animals and the environment could provide an earlier opportunity for zoonotic disease detection and prevention. In Australia, human, animal and ecological health are managed by separate sectors with limited communication. This study aims to explore how professionals in these fields perceive a One Health approach to zoonotic disease surveillance, aiming to identify the challenges to the implementation of an integrated system in Australia...
February 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132368/frequency-of-canine-nt230-del4-mdr1-mutation-in-prone-pure-breeds-their-crosses-and-mongrels-in-israel-insights-from-a-worldwide-comparative-perspective
#12
Yaron Dekel, Yossy Machluf, Aviad Stoler, Arava Aderet, Daniel Baumel, Efrat Kellerman, Yoram Plotsky, Oshrat Noked Partouche, Gal Elhalal, Izhar Ben-Shlomo, Dani Bercovich
BACKGROUND: Sensitivity to macrocyclic lactones, which are commonly used in veterinary clinics, was first found in Rough Collies, and was attributed in 2001 to a 4 bp deletion in the MDR1 gene. The list of affected breeds currently includes 13 breeds. Researchers from different countries and continents examined the allelic frequencies of the nt230(del4) MDR1 mutation, emphasizing the clinical importance of this test not only to mutation-prone dogs, but also to their crosses and mongrels, since treatment of a deletion carrier with these compounds may lead to its death...
November 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102120/antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-australia
#13
Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Tahlia Mitchell, Hui San Wong, Rebecca J Abraham, Amanda Kidsley, John Turnidge, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major public health concern to both humans and animal health. While the frequency of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinical E. coli is monitored regularly in human medicine, current frequency of AMR in companion animals remains unknown in Australia. In this study we conducted antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and where possible, determined potential risk factors for MDR infection among 883 clinical Escherichia coli isolated from dogs (n=514), cats (n=341) and horses (n=28)...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068247/australian-elapid-snake-envenomation-in-cats-clinical-priorities-and-approach
#14
REVIEW
Trudi J Mcalees, Linda A Abraham
Practical relevance: No fewer than 140 species of terrestrial snakes reside in Australia, 92 of which possess venom glands. With the exception of the brown tree snake, the venom-producing snakes belong to the family Elapidae. The venom of a number of elapid species is more toxic than that of the Indian cobra and eastern diamondback rattle snake, which has earned Australia its reputation for being home to the world's most venomous snakes. Clinical challenges: The diagnosis of elapid snake envenomation is not always easy...
November 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954419/vetcompass-australia-a-national-big-data-collection-system-for-veterinary-science
#15
Paul McGreevy, Peter Thomson, Navneet K Dhand, David Raubenheimer, Sophie Masters, Caroline S Mansfield, Timothy Baldwin, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes, Jacquie Rand, Peter Hill, Anne Peaston, James Gilkerson, Martin Combs, Shane Raidal, Peter Irwin, Peter Irons, Richard Squires, David Brodbelt, Jeremy Hammond
VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide...
September 26, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948627/prevalence-of-exon-11-internal-tandem-duplications-in-the-c-kit-proto-oncogene-in-australian-canine-mast-cell-tumours
#16
V S Tamlin, A E Kessell, R J Mccoy, E C Dobson, T S Smith, M Hebart, L Brown, D Mitrovic, A E Peaston
OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of internal tandem duplications (ITDs) in exon 11 of the proto-oncogene C-KIT in a sample of Australian cutaneous canine mast cell tumours (MCTs) drawn from general practice and to evaluate relationships between tumour mutation status and prognostic factors including signalment, tumour histological grade, tumour anatomical location and tumour size. METHODS: C-KIT exon 11 ITDs were detected by PCR in DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded canine MCTs sourced from three veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Adelaide and Melbourne...
October 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929101/current-trends-in-volume-replacement-therapy-and-the-use-of-synthetic-colloids-in-small-animals-an-internet-based-survey-2016
#17
Ivayla D Yozova, Judith Howard, Nadja E Sigrist, Katja-Nicole Adamik
The use of synthetic colloids (SCs), particularly hydroxyethyl starch (HES), in people has changed in recent years following new evidence raising concerns about their efficacy and safety. Although fluid therapy guidelines for small animals are often extrapolated from human medicine, little information exists on current practice in veterinary medicine. The objective of the present study was to investigate current fluid selection, use of plasma volume expanders including SCs, and recent changes in their use in small animal practice...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929022/development-and-evaluation-of-rapid-novel-isothermal-amplification-assays-for-important-veterinary-pathogens-chlamydia-psittaci-and-chlamydia-pecorum
#18
Martina Jelocnik, Md Mominul Islam, Danielle Madden, Cheryl Jenkins, James Branley, Scott Carver, Adam Polkinghorne
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum are important veterinary pathogens, with the former also being responsible for zoonoses, and the latter adversely affecting koala populations in Australia and livestock globally. The rapid detection of these organisms is still challenging, particularly at the point-of-care (POC). In the present study, we developed and evaluated rapid, sensitive and robust C. psittaci-specific and C. pecorum-specific Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assays for detection of these pathogens...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921905/antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-southeastern-australian-pig-herds-and-implications-for-surveillance
#19
L K van Breda, O P Dhungyel, M P Ward
To investigate public health implications of antibiotics to control post-weaning scours, we surveyed 22 commercial pig herds in southeastern Australia. Fifty faecal samples per herd were collected from pre- and post-weaned piglets. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. Isolates (n = 325) were screened for susceptibility to 19 veterinary antibiotics using MIC broth microdilution. All 325 E. coli isolates underwent further testing against 27 antibiotics used in human medicine and were screened for ETEC adhesin and enterotoxin genes (F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F18, F41, STa, STb, Stx2e and LT) by multiplex PCR...
February 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893972/cross-sectional-study-of-antimicrobials-used-for-surgical-prophylaxis-by-bovine-veterinary-practitioners-in-australia
#20
Laura Y Hardefeldt, Glenn F Browning, Karin A Thursky, James R Gilkerson, Helen Billman-Jacobe, Mark A Stevenson, Kirsten E Bailey
Antimicrobials are widely used in veterinary practices, but there has been no investigation of antimicrobial classes used or the appropriateness of their use in bovine practice. This study investigated antimicrobial use for surgical prophylaxis in bovine practice in Australia. A cross-sectional study of veterinarian antimicrobial usage patterns was conducted using an online questionnaire. Information solicited included respondent's details, the frequency with which antimicrobials were used for specific surgical conditions (including the dose, timing and duration of therapy) and details of practice antimicrobial use policies and sources of information about antimicrobials...
October 21, 2017: Veterinary Record
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