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Australia veterinary

Chloe Nguyen, Wei Ling Koh, Andrea Casteriano, Niek Beijerink, Christopher Godfrey, Graeme Brown, David Emery, Jan Šlapeta
BACKGROUND: Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs is considered endemic in Australia, but the clinical heartworm disease caused by the heartworm is rare and prevalence is low. The mainstream prevention of the heartworm is based on macrocyclic lactone (ML) administration. The aim of this study was to confirm endemism of the heartworm under current Australian conditions using a cohort of recent microfilaria-positive dogs which were on variable heartworm prevention. METHODS: A hotspot of canine heartworm antigen-positive and microfilaria-positive dogs has been detected recently in Queensland, Australia...
October 7, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Alison E Hillman, Rongchang Yang, Alan J Lymbery, R C Andrew Thompson
Parasites of wildlife inhabiting urbanised and peri-urban environments are of interest regarding wildlife population health, and also veterinary public health in the case of parasites that can also infect humans and domestic animals. This study aimed to: identify, and estimate the prevalence of, species of Eimeria parasitic in quenda (Isoodon obesulus) in the greater Perth region, Western Australia; 2) morphologically describe and genetically characterise a novel observed species of Eimeria as E. angustus; and 3) genetically characterise E...
September 28, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Sarah Haldane, Kenneth Hinchcliff, Peter Mansell, Chi Baik
Good communication skills are an important entry-level attribute of graduates of professional degrees. The inclusion of communication training within the curriculum can be problematic, particularly in programs with a high content load, such as veterinary science. This study examined the differences between the perceptions of students and qualified veterinarians with regards to the entry-level communication skills required of new graduates in clinical practice. Surveys were distributed to students in each of the four year levels of the veterinary science degree at the University of Melbourne and to recent graduates and experienced veterinarians registered in Victoria, Australia...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Adam Smith, Filippo Gagliardi, Nicholas Robert Pelzer, Jacob Hampton, Anthony Minh Tien Chau, Fiona Stewart, Pietro Mortini, Cristian Gragnaniello
BACKGROUND: Increasing focus has been placed on the use of simulation in neurosurgical and spinal surgical training worldwide, with the establishment of many surgical laboratories dedicated to such purpose. So far, the opportunities for hands-on cadaveric training in the areas of neurosurgery and spine surgery remain limited in Australia, owing to various factors, including the abolition of dissection in many medical schools, high maintenance requirements and widespread geographical distribution of surgical trainees...
December 2015: J Spine Surg
A J Shapiro, J M Norris, K L Bosward, J Heller
A Q fever outbreak in a small animal veterinary hospital, associated with a cat caesarean section, initiated a cat seroprevalence study (n = 712) that found circulating antibodies to Coxiella burnetii was highest in cattery-confined breeding cats (9.3%). These findings stimulated interest about potential sources of C. burnetii infection for cats and humans associated with cats. Cat breeders are potentially a group at increased risk of C. burnetii infection, and this study sought to identify potential risk factors...
September 13, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Siobhan M Mor, Anke K Wiethoelter, Amanda Lee, Barbara Moloney, Daniel R James, Richard Malik
BACKGROUND: Animal reservoirs of brucellosis constitute an ongoing threat to human health globally, with foodborne, occupational and recreational exposures creating opportunities for transmission. In Australia and the United States, hunting of feral pigs has been identified as the principal risk factor for human brucellosis due to Brucella suis. Following increased reports of canine B. suis infection, we undertook a review of case notification data and veterinary records to address knowledge gaps about transmission, clinical presentation, and zoonotic risks arising from infected dogs...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Pauline Fournier, Iwan Cornelius, Mattia Donzelli, Herwig Requardt, Christian Nemoz, Marco Petasecca, Elke Bräuer-Krisch, Anatoly Rosenfeld, Michael Lerch
Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a novel irradiation technique for brain tumours treatment currently under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The technique is based on the spatial fractionation of a highly brilliant synchrotron X-ray beam into an array of microbeams using a multi-slit collimator (MSC). After promising pre-clinical results, veterinary trials have recently commenced requiring the need for dedicated quality assurance (QA) procedures. The quality of MRT treatment demands reproducible and precise spatial fractionation of the incoming synchrotron beam...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Brad S Pickering, John M Hardham, Greg Smith, Eva T Weingartl, Paul J Dominowski, Dennis L Foss, Duncan Mwangi, Christopher C Broder, James A Roth, Hana M Weingartl
Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are members of the genus Henipavirus, within the family Paramyxoviridae. Nipah virus has caused outbreaks of human disease in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, India and Philippines, in addition to a large outbreak in swine in Malaysia in 1998/1999. Recently, NiV was suspected to be a causative agent of an outbreak in horses in 2014 in the Philippines, while HeV has caused multiple human and equine outbreaks in Australia since 1994. A swine vaccine able to prevent shedding of infectious virus is of veterinary and human health importance, and correlates of protection against henipavirus infection in swine need to be better understood...
September 14, 2016: Vaccine
Carolina Firacative, Chandler C Roe, Richard Malik, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Patricia Escandón, Jane E Sykes, Laura Rocío Castañón-Olivares, Cudberto Contreras-Peres, Blanca Samayoa, Tania C Sorrell, Elizabeth Castañeda, Shawn R Lockhart, David M Engelthaler, Wieland Meyer
The emerging pathogen Cryptococcus gattii causes life-threatening disease in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Of the four major molecular types (VGI-VGIV), the molecular type VGIII has recently emerged as cause of disease in otherwise healthy individuals, prompting a need to investigate its population genetic structure to understand if there are potential genotype-dependent characteristics in its epidemiology, environmental niche(s), host range and clinical features of disease. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of 122 clinical, environmental and veterinary C...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Matthew E Kinney, Geoffrey W Pye
Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus that has been identified in both captive and free-ranging koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) with variable geographic distribution in Australia. KoRV is capable of both exogenous and endogenous transmission, which provides an interesting research platform for scientists to study active retrovirus endogenization into a host genome and offers veterinary scientists an opportunity to examine the clinical consequences of KoRV infection in koalas. Causation between KoRV and frequently recognized clinical conditions associated with immune suppression and neoplasia in koalas has not been definitively established, however research continues to evaluate a potential association...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
P Buckley, D Buckley, G T Coleman, J M Morton
OBJECTIVE: To describe preventive health care provided to a cohort of Pony Club horses in rural New South Wales, Australia, and the associated veterinary involvement. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study METHODS: Observational data collected for 48 Pony Club horses using daily owner-kept diaries and monthly veterinary visits for 9-12 months. RESULTS: Frequency of healthcare events varied markedly between the horses; 54% of horses received 5 or more foot-care treatments, 69% received 1-3 anthelmintic treatments, 40% received dental care, 21% received chiropractic care; only 8% were vaccinated...
August 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
Rafael Freire, Clive J C Phillips, Joy M Verrinder, Teresa Collins, Chris Degeling, Anne Fawcett, Andrew D Fisher, Susan Hazel, Jennifer Hood, Jane Johnson, Janice K F Lloyd, Kevin Stafford, Vicky Tzioumis, Paul D McGreevy
The study of animal welfare and ethics (AWE) as part of veterinary education is important due to increasing community concerns and expectations about this topic, global pressures regarding food security, and the requirements of veterinary accreditation, especially with respect to Day One Competences. To address several key questions regarding the attitudes to AWE of veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand (NZ), the authors surveyed the 2014 cohort of these students. The survey aimed (1) to reveal what AWE topics veterinary students in Australia and NZ consider important as Day One Competences, and (2) to ascertain how these priorities align with existing research on how concern for AWE relates to gender and stage of study...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Emily L Clark, Sarah E Macdonald, V Thenmozhi, Krishnendu Kundu, Rajat Garg, Saroj Kumar, Simeon Ayoade, Kimberly M Fornace, Isa Danladi Jatau, Abdalgader Moftah, Matthew J Nolan, N R Sudhakar, A O Adebambo, I A Lawal, Ramón Álvarez Zapata, Joseph A Awuni, H David Chapman, Esron Karimuribo, Claire M Mugasa, Boniface Namangala, Jonathan Rushton, Xun Suo, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Arni S R Srinivasa Rao, Anup K Tewari, Partha S Banerjee, G Dhinakar Raj, M Raman, Fiona M Tomley, Damer P Blake
The phylum Apicomplexa includes parasites of medical, zoonotic and veterinary significance. Understanding the global distribution and genetic diversity of these protozoa is of fundamental importance for efficient, robust and long-lasting methods of control. Eimeria spp. cause intestinal coccidiosis in all major livestock animals and are the most important parasites of domestic chickens in terms of both economic impact and animal welfare. Despite having significant negative impacts on the efficiency of food production, many fundamental questions relating to the global distribution and genetic variation of Eimeria spp...
August 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
C S Smith, A McLAUGHLIN, H E Field, D Edson, D Mayer, S Ossedryver, J Barrett, D Waltisbuhl
Hendra virus (HeV) was first described in 1994 in an outbreak of acute and highly lethal disease in horses and humans in Australia. Equine cases continue to be diagnosed periodically, yet the predisposing factors for infection remain unclear. We undertook an analysis of equine submissions tested for HeV by the Queensland government veterinary reference laboratory over a 20-year period to identify and investigate any patterns. We found a marked increase in testing from July 2008, primarily reflecting a broadening of the HeV clinical case definition...
June 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Alassane S Barro, Mark Fegan, Barbara Moloney, Kelly Porter, Janine Muller, Simone Warner, Jason K Blackburn
The ecology and distribution of B. anthracis in Australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. Efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. This definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the distribution of B...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Vanina Guernier, Gabriel J Milinovich, Marcos Antonio Bezerra Santos, Mark Haworth, Glen Coleman, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes
BACKGROUND: Tick paralysis, resultant from envenomation by the scrub-tick Ixodes holocyclus, is a serious threat for small companion animals in the eastern coast of Australia. We hypothesise that surveillance systems that are built on Internet search queries may provide a more timely indication of high-risk periods more effectively than current approaches. METHODS: Monthly tick paralysis notifications in dogs and cats across Australia and the states of Queensland (QLD) and New South Wales (NSW) were retrieved from Disease WatchDog surveillance system for the period 2011-2013...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Hamutal Mazrier, Linda J Vogelnest, Peter C Thomson, Rosanne M Taylor, Peter Williamson
BACKGROUND: Genetic studies on canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) indicate that large populations from one geographical location are preferred for the identification of relevant susceptibility genes. Australian dogs are relatively isolated; studies on CAD in this population are limited. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To identify breeds at risk in the Australian dog population and to compare with worldwide breed predisposition. ANIMALS: Case records (n = 23,000) from University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (UVTH) dogs, including 722 with CAD...
June 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Feliciano Milian-Suazo, Leticia Garcia-Casanova, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Germinal Jorge Canto-Alarcon, Isabel Barcenas-Reyes, Tod Stuber, Elba Rodriguez-Hernandez, Susana Flores-Villalva
The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between spoligotypes of M. bovis from cattle in Mexico and those reported in countries with free trade of cattle with Mexico: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America. Mexican spoligotypes were obtained from isolates collected from cattle in different parts of the country. Spoligotypes from Canada and New Zealand were obtained from different reports in the literature. Those from the United States were obtained from the database of the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in APHIS-USDA...
2016: PloS One
Amelia R Cornish, Georgina L Caspar, Teresa Collins, Christopher Degeling, Anne Fawcett, Andrew D Fisher, Rafael Freire, Susan J Hazel, Jennifer Hood, A Jane Johnson, Janice Lloyd, Clive J C Phillips, Kevin Stafford, Vicky Tzioumis, Paul D McGreevy
Historically, the veterinary profession has understood animal welfare primarily in terms of animal health and productivity, with less recognition of animals' feelings and mental state. Veterinary students' career preferences and attitudes to animal welfare have been the focus of several international studies. As part of a survey in Australia and New Zealand, this study reports on whether veterinary students prioritize animal welfare topics or professional conduct on the first day of practice and examines links between students' career preferences and their institution, gender, and year of study...
2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Emily G Hudson, Navneet Dhand, Salome Dürr, Michael P Ward
Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion...
April 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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