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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428288/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-streptococcus-gallolyticus-subsp-gallolyticus-strain-dsm-16831
#1
Imke Grimm, Jessika Dumke, Tanja Vollmer, Dennis Hinse, Christian Rückert, Jörn Kalinowski, Cornelius Knabbe, Jens Dreier
Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus DSM 16831 is an intriguing strain because of its low virulent phenotype compared to other isolates. We present here the complete genome sequence for this strain isolated from koala feces.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363053/atypical-presentation-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-in-a-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-computed-tomography-study
#2
Eva Martínez-Nevado, Elisa González Alonso-Alegre, M Ángeles Jiménez Martínez, Alfonso Rodríguez-Álvaro, Elena Martínez de Merlo, Juncal García García, Isabel García Real
Cryptococcosis is a worldwide and potentially fatal mycosis documented in wild and captive koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) caused by Cryptococcus neoformans . Though mainly a subclinical disease, when the nasal cavity is affected, epistaxis, mucopurulent nasal discharge, dyspnea, and facial distortion may occur. This report describes a case of cryptococcosis in a koala where unilateral exophthalmos was the only evident clinical sign and magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings are described...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355168/associations-of-plasma-uric-acid-and-purine-metabolites-with-blood-pressure-in-children-the-koala-birth-cohort-study
#3
Lieke E J M Scheepers, Annelies Boonen, Wieke Pijnenburg, Jörgen Bierau, Jan A Staessen, Coen D A Stehouwer, Carel Thijs, Ilja C W Arts
OBJECTIVE: Elevated serum uric acid concentration has been associated with high blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. A putative underlying mechanism is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species when uric acid is generated by an increased enzyme activity of xanthine oxidase (XO). The aims of the present study were to investigate the associations between plasma uric acid concentration, purine metabolite ratios, as proxies for increased XO activity, and SBP and DBP in school-age children...
May 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344572/gut-colonization-by-methanogenic-archaea-is-associated-with-organic-dairy-consumption-in-children
#4
Jeroen A A van de Pol, Niels van Best, Catherine A Mbakwa, Carel Thijs, Paul H Savelkoul, Ilja C W Arts, Mathias W Hornef, Monique Mommers, John Penders
The gut microbiota represents a complex and diverse ecosystem with a profound impact on human health, promoting immune maturation, and host metabolism as well as colonization resistance. Important members that have often been disregarded are the methanogenic archaea. Methanogenic archaea reduce hydrogen levels via the production of methane, thereby stimulating food fermentation by saccharolytic bacteria. On the other hand, colonization by archaea has been suggested to promote a number of gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274187/bioaugmentation-of-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste-by-dungs-of-herbivore-carnivore-and-omnivore-zoo-animals
#5
Javkhlan Ariunbaatar, Onur Ozcan, Robert Bair, Giovanni Esposito, Ray Ball, Piet N L Lens, Daniel H Yeh
The potential improvement of biomethanation of food waste (FW) by adding dung of herbivore (giraffe, llama, koala), carnivore (tiger) and omnivore (sloth bear) animals to anaerobic sludge (AnS) was investigated. Adding 30% giraffe, sloth bear or koala dung to the AnS inoculum yielded, respectively, a 11.17 (± 4.51), 10.10 (± 1.23), and 1.41 (± 0.56) % higher biomethane production, as compared to the control (FW with solely AnS). The highest biomethane production of 564.00 (± 3.88) ml CH4/gVSadded obtained with 30% giraffe dung and 70% AnS was attributed to a higher solubilization of proteins (6...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273935/infection-with-koala-retrovirus-subgroup-b-korv-b-but-not-korv-a-is-associated-with-chlamydial-disease-in-free-ranging-koalas-phascolarctos-cinereus
#6
Courtney A Waugh, Jonathan Hanger, Joanne Loader, Andrew King, Matthew Hobbs, Rebecca Johnson, Peter Timms
The virulence of chlamydial infection in wild koalas is highly variable between individuals. Some koalas can be infected (PCR positive) with Chlamydia for long periods but remain asymptomatic, whereas others develop clinical disease. Chlamydia in the koala has traditionally been studied without regard to coinfection with other pathogens, although koalas are usually subject to infection with koala retrovirus (KoRV). Retroviruses can be immunosuppressive, and there is evidence of an immunosuppressive effect of KoRV in vitro...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266284/koala-retrovirus-genotyping-analyses-reveal-a-low-prevalence-of-korv-a-in-victorian-koalas-and-an-association-with-clinical-disease
#7
Alistair R Legione, Jade L S Patterson, Pam Whiteley, Simon M Firestone, Megan Curnick, Kate Bodley, Michael Lynch, James R Gilkerson, Fiona M Sansom, Joanne M Devlin
PURPOSE: Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is undergoing endogenization into the genome of koalas in Australia, providing an opportunity to assess the effect of retrovirus infection on the health of a population. The prevalence of KoRV in north-eastern Australia (Queensland and New South Wales) is 100 %, whereas previous preliminary investigations in south-eastern Australia (Victoria) suggested KoRV is present at a lower prevalence, although the values have varied widely. Here, we describe a large study of free-ranging koalas in Victoria to estimate the prevalence of KoRV and assess the clinical significance of KoRV infection in wild koalas...
February 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218272/decline-causes-of-koalas-in-south-east-queensland-australia-a-17-year-retrospective-study-of-mortality-and-morbidity
#8
Viviana Gonzalez-Astudillo, Rachel Allavena, Allan McKinnon, Rebecca Larkin, Joerg Henning
Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997-2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122598/novel-chlamydiales-genotypes-identified-in-ticks-from-australian-wildlife
#9
Delaney Burnard, Haylee Weaver, Amber Gillett, Joanne Loader, Cheyne Flanagan, Adam Polkinghorne
BACKGROUND: Members of the order Chlamydiales are known for their potential as human and veterinary bacterial pathogens. Despite this recognition, epidemiological factors such as routes of transmission are yet to be fully defined. Ticks are well known vectors for many other infections with several reports recently describing the presence of bacteria in the order Chlamydiales in these arthropods. Australian wildlife are hosts to an extensive range of tick species. Evidence is also growing that the marsupial hosts these ticks parasitise can also be infected by a number of bacteria in the order Chlamydiales, with at least one species, Chlamydia pecorum, posing a significant conservation threat...
January 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032537/koala-retrovirus-korv-genotyping-analyses-reveal-a-low-prevalence-of-korv-a-in-victorian-koalas-and-an-association-with-clinical-disease
#10
Alistair Raymond Legione, Jade L S Patterson, Pam Whiteley, Simon M Firestone, Megan Curnick, Kate Bodley, Michael Lynch, James R Gilkerson, Fiona M Sansom, Joanne M Devlin
Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is currently undergoing endogenisation into the genome of koalas in Australia, providing an opportunity to assess the effect of retrovirus infection on the health of a population. The prevalence of KoRV in north eastern Australia (Queensland and New South Wales) is 100%, whereas previous preliminary investigations in south eastern Australia (Victoria) suggested KoRV is present at a lower prevalence, although the values have varied widely. Here we describe a large study of free ranging koalas in Victoria to estimate the prevalence of KoRV and assess the clinical significance of KoRV infection in wild koalas...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026882/supplemental-feeding-of-captive-neonatal-koalas-phascolarctos-cinereus
#11
Eri Shibata, Izumi Shindo, Etsuko Miyakawa, Nobuhide Kido
Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are cautious animals, making supplemental feeding of neonates challenging because of disturbances to the normal routine. However, supplemental feeding is beneficial in improving juvenile nutrition using less formula than required for hand-rearing, and allowing maternal bonding to continue through suckling. In this study, two neonatal koalas, delivered by the same mother in 2 years, exhibited insufficient growth post-emergence from the pouch; supplemental feeding was therefore initiated...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001295/gradients-in-cytoarchitectural-landscapes-of-the-isocortex-diprotodont-marsupials-in-comparison-to-eutherian-mammals
#12
Christine J Charvet, Cheryl D Stimpson, Young Do Kim, Mary Ann Raghanti, Albert H Lewandowski, Patrick R Hof, Aida Gómez-Robles, Fenna M Krienen, Chet C Sherwood
Although it has been claimed that marsupials possess a lower density of isocortical neurons compared with other mammals, little is known about cross-cortical variation in neuron distributions in this diverse taxonomic group. We quantified upper-layer (layers II-IV) and lower-layer (layers V-VI) neuron numbers per unit of cortical surface area in three diprotodont marsupial species (two macropodiformes, the red kangaroo and the parma wallaby, and a vombatiform, the koala) and compared these results to eutherian mammals (e...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999419/transspecies-transmission-of-gammaretroviruses-and-the-origin-of-the-gibbon-ape-leukaemia-virus-galv-and-the-koala-retrovirus-korv
#13
REVIEW
Joachim Denner
Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is a frequent event, and the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a well-known example. The gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GaLV) and koala retrovirus (KoRV), two gammaretroviruses, are also the result of a transspecies transmission, however from a still unknown host. Related retroviruses have been found in Southeast Asian mice although the sequence similarity was limited. Viruses with a higher sequence homology were isolated from Melomys burtoni, the Australian and Indonesian grassland melomys...
December 20, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939160/chlamydial-infections-in-wildlife-conservation-threats-and-or-reservoirs-of-spill-over-infections
#14
REVIEW
Delaney Burnard, Adam Polkinghorne
Members of the order Chlamydiales are biphasic intracellular pathogens known to cause disease in both humans and animals. As we learn more about the genetic diversity of this group of pathogens, evidence is growing that these bacteria infect a broader range of animal hosts than previously thought. Over 400 host species are now documented globally with the majority of these being wild animals. Given the impact of chlamydial infections on humans and domesticated animals, the identification of members of the order Chlamydiales in wildlife raises significant questions over a) their impact on animal health and b) the relationships to those strains also found in humans and domestic animals...
November 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881767/daylight-saving-time-can-decrease-the-frequency-of-wildlife-vehicle-collisions
#15
William A Ellis, Sean I FitzGibbon, Benjamin J Barth, Amanda C Niehaus, Gwendolyn K David, Brendan D Taylor, Helena Matsushige, Alistair Melzer, Fred B Bercovitch, Frank Carrick, Darryl N Jones, Cathryn Dexter, Amber Gillett, Martin Predavec, Dan Lunney, Robbie S Wilson
Daylight saving time (DST) could reduce collisions with wildlife by changing the timing of commuter traffic relative to the behaviour of nocturnal animals. To test this idea, we tracked wild koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in southeast Queensland, where koalas have declined by 80% in the last 20 years, and compared their movements with traffic patterns along roads where they are often killed. Using a simple model, we found that DST could decrease collisions with koalas by 8% on weekdays and 11% at weekends, simply by shifting the timing of traffic relative to darkness...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881645/phylogenetic-diversity-of-koala-retrovirus-within-a-wild-koala-population
#16
K J Chappell, J C Brealey, A A Amarilla, D Watterson, L Hulse, C Palmieri, S D Johnston, E C Holmes, J Meers, P R Young
Koala populations are in serious decline across many areas of mainland Australia, with infectious disease a contributing factor. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus present in most wild koala populations and captive colonies. Five subtypes of KoRV (A to E) have been identified based on amino acid sequence divergence in a hypervariable region of the receptor binding domain of the envelope protein. However, analysis of viral genetic diversity has been conducted primarily on KoRV in captive koalas housed in zoos in Japan, the United States, and Germany...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845063/recrudescence-of-onchocerciasis-in-the-como%C3%A3-valley-in-southwest-burkina-faso
#17
Lassane Koala, Achille Nikiema, Rory J Post, Alain Brice Paré, Claude Montant Kafando, François Drabo, Soungalo Traoré
Onchocerciasis control by vector control was instigated in southwest Burkina Faso in January 1969 by ORSTOM/OCCGE, and continued until operations were taken over by the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) in February 1975, which itself ceased operations in the area in 1989 when onchocerciasis was judged to have been reduced to insignificant levels. Initially (1969-1975) vector immigration maintained unacceptably high levels of transmission, but OCP was much larger than the preceding campaign and in 1975 the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP) dropped below 100 at all sites in the Comoé river valley except Folonzo, which continued to be subject to reinvasion, along with the whole of the Léraba river valley...
February 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713568/characterisation-of-the-immune-compounds-in-koala-milk-using-a-combined-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-approach
#18
Katrina M Morris, Denis O'Meally, Thiri Zaw, Xiaomin Song, Amber Gillett, Mark P Molloy, Adam Polkinghorne, Katherine Belov
Production of milk is a key characteristic of mammals, but the features of lactation vary greatly between monotreme, marsupial and eutherian mammals. Marsupials have a short gestation followed by a long lactation period, and milk constituents vary greatly across lactation. Marsupials are born immunologically naïve and rely on their mother's milk for immunological protection. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are an iconic Australian species that are increasingly threatened by disease. Here we use a mammary transcriptome, two milk proteomes and the koala genome to comprehensively characterise the protein components of koala milk across lactation, with a focus on immune constituents...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707559/treatment-of-chlamydia-associated-ocular-disease-via-a-recombinant-protein-based-vaccine-in-the-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus
#19
Courtney Waugh, Ray Austin, Adam Polkinghorne, Peter Timms
Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are affected by debilitating chlamydial disease that can lead to blindness, infertility, and death. The causative agent is the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pecorum. While antibiotics can be used to treat koala chlamydial infection, they are often ineffective or cause severe dysbiosis to the animal's unique gut flora. Recent work has progressed on the development of a protective vaccine for Chlamydia in the koala. This study demonstrates that the use of a vaccine can have a positive effect in koalas already with clinical signs of ocular disease, suggesting a possible therapeutic effect and an alternative to antibiotic therapy...
November 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706211/altered-immune-cytokine-expression-associated-with-korv-b-infection-and-season-in-captive-koalas
#20
Iona E Maher, Damien P Higgins
Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations are increasingly vulnerable and one of the main threats is chlamydial infection. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) has been proposed as an underlying cause of the koala's susceptibility to infection with Chlamydia and high rates of lymphoid neoplasia; however, the regionally ubiquitous, endogenous nature of this virus suggests that KoRV A infection is not sufficient for immune suppression to occur. A recently discovered exogenous variant of KoRV, KoRV B, has several structural elements that cause increased pathogenicity in related retroviruses and was associated with lymphoid neoplasia in one study...
2016: PloS One
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