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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306150/ultrasonographic-assessment-of-the-male-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus-reproductive-tract
#1
Rebecca Larkin, Chiara Palmieri, Motoharu Oishi, Lyndal Hulse, Stephen D Johnston
Studies documenting the application of ultrasonography to depict normal and pathological changes in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), especially in the male, are scarce. Sixty-two wild koalas were used in this study to define ultrasonographic protocols and features for the assessment of the male koala reproductive tract. Testis, epididymis and spermatic cord were examined using a hockey stick transducer. The normal koala testis showed a homogeneous echogenicity and an obvious hyper-echoic band corresponding to the tunica albuginea...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297829/occurrence-of-pasteurellaceae-bacteria-in-the-oral-cavity-of-selected-marsupial-species
#2
Mie Johanne Hansen, Mads F Bertelsen, Androo Kelly, Anders Miki Bojesen
Eighty-two Pasteurellaceae isolates from marsupials characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene sequences formed five distinct groups. Twenty-one strains from long-nosed potoroos ( Potorous tridactylus apicalis), spotted-tailed quolls ( Dasyurus maculatus), and eastern quolls ( Dasyurus viverrinus) made up group 1, which classified with Frederiksenia canicola. Group 2, 15 strains from Tasmanian devils ( Sarcophilus harrisii), common wombats ( Vombatus ursinus), common ring-tailed possums ( Pseudocheirus peregrinus), and eastern quolls, grouped with Pasteurella multocida...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281731/epidemiology-of-chlamydial-infection-and-disease-in-a-free-ranging-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus-population
#3
Sharon Nyari, Courtney A Waugh, Jianbao Dong, Bonnie L Quigley, Jonathan Hanger, Joanne Loader, Adam Polkinghorne, Peter Timms
Chlamydial disease continues to be one of the main factors threatening the long-term survival of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Despite this, large epidemiological studies of chlamydial infection and disease in wild koala populations are lacking. A better understanding of the prevalence, transmission and pathogenesis is needed to improve control measures, such as the development of vaccines. We investigated the prevalence of Chlamydia pecorum infection and disease in 160 koalas in a peri-urban wild population in Queensland, Australia and found that 31% of koalas were Chlamydia PCR positive and 28% had clinically detectable chlamydial disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237837/molecular-dynamics-and-mode-of-transmission-of-koala-retrovirus-korv-as-it-invades-and-spreads-through-a-wild-queensland-koala-population
#4
Bonnie Chaban, Vanissa A Ong, Jonathan Hanger, Peter Timms
The recent acquisition of a novel retrovirus (KoRV) by koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) has created new opportunities for retroviral research and new challenges for koala conservation. There are currently two major subtypes of KoRV; KoRV-A, which is believed to be endogenous only in koalas from the northern part of Australia, and KoRV-B, which appears to be exogenous. Understanding and management of these subtypes requires population-level studies of their prevalence and diversity, especially when co-infected in the same population, and investigations of their modes of transmission in the wild...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237726/transmission-evolution-and-endogenization-lessons-learned-from-recent-retroviral-invasions
#5
REVIEW
Alex D Greenwood, Yasuko Ishida, Sean P O'Brien, Alfred L Roca, Maribeth V Eiden
Viruses of the subfamily Orthoretrovirinae are defined by the ability to reverse transcribe an RNA genome into DNA that integrates into the host cell genome during the intracellular virus life cycle. Exogenous retroviruses (XRVs) are horizontally transmitted between host individuals, with disease outcome depending on interactions between the retrovirus and the host organism. When retroviruses infect germ line cells of the host, they may become endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are permanent elements in the host germ line that are subject to vertical transmission...
March 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183283/mitochondrial-genome-sequencing-reveals-potential-origins-of-the-scabies-mite-sarcoptes-scabiei-infesting-two-iconic-australian-marsupials
#6
Tamieka A Fraser, Renfu Shao, Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, Michael Charleston, Alynn Martin, Pam Whiteley, Roz Holme, Scott Carver, Adam Polkinghorne
BACKGROUND: Debilitating skin infestations caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, have a profound impact on human and animal health globally. In Australia, this impact is evident across different segments of Australian society, with a growing recognition that it can contribute to rapid declines of native Australian marsupials. Cross-host transmission has been suggested to play a significant role in the epidemiology and origin of mite infestations in different species but a chronic lack of genetic resources has made further inferences difficult...
November 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177117/gene-and-genome-centric-analyses-of-koala-and-wombat-fecal-microbiomes-point-to-metabolic-specialization-for-eucalyptus-digestion
#7
Miriam E Shiffman, Rochelle M Soo, Paul G Dennis, Mark Morrison, Gene W Tyson, Philip Hugenholtz
The koala has evolved to become a specialist Eucalyptus herbivore since diverging from its closest relative, the wombat, a generalist herbivore. This niche adaptation involves, in part, changes in the gut microbiota. The goal of this study was to compare koala and wombat fecal microbiomes using metagenomics to identify potential differences attributable to dietary specialization. Several populations discriminated between the koala and wombat fecal communities, most notably S24-7 and Synergistaceae in the koala, and Christensenellaceae and RF39 in the wombat...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162213/composition-of-marsupial-zona-pellucida-a-molecular-and-phylogenetic-approach
#8
Carla Moros-Nicolás, Pascale Chevret, María José Izquierdo-Rico, William V Holt, Daniela Esteban-Díaz, Manel López-Béjar, Eva Martínez-Nevado, Maria A Nilsson, José Ballesta, Manuel Avilés
The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular matrix that surrounds mammalian oocytes. In eutherians it is formed from three or four proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, ZP4). In the few marsupials that have been studied, however, only three of these have been characterised (ZP2, ZP3, ZP4). Nevertheless, the composition in marsupials may be more complex, since a duplication of the ZP3 gene was recently described in one species. The aim of this work was to elucidate the ZP composition in marsupials and relate it to the evolution of the ZP gene family...
November 22, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159447/transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-long-nosed-bandicoot-perameles-nasuta-reveals-conservation-and-innovation-of-immune-genes-in-the-marsupial-order-peramelemorphia
#9
Katrina M Morris, Haylee J Weaver, Denis O'Meally, Marion Desclozeaux, Amber Gillett, Adam Polkinghorne
Bandicoots are omnivorous marsupials of the order Peramelemorphia. Conservation concerns and their unique biological characteristics suggest peramelomorphs are worthy research subjects, but knowledge of their genetics and immunology has lagged behind that of other high-profile marsupials. Here, we characterise the transcriptome of the long-nose bandicoot (Perameles nasuta), the first high-throughput data set from any peramelomorph. We investigate the immune gene repertoire of the bandicoot, with a focus on key immune gene families, and compare to previously characterised marsupial and mammalian species...
November 20, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158564/long-read-genome-sequence-assembly-provides-insight-into-ongoing-retroviral-invasion-of-the-koala-germline
#10
Matthew Hobbs, Andrew King, Ryan Salinas, Zhiliang Chen, Kyriakos Tsangaras, Alex D Greenwood, Rebecca N Johnson, Katherine Belov, Marc R Wilkins, Peter Timms
The koala retrovirus (KoRV) is implicated in several diseases affecting the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). KoRV provirus can be present in the genome of koalas as an endogenous retrovirus (present in all cells via germline integration) or as exogenous retrovirus responsible for somatic integrations of proviral KoRV (present in a limited number of cells). This ongoing invasion of the koala germline by KoRV provides a powerful opportunity to assess the viral strategies used by KoRV in an individual. Analysis of a high-quality genome sequence of a single koala revealed 133 KoRV integration sites...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121673/influence-of-vitamin-d-on-key-bacterial-taxa-in-infant-microbiota-in-the-koala-birth-cohort-study
#11
Chris E Talsness, John Penders, Eugène H J M Jansen, Jan Damoiseaux, Carel Thijs, Monique Mommers
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties giving it the potential to affect microbial colonization of the intestinal tract. We investigated whether maternal vitamin D supplemention, maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, or direct supplementation of the infant influences key bacterial taxa within microbiota of one month old infants. Infant and maternal vitamin D supplement use was ascertained via questionnaires. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was determined at approximately the 36th week of pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993660/molecular-evidence-of-chlamydia-pecorum-and-arthropod-associated-chlamydiae-in-an-expanded-range-of-marsupials
#12
Delaney Burnard, Wilhelmina M Huston, Jonathan K Webb, Martina Jelocnik, Andrea Reiss, Amber Gillett, Sean Fitzgibbon, Scott Carver, Janine Carrucan, Cheyne Flanagan, Peter Timms, Adam Polkinghorne
The order Chlamydiales are biphasic intracellular bacterial pathogens infecting humans and domesticated animals. Wildlife infections have also been reported, with the most studied example being Chlamydia pecorum infections in the koala, an iconic Australian marsupial. In koalas, molecular evidence suggests that spill-over from C. pecorum infected livestock imported into Australia may have had a historical or contemporary role. Despite preliminary evidence that other native Australian marsupials also carry C...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944032/development-and-field-validation-of-a-regional-management-scale-habitat-model-a-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus-case-study
#13
Bradley Law, Gabriele Caccamo, Paul Roe, Anthony Truskinger, Traecey Brassil, Leroy Gonsalves, Anna McConville, Matthew Stanton
Species distribution models have great potential to efficiently guide management for threatened species, especially for those that are rare or cryptic. We used MaxEnt to develop a regional-scale model for the koala Phascolarctos cinereus at a resolution (250 m) that could be used to guide management. To ensure the model was fit for purpose, we placed emphasis on validating the model using independently-collected field data. We reduced substantial spatial clustering of records in coastal urban areas using a 2-km spatial filter and by modeling separately two subregions separated by the 500-m elevational contour...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942303/lymphoma-koala-retrovirus-infection-and-reproductive-chlamydiosis-in-a-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus
#14
J Fabijan, L Woolford, S Lathe, G Simmons, F Hemmatzadeh, D J Trott, N Speight
Koala retrovirus (KoRV) infection, thought to be associated with lymphoid neoplasia, and Chlamydia pecorum-related ocular and urogenital disease are both highly prevalent in eastern Australian koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations. However, in South Australian koalas, little is known about KoRV infection and C. pecorum-associated disease. We report the first South Australian case of lymphoma in a KoRV-A-positive female koala also affected by severe reproductive chlamydiosis. The koala was from the Mount Lofty Ranges population and was presented with hindlimb lameness...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929022/development-and-evaluation-of-rapid-novel-isothermal-amplification-assays-for-important-veterinary-pathogens-chlamydia-psittaci-and-chlamydia-pecorum
#15
Martina Jelocnik, Md Mominul Islam, Danielle Madden, Cheryl Jenkins, James Branley, Scott Carver, Adam Polkinghorne
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum are important veterinary pathogens, with the former also being responsible for zoonoses, and the latter adversely affecting koala populations in Australia and livestock globally. The rapid detection of these organisms is still challenging, particularly at the point-of-care (POC). In the present study, we developed and evaluated rapid, sensitive and robust C. psittaci-specific and C. pecorum-specific Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assays for detection of these pathogens...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845567/assessment-of-florfenicol-as-a-possible-treatment-for-chlamydiosis-in-koalas-phascolarctos-cinereus
#16
C Budd, C Flanagan, A Gillett, J Hanger, J J Loader, M Govendir
OBJECTIVE: Because of limited availability of chloramphenicol to veterinary suppliers, a preliminary study was performed to predict whether an analogue, florfenicol, is an efficacious treatment for chlamydiosis in koalas. METHODS: Florfenicol was administered to koalas with naturally occurring chlamydiosis at 20 mg/kg SC (n = 3) and at 5 mg/kg (n = 3) and 10 mg/kg (n = 3) IV. The estimated areas under the plasma concentration versus time curves (AUC) were compared with the minimum inhibitory concentration to inhibit Chlamydia pecorum...
September 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845563/in-this-issue-september-2017-identifying-bloodlines-of-animals-with-mutations%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-sexed-semen-in-dairy-cows%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-conventional-vs-automatic-milking-systems%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-overground-endoscopy-in-thoroughbred-horses%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-honeys-for-wound-healing%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-cabergoline-in-anoestrous
#17
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712016/a-survey-of-pesticide-accumulation-in-a-specialist-feeder-the-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus
#18
Caroline Marschner, Damien P Higgins, Mark B Krockenberger
To maintain profitability in Australia's agricultural and urban landscapes pesticides are used throughout the range of koala habitats. The koala is a specialist feeder, reliant on metabolic enzyme capacities to utilise a toxic diet of eucalypt leaves and is potentially prone to adverse effects when xenobiotic interactions between dietary and anthropogenic xenobiotics occur. The aim of this study was to investigate accumulation of frequently used pesticides in wild koalas in 4 areas of New South Wales and Queensland...
September 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704730/consistent-patterns-of-vehicle-collision-risk-for-six-mammal-species
#19
Casey Visintin, Rodney van der Ree, Michael A McCarthy
The occurrence and rate of wildlife-vehicle collisions are related to both anthropocentric and environmental variables, however, few studies compare collision risks for multiple species within a model framework that is adaptable and transferable. Our research compares collision risk for multiple species across a large geographic area using a conceptually simple risk framework. We used six species of native terrestrial mammal often involved with wildlife-vehicle collisions in south-east Australia. We related collisions reported to a wildlife organisation to the co-occurrence of each species and a threatening process (presence and movement of road vehicles)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704541/increased-genetic-diversity-and-prevalence-of-co-infection-with-trypanosoma-spp-in-koalas-phascolarctos-cinereus-and-their-ticks-identified-using-next-generation-sequencing-ngs
#20
Amanda D Barbosa, Alexander W Gofton, Andrea Paparini, Annachiara Codello, Telleasha Greay, Amber Gillett, Kristin Warren, Peter Irwin, Una Ryan
Infections with Trypanosoma spp. have been associated with poor health and decreased survival of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), particularly in the presence of concurrent pathogens such as Chlamydia and koala retrovirus. The present study describes the application of a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay to characterise the prevalence and genetic diversity of trypanosome communities in koalas and two native species of ticks (Ixodes holocyclus and I. tasmani) removed from koala hosts. Among 168 koalas tested, 32...
2017: PloS One
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