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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798690/risk-of-myopathy-in-patients-in-therapy-with-statins-identification-of-biological-markers-in-a-pilot-study
#1
Giulia M Camerino, Olimpia Musumeci, Elena Conte, Kejla Musaraj, Adriano Fonzino, Emanuele Barca, Marco Marino, Carmelo Rodolico, Domenico Tricarico, Claudia Camerino, Maria R Carratù, Jean-François Desaphy, Annamaria De Luca, Antonio Toscano, Sabata Pierno
Statin therapy may induce skeletal muscle damage ranging from myalgia to severe rhabdomyolysis. Our previous preclinical studies showed that statin treatment in rats involves the reduction of skeletal muscle ClC-1 chloride channel expression and related chloride conductance (gCl). An increase of the activity of protein kinase C theta (PKC theta) isoform, able to inactivate ClC-1, may contribute to destabilize sarcolemma excitability. These effects can be detrimental for muscle function leading to drug-induced myopathy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795454/the-tcf7l2-pgc1%C3%AE-axis-connects-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-metabolic-shift-with-stem-cell-commitment-to-hepatic-differentiation
#2
Anaïs Wanet, Marino Caruso, Jean-Baka Domelevo Entfellner, Mehdi Najar, Antoine Fattaccioli, Catherine Demazy, Jonathan Evraerts, Hoda El-Kehdy, Guillaume Pourcher, Etienne Sokal, Thierry Arnould, Nicki Tiffin, Mustapha Najimi, Patricia Renard
Increasing evidence supports that modifications in the mitochondrial content, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity, and cell metabolism influence the fate of stem cells. However, the regulators involved in the crosstalk between mitochondria and stem cell fate remain poorly characterized. Here, we identified a transcriptional regulatory axis, composed of TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7 like 2, a downstream effector of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, repressed during differentiation) and PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha, the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, induced during differentiation), coupling the loss of pluripotency and early commitment to differentiation, to the initiation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic shift toward OXPHOS...
August 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777921/minimal-alteration-in-muscle-lipid-genes-following-stabilized-weight-loss
#3
Robert H Coker, Leizleigh Robinette, Philip A Kern
PURPOSE: Variations in skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1∝), carntine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1), perilipin protein (PLIN2), and adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) have been described to play important roles in the metabolic regulation of lipid oxidation, and may influence intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and muscle lipid droplet size (LDS). While acute changes in caloric balance and/or aerobic capacity may affect lipid metabolism, the influence of sustained weight loss derived from caloric restriction (CWL) compared to exercise training (EWL) on the above mentioned parameters has not been fully elucidated...
August 4, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771499/irisin-regulates-cardiac-physiology-in-zebrafish
#4
Lakshminarasimhan Sundarrajan, Chanel Yeung, Logan Hahn, Lynn P Weber, Suraj Unniappan
Irisin is a myokine encoded in its precursor fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). It is abundantly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle, and is secreted upon the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1 alpha). We aimed to study the role of irisin on cardiac function and muscle protein regulation in zebrafish. Western blot analyses detected the presence of irisin protein (23 kDa) in zebrafish heart and skeletal muscle, and irisin immunoreactivity was detected in both tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748372/training-and-acute-exercise-modulates-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-football-players-blood-mononuclear-cells
#5
Carla Busquets-Cortés, Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Josep A Tur, Antoni Sureda, Antoni Pons
PURPOSE: Regular physical activity induces oxidative stress but also causes adaptations in antioxidant defences including the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, which activates target genes related to antioxidant defences such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs), and mitochondrial biogenesis mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). The aim of the study was to determine the effect of long-term training and acute exercise on oxidant/antioxidant status and the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715885/the-effects-of-exercise-and-cold-exposure-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-and-white-adipose-tissue
#6
Nana Chung, Jonghoon Park, Kiwon Lim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise or/and cold exposure regulate mitochondria biogenesis-related gene expression in soleus and inguinal adipose tissue of mice. METHODS: Forty ICR 5-week old male mice were divided into four groups: thermoneutrality-untrained (23 ± 1 °C in room temperature, n=10), cold-water immersion (24 ± 1 °C, n=10), exercise in neutral temperature (34 ± 1 °C, n=10), and exercise in cold temperature (24 ± 1 °C, n=10)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707280/multi-regulatory-network-of-ros-the-interconnection-of-ros-pgc-1-alpha-and-ampk-sirt1-during-exercise
#7
REVIEW
Anand Thirupathi, Claudio Teodoro de Souza
Transcriptional factors are easily susceptible to any stimuli, including exercise. Exercise can significantly influence PGC-1 α and AMPK-SIRT1 pathway, as it is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. Exercise is a major energy deprivation process by which many of transcription factors get tuned positively. However, how transcription factors help to boost the antioxidant defense system at cellular level is elusive. It is well known that physical exercise can induce reactive oxygen species, but how these reactive oxygen species can help to regulate multiple transcription factors during exercise is an important area to be discussed yet...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678735/browning-formation-markers-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-in-relation-to-resting-energy-expenditure-physical-activity-and-diet-in-humans
#8
Petros C Dinas, Angelica Valente, Marnie Granzotto, Marco Rossato, Roberto Vettor, Aikaterini Zacharopoulou, Andres E Carrillo, Natalie A Davies, Paraskevi Gkiata, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, Yiannis Koutedakis, George S Metsios, Andreas D Flouris
Background Regular exercise and diet may contribute to white adipose tissue (WAT) conversion into a brown adipose-like phenotype that may increase resting energy expenditure (REE), leading to weight loss. We examined the relationship between REE, physical activity (PA) participation and diet with browning formation markers of subcutaneous WAT in healthy men. Materials and methods We assessed REE, diet and body composition of 32 healthy men [age (years): 36.06 ± 7.36, body mass index (BMI): 27.06 ± 4.62 (kg/m2)]...
July 5, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666854/small-interfering-rna-mediated-knockdown-of-irisin-suppresses-food-intake-and-modulates-appetite-regulatory-peptides-in-zebrafish
#9
Lakshminarasimhan Sundarrajan, Suraj Unniappan
Irisin is a myokine encoded in fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). FNDC5 forms an integral part of the muscle post-exercise, and causes an increase in energy expenditure in mammals. Irisin is abundantly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles and is secreted upon activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1 alpha). Irisin regulates feeding behaviour and cardiovascular function in mammals. More recently, irisin has gained importance as a potential biomarker for myocardial infarction due to its abundance in cardiac muscle...
June 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665260/weight-changes-and-metabolic-outcomes-in-calorie-restricted-obese-mice-fed-high-fat-diets-containing-corn-or-flaxseed-oil-physiological-role-of-sugar-replacement-with-polyphenol-rich-grape
#10
Hastimansooreh Ansar, Negar Zamaninour, Abolghassem Djazayery, Hamideh Pishva, Mohammadreza Vafa, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Aydin Dilmaghanian, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Farzad Shidfar
OBJECTIVE: Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. METHODS: Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656548/treadmill-exercise-attenuates-%C3%AE-synuclein-levels-by-promoting-mitochondrial-function-and-autophagy-possibly-via-sirt1-in-the-chronic-mptp-p-induced-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Jung-Hoon Koo, Joon-Yong Cho
Accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) is significantly correlated with the presence of progressive motor deficits, which is the main symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although physical exercise reduces α-Syn levels, the molecular mechanisms by which physical exercise decreases α-Syn remain unclear. We hypothesized that treadmill exercise (TE) decreases α-Syn levels by improving mitochondrial function and promoting autophagy via the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) signaling pathway in the chronic 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine with probenecid (MPTP/P)-induced mouse model of PD...
June 27, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621732/lipid-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-is-attenuated-by-strawberry-extract-through-ampk-activation
#12
Tamara Y Forbes-Hernández, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Sadia Afrin, Luca Mazzoni, Mario D Cordero, Bruno Mezzetti, José L Quiles, Maurizio Battino
Regulation of lipid metabolism is essential for treatment and prevention of several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are responsible for most deaths worldwide. It has been demonstrated that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a direct impact on lipid metabolism by modulating several downstream-signaling components. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of a methanolic strawberry extract on AMPK and its possible repercussion on lipid metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2)...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620456/effects-of-physical-activity-on-the-link-between-pgc-1a-and-fndc5-in-muscle-circulating-%C3%AE-risin-and-ucp1-of-white-adipocytes-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#13
Petros C Dinas, Ian M Lahart, James A Timmons, Per-Arne Svensson, Yiannis Koutedakis, Andreas D Flouris, George S Metsios
Background: Exercise may activate a brown adipose-like phenotype in white adipose tissue. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the effects of physical activity on the link between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1a) and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) in muscle, circulating Irisin and uncoupling protein one (UCP1) of white adipocytes in humans. Methods: Two databases (PubMed 1966 to 08/2016 and EMBASE 1974 to 08/2016) were searched using an appropriate algorithm...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603486/comparison-of-sirtuin-3-levels-in-als-and-huntington-s-disease-differential-effects-in-human-tissue-samples-vs-transgenic-mouse-models
#14
Eva Buck, Hanna Bayer, Katrin S Lindenberg, Johannes Hanselmann, Noemi Pasquarelli, Albert C Ludolph, Patrick Weydt, Anke Witting
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by distinct patterns of neuronal loss. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) upper and lower motoneurons degenerate whereas in Huntington's disease (HD) medium spiny neurons in the striatum are preferentially affected. Despite these differences the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors are remarkably similar. In addition, non-neuronal features, such as weight loss implicate a dysregulation in energy metabolism. Mammalian sirtuins, especially the mitochondrial NAD+ dependent sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), regulate mitochondrial function and aging processes...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578076/%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation-differ-in-their-effects-on-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-atrogin-1-mafbx-gene-expression-in-chick-skeletal-muscle
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Saki Shimamoto, Daichi Ijiri, Mana Kawaguchi, Kazuki Nakashima, Osamu Tada, Hiroki Inoue, Akira Ohtsuka
Adrenaline changes expression of the genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), which is known as a regulator of muscle size, and atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), which is a muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase. However, the subtype of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) involved in regulating these genes in skeletal muscle is not yet well defined. In this study, the effects of intraperitoneal injection of adrenaline and three β1-3-AR selective agonists on chick skeletal muscle metabolism were examined, to evaluate the functions of β-AR subtypes...
September 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570828/the-role-of-androgens-in-the-regulation-of-muscle-oxidative-capacity-following-aerobic-exercise-training
#16
Michael L Rossetti, Bradley S Gordon
Reduced production or bioavailability of androgens, termed hypogonadism, occurs in a variety of pathological conditions. While androgens target numerous tissues throughout the body, hypogonadism specifically reduces the ability of skeletal muscle to produce ATP aerobically i.e. muscle oxidative capacity. This has important implications for overall health as muscle oxidative capacity impacts a number of metabolic processes. Although androgen replacement therapy is effective at restoring muscle oxidative capacity in hypogonadal individuals, this is not a viable therapeutic option for all who are experiencing hypogonadism...
June 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540526/high-fat-diet-inhibits-pgc-1%C3%AE-suppressive-effect-on-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-hepatocytes
#17
Wermerson Assunção Barroso, Vanessa Jacob Victorino, Isabela Casagrande Jeremias, Ricardo Costa Petroni, Suely Kunimi Kubo Ariga, Thiago A Salles, Denise Frediani Barbeiro, Thais Martins de Lima, Heraldo Possolo de Souza
PURPOSE: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) regulates the expression of genes implicated in fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. Its role in liver steatosis is well established, since mice with liver-specific deletion of PGC-1α exhibit lipid accumulation and high-fat diet reduces hepatic PGC-1α expression in mice. In this study, we investigated the role of PGC-1α in the inflammatory changes observed in steatohepatitis induced by high-fat diet...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528294/isoliquiritigenin-reduces-oxidative-damage-and-alleviates-mitochondrial-impairment-by-sirt1-activation-in-experimental-diabetic-neuropathy
#18
Veera Ganesh Yerra, Anil Kumar Kalvala, Ashutosh Kumar
Sirtuin (SIRT1) inactivation underlies the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia-associated vascular complications, but its role in diabetic neuropathy (DN) has not been yet explored. We have evaluated hyperglycaemia-induced alteration of SIRT1 signalling and the effect of isoliquiritigenin (ILQ) on SIRT1-directed AMP kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) signalling in peripheral nerves of streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg/kg, ip)-induced diabetic rats and in high glucose (30 mM)-exposed neuro2a (N2A) cells...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456571/erythropoietin-activates-sirt1-to-protect-human-cardiomyocytes-against-doxorubicin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-toxicity
#19
Lan Cui, Jiabin Guo, Qiang Zhang, Jian Yin, Jin Li, Wei Zhou, Tingfen Zhang, Haitao Yuan, Jun Zhao, Li Zhang, Paul L Carmichael, Shuangqing Peng
The hormone erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to protect against chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. We hypothesized that silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), plays a crucial role in regulating mitochondrial function and mediating the beneficial effect of EPO. Our study in human cardiomyocyte AC16 cells showed that DOX-induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction, as manifested by decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased mitochondrial superoxide accumulation, can be mitigated by EPO pretreatment...
June 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420087/skeletal-muscle-nucleo-mitochondrial-crosstalk-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Prasad P Devarshi, Sean M McNabney, Tara M Henagan
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction, evidenced by incomplete beta oxidation and accumulation of fatty acid intermediates in the form of long and medium chain acylcarnitines, may contribute to ectopic lipid deposition and insulin resistance during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. The present review discusses the roles of anterograde and retrograde communication in nucleo-mitochondrial crosstalk that determines skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations, specifically alterations in mitochondrial number and function in relation to obesity and insulin resistance...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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