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PGC-1 alpha

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089435/jejunal-gluconeogenesis-associated-with-insulin-resistance-level-and-its-evolution-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#1
Carolina Gutierrez-Repiso, Sara Garcia-Serrano, Francisco J Moreno-Ruiz, Guillermo Alcain-Martinez, Francisca Rodriguez-Pacheco, Eduardo Garcia-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Intestinal gluconeogenesis (GNG) may play an important role in glucose homeostasis, but there is little information about the condition in humans. OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship between intestinal GNG and insulin resistance, its association with the evolution of morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery, and the effect of insulin and or leptin. SETTING: Regional university hospital, Malaga (Spain). METHODS: Jejunal mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG was analyzed in 3 groups of morbidly obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: with low insulin resistance (MO-low-IR), with high insulin resistance (MO-high-IR), and with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin (MO-metf-T2D)...
December 2, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078253/effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-mitochondrial-dna-replication-and-pgc-1%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-c2c12-muscle-cells
#2
Mak-Soon Lee, Yoonjin Shin, Sohee Moon, Seunghae Kim, Yangha Kim
Mitochondrial biogenesis is a complex process requiring coordinated expression of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, and it controls mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication within diverse tissues, including muscle tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on mtDNA copy number and PGC-1α promoter activity in C2C12 muscle cells...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073778/overexpression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-increases-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-human-primary-myotubes
#3
Tai-Yu Huang, Donghai Zheng, Joseph A Houmard, Jeffrey J Brault, Robert C Hickner, Ronald N Cortright
Peroxisomes are indispensable organelles for lipid metabolism in humans and their biogenesis has been assumed to be under regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, recent studies in hepatocytes suggest that the mitochondrial proliferator PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha) also acts as an upstream transcriptional regulator for enhancing peroxisomal abundance and associated activity. It is unknown whether the regulatory mechanism(s) for enhancing peroxisomal function is through the same node as mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle (HSkM) and whether fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is affected...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070015/inhaled-resveratrol-treatments-slow-ageing-related-degenerative-changes-in-mouse-lung
#4
Barbara Driscoll, Sonia Navarro, Raghava Reddy, Jooeun Lee, David Warburton
BACKGROUND: Lung ageing, a significant risk factor for chronic human lung diseases such as COPD and emphysema, is characterised by airspace enlargement and decreasing lung function. Likewise, in prematurely ageing telomerase null (terc-/-) mice, p53 stabilisation within diminishing numbers of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2) accompanies reduced lung function. Resveratrol (RSL) is a plant phytoalexin that has previously showed efficacy in enhancing invertebrate longevity and supporting mammalian muscle metabolism when delivered orally...
January 9, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054981/the-root-extract-of-pueraria-lobata-and-its-main-compound-puerarin-prevent-obesity-by-increasing-the-energy-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#5
Hyo Won Jung, An Na Kang, Seok Yong Kang, Yong-Ki Park, Mi Young Song
Radix Pueraria lobata (RP) has been reported to prevent obesity and improve glucose metabolism; however, the mechanism responsible for these effects has not been elucidated. The mechanism underlying anti-obesity effect of RP was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12). Five-week-old C5BL/6 mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing RP (100 or 300 mg/kg) or metformin (250 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. RP reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in liver, and adipocyte and blood lipid levels...
January 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049732/nadph-oxidase-4-nox4-suppresses-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-bioenergetics-in-lung-fibroblasts-via-a-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-nrf2-dependent-pathway
#6
Karen Bernard, Naomi J Logsdon, Veronica Miguel, Gloria A Benavides, Jianhua Zhang, A Brent Carter, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Victor J Thannickal
Mitochondrial bioenergetics are critical for cellular homeostasis and stress responses. The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), regulates a number of physiological and pathological processes, including cellular differentiation, host defense and tissue fibrosis. In this study, we explored the role of constitutive Nox4 activity in regulating mitochondrial function. An increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reserve capacity was observed in murine and human lung fibroblasts with genetic deficiency (or silencing) of Nox4...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024113/a-novel-and-complex-mechanism-regulating-pgc-1%C3%AE-4-expression
#7
EDITORIAL
Bradley S Gordon
In the current issue of Acta Physiologica, Brown et al. (Brown et al. 2016) describes a novel regulatory mechanism for the expression of the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma Co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) splice variant 4 (PGC-1α4). Since the discovery of the parent PGC-1α gene, it has been at the forefront of muscle biology research as it significantly altered muscle phenotype in both pathological and physiological model systems (Lin et al. 2002, Sandri et al. 2006). This article is protected by copyright...
December 26, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998274/repressed-sirt1-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway-and-mitochondrial-disintegration-in-ipsc-derived-rpe-disease-model-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#8
Nady Golestaneh, Yi Chu, Shuk Kei Cheng, Hong Cao, Eugenia Poliakov, Daniel M Berinstein
BACKGROUND: Study of age related macular degeneration (AMD) has been hampered by lack of human models that represent the complexity of the disease. Here we have developed a human in vitro disease model of AMD to investigate the underlying AMD disease mechanisms. METHODS: Generation of iPSCs from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of AMD donors, age-matched normal donors, skin fibroblasts of a dry AMD patient, and differentiation of iPSCs into RPE (AMD RPE-iPSC-RPE, normal RPE-iPSC-RPE and AMD Skin-iPSC-RPE, respectively)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955950/resistive-training-and-molecular-regulators-of-vascular-metabolic-risk-in-chronic-stroke
#9
Alice S Ryan, Guoyan Li, Charlene Hafer-Macko, Frederick M Ivey
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator (PGC-1α) gene and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) respond to physiological stimuli and regulate insulin resistance. Inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the soluble forms of intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and vascular CAM-1 (sVCAM-1) are associated with increased risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Resistive training (RT) reduces hyperinsulinemia and improves insulin action in chronic stroke...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916422/pgc-1-alpha-interacts-with-microrna-217-to-functionally-regulate-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation
#10
Shaohui Zhang, Xinguo Liu, Jianming Liu, Heng Guo, Hongfeng Xu, Geng Zhang
BACKGROUND: In this study, we explored the functional mechanism of PPARg co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) in regulating miR-217-mediated breast cancer development in vitro. METHODS: Dual-luciferase activity assay was applied to examine the binding of miR-217 on PGC-1α gene. Breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were infected by lentivirus to constitutively downregulate miR-217. Its regulation on PGC-1α expression was investigated by qRT-PCR and western blot...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909049/control-of-secreted-protein-gene-expression-and-the-mammalian-secretome-by-the-metabolic-regulator-pgc-1%C3%AE
#11
Neri Minsky, Robert G Roeder
Secreted proteins serve pivotal roles in the development of multicellular organisms, acting as structural matrix, extracellular enzymes, and signal molecules. However, how the secretome is regulated remains incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate, unexpectedly, that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), a critical transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, functions to down-regulate the expression of diverse genes encoding secreted molecules and extracellular matrix components to modulate the secretome...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903512/thyroid-hormone-stimulated-increases-in-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-ucp2-promote-life-history-specific-endocrine-changes-and-maintain-a-lipid-based-metabolism
#12
Bridget Martinez, José G Soñanez-Organis, Jose A Godoy-Lugo, Lillian Horin, Daniel E Crocker, Rudy M Ortiz
Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate metabolism, but are typically suppressed during times of stressful physiological conditions, including fasting. Interestingly, prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups is associated with reliance on a lipid-based metabolism and increased levels of circulating thyroid hormones that are partially attributed to active secretion as opposed to reduced clearance. This apparent paradox is coupled with complementary increases in cellular TH-mediated activity suggesting that in mammals naturally adapted to prolonged fasting TH are necessary to support metabolism...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896503/effect-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-overexpression-or-silencing-on-mitochondrial-apoptosis-of-goat-luteinized-granulosa-cells
#13
Guo-Min Zhang, Ming-Tian Deng, Yan-Li Zhang, Yi-Xuan Fan, Yong-Jie Wan, Hai-Tao Nie, Zi-Yu Wang, Feng Wang, Zhi-Hai Lei
During goat follicular development, abnormal expression of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) in granulosa cells (GCs) may contribute to follicular atresia with unknown regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we investigate the effect of ectopic expression or interference of PGC-1α on cell apoptosis of goat first passage granulosa cells (FGCs) in vitro. The results indicate that PGC-1α silencing by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in goat FGCs significantly reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number (P < 0...
October 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834877/sugar-composition-analysis-of-fuzi-polysaccharides-by-hplc-ms-n-and-their-protective-effects-on-schwann-cells-exposed-to-high-glucose
#14
Bei-Bei Wang, Jia-Li Wang, Jiang Yuan, Qing-Hua Quan, Rui-Fang Ji, Peng Tan, Jing Han, Yong-Gang Liu
Fuzi has been used to treat diabetic complications for many years in china. In a previous study, we have shown that Fuzi aqueous extract can attenuate Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in rats and protect Schwann cells from injury. Thus, the protective effect of Fuzi polysaccharides (FPS) on high glucose-induced SCs and the preliminary mechanism were investigated. Firstly, the FPS were obtained and their monose composition was analyzed by the combination of pre-column derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization multi-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS(n))...
November 9, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735783/abundance-in-proteins-expressed-after-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-or-arm-cycling-ergometry-training-in-persons-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Ashraf S Gorgey, Zachary A Graham, William A Bauman, Christopher Cardozo, David R Gater
STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal design. OBJECTIVES: The study determined the effects of two forms of exercise training on the abundance of two proteins, (glucose transporter-4 [GLUT-4], adenosine monophosphate kinase [AMPK]) involved in glucose utilization and the transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator 1 alpha [PGC-1α]), in muscles in men with chronic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686000/different-training-induced-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-in-copd-patients-with-and-without-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#16
Inga Jarosch, Sebastian Gehlert, Daniel Jacko, Rembert Andreas Koczulla, Marion Wencker, Tobias Welte, Wilhelm Bloch, Sabina Janciauskiene, Klaus Kenn
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves oxidative capacity of peripheral muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The exercise-induced oxidative skeletal muscle adaptation in COPD patients with inherited alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To compare PR effects on skeletal muscle adaptation in COPD patients with and without A1ATD. METHODS: Nine COPD patients with A1ATD (genotype PiZZ, 6 receiving A1AT augmentation therapy), and 10 'usual' COPD patients (genotype PiMM) performed an incremental cycling test and underwent musculus vastus lateralis biopsies before and after a 3-week PR program including exercise training...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638713/gene-therapy-targeting-mitochondrial-pathway-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Chi-Jing Choong, Hideki Mochizuki
Parkinson's disease (PD) presents a relative selective localization of pathology to substantia nigra and well-defined motor symptoms caused by dopaminergic degeneration that makes it an ideal target for gene therapy. Parallel progress in viral vector systems enables the delivery of therapeutic genes directly into brain with reasonable safety along with sustained transgene expression. To date, gene therapy for PD that has reached clinical trial evaluation is mainly based on symptomatic approach that involves enzyme replacement strategy and restorative approach that depends on the addition of neurotrophic factors...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637001/eicosapentaenoic-acid-promotes-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-beige-like-features-in-subcutaneous-adipocytes-from-overweight-subjects
#18
L M Laiglesia, S Lorente-Cebrián, P L Prieto-Hontoria, M Fernández-Galilea, S M R Ribeiro, N Sáinz, J A Martínez, M J Moreno-Aliaga
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been reported to have beneficial effects in obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of EPA on the regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, and the ability of EPA to induce mitochondrial biogenesis and beiging in subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight subjects. Fully differentiated human subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight females (BMI: 28.1-29.8kg/m(2)) were treated with EPA (100-200 μM) for 24 h...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614713/effects-of-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-on-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-in-rats-of-different-age-groups
#19
René G Feichtinger, Erika Pétervári, Michaela Zopf, Silvia Vidali, Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, Johannes A Mayr, Barbara Kofler, Márta Balaskó
Hypothalamic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a key catabolic mediator of energy homeostasis. Its anorexigenic and hypermetabolic effects show characteristic age-related alterations that may be part of the mechanism of middle-aged obesity and geriatric anorexia/cachexia seen in humans and other mammals. We aimed to investigate the role of α-MSH in mitochondrial energy metabolism during the course of aging in a rodent model. To determine the role of α-MSH in mitochondrial energy metabolism in muscle, we administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions of α-MSH for 7-days to different age-groups of male Wistar rats...
August 26, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601998/mitochondrial-and-metabolic-gene-expression-in-the-aged-rat-heart
#20
Gregory P Barton, Joseph J Sepe, Susan H McKiernan, Judd M Aiken, Gary M Diffee
Aging is associated with a decline in cardiac function. Exercise intervention has been suggested as a way to improve this decrement. Age-related decline in cardiac function is associated with decreases in fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. The molecular mechanisms involved with age-related changes in mitochondrial function and substrate metabolism are poorly understood. We determined gene expression differences in hearts of Young (6 mo), Old (33 mo), and old exercise trained (Old + EXE) (34 mo) FBN rats, using Qiagen PCR arrays for Glucose, Fatty acid, and Mitochondrial metabolism...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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