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reversing dyslexia

Tânia Fernandes, Isabel Leite
The relation between reversal errors (e.g., d for b, Я for R) and developmental dyslexia has been elusive. In this study, we investigated the roles of reading level, visual category, and orientation processing in this relation. Children with developmental dyslexia, chronological-age-matched controls, and reading-level-matched controls performed two "same-different" matching tasks on reversible (e.g., b) and nonreversible (e.g., e) letters and on geometric shapes (e.g., ). In the orientation-based task, orientation processing was explicitly required; in the shape-based task, orientation processing would be automatic inasmuch as it was task irrelevant and would hinder successful performance...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Joong-Gu Kang, Seung-Hwan Lee, Eun-Jin Park, Hyun-Sung Leem
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with dyslexia experience reading difficulties, whereas their other cognitive abilities seem normal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the event-related potential (ERP) patterns of children with dyslexia during a target-detection task. METHODS: Seventeen children with dyslexia and 18 children without this disorder participated in this study. We evaluated their writing and reading ability, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and intelligence quotient...
February 29, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Claudia Männel, Lars Meyer, Arndt Wilcke, Johannes Boltze, Holger Kirsten, Angela D Friederici
Developmental dyslexia, a severe impairment of literacy acquisition, is known to have a neurological basis and a strong genetic background. However, effects of individual genetic variations on dyslexia-associated deficits are only moderate and call for the assessment of the genotype's impact on mediating neuro-endophenotypes by the imaging genetics approach. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in German participants with and without dyslexia, we investigated gray matter changes and their association with impaired phonological processing, such as reduced verbal working memory...
October 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Zuzana Kubová, Miroslav Kuba, Jan Kremláček, Jana Langrová, Jana Szanyi, František Vít, Marie Chutná
Standard pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and motion-onset VEPs (M-VEPs) were tested in 19 dyslexics and 19 normal readers aged 7-13 years in order to evaluate the feasibility of M-VEPs for the objective diagnostics of a visual subtype of dyslexia, in which a dysfunction of the magnocellular subsystem/dorsal stream of the visual pathway is suspected. The set of VEPs consisted of the pattern-reversal VEPs with check sizes of 20', two types of translational motion (with low and high contrast) and two types of radial motion (in the full field or the periphery)...
June 2015: Vision Research
Teresa Schubert, Michael McCloskey
The task of recognition of oral spelling (stimulus: "C-A-T", response: "cat") is often administered to individuals with acquired written language disorders, yet there is no consensus about the underlying cognitive processes. We adjudicate between two existing hypotheses: Recognition of oral spelling uses central reading processes, or recognition of oral spelling uses central spelling processes in reverse. We tested the recognition of oral spelling and spelling to dictation abilities of a single individual with acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia...
2015: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Tomoka Kobayashi, Masumi Inagaki, Hiroko Yamazaki, Yosuke Kita, Makiko Kaga, Akira Oka
OBJECTIVE: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. The magnocellular deficit theory is one of several hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of DD. In this study, we investigated magnocellular system dysfunction in Japanese dyslexic children. METHODS: Subjects were 19 dyslexic children (DD group) and 19 aged-matched healthy children (TD group)...
November 2014: No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development
Pedro Shiozawa, Mailu Enokibara da Silva, Quirino Cordeiro
We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient with major depressive disorder for the last 6 months. The patient had been diagnosed with dyslexia during childhood and was left-handed. The intervention protocol consisted in 10 consecutive daily transcranial direct current stimulation sessions. However, after 5 days of stimulation, the patient presented with intensification of depressive symptoms and panic attacks. It was hypothetized that the intensification of symptoms may have been due to stimulation protocol itself...
September 2015: Journal of ECT
Carolina A F de Carvalho, Adriana de S B Kida, Simone A Capellini, Clara R B de Avila
PURPOSE: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. METHOD: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Tim Shallice
The article is concerned with inferences from the behaviour of neurological patients to models of normal function. It takes the letter-by-letter reading strategy common in pure alexic patients as an example of the methodological problems involved in making such inferences that compensatory strategies produce. The evidence is discussed on the possible use of three ways the letter-by-letter reading process might operate: "reversed spelling"; the use of the phonological input buffer as a temporary holding store during word building; and the use of serial input to the visual word-form system entirely within the visual-orthographic domain such as in the model of Plaut [1999...
2014: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Xiuhong Tong, Kevin Kien Hoa Chung, Catherine McBride
Using event-related potential (ERP) measures, we examined the time course of Chinese compound word processing in 15 dyslexic and 10 normal children in a lexical decision task with three conditions including real words (e.g.,[Formula: see text] (house)), reversed nonwords (e.g.,[Formula: see text][Formula: see text] can be transposed to a real word [Formula: see text](ocean)) and random nonwords (e.g.,[Formula: see text] is not a real word when transposing). Behavioral results showed that dyslexic children performed slower and less accurately than normal children did across conditions...
2014: Developmental Neuropsychology
Michael C Corballis
Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established...
January 2014: PLoS Biology
Elsa Ahlén, Charlotte S Hills, Hashim M Hanif, Cristina Rubino, Jason J S Barton
Reading is an expert visual and ocular motor function, learned mainly in a single orientation. Characterizing the features of this expertise can be accomplished by contrasts between reading of normal and inverted text, in which perceptual but not linguistic factors are altered. Our goal was to examine this inversion effect in healthy subjects reading text, to derive behavioral and ocular motor markers of perceptual expertise in reading, and to study these parameters before and after training with inverted reading...
March 2014: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Shyamala K Venkatesh, Anand Siddaiah, Prakash Padakannaya, Nallur B Ramachandra
OBJECTIVE: DYX1C1 has been identified as a susceptible candidate gene for developmental dyslexia (DD); studies in various populations have yielded inconclusive results and the causal allele is unknown in the Indian population. On the basis of the initial association studies and the role of DYX1C1 in neuronal migration, we investigated the role of DYX1C1 in causing DD in an Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DYX1C1 were genotyped in 210 cases with DD and 256 age-matched nondyslexic controls...
February 2014: Psychiatric Genetics
Tânia Fernandes, Ana P Vale, Bruno Martins, José Morais, Régine Kolinsky
To clarify the link between anomalous letter processing and developmental dyslexia, we examined the impact of surrounding contours on letter vs. pseudo-letter processing by three groups of children - phonological dyslexics and two controls, one matched for chronological age, the other for reading level - and three groups of adults differing by schooling and literacy - unschooled illiterates and ex-illiterates, and schooled literates. For pseudo-letters, all groups showed congruence effects (CE: better performance for targets surrounded by a congruent than by an incongruent shape)...
January 2014: Developmental Science
N A Badian
Teacher perceptions of the social-behavioral characteristics of 99 boys were examined. Subjects were divided into three groups (Low Nonverbal, High Nonverbal, Equal) on the basis of their scores on two verbal and two performance WISC-R subtests, considered to be good measures of left- and right-brain functioning. The pattern of strengths and weaknesses shown by Low Nonverbal subjects suggested good left-brain functioning, but a right-brain dysfunction. These subjects were good readers, but relatively weak in arithmetic...
January 1986: Annals of Dyslexia
Laura Veronelli, Giuseppe Vallar, Chiara V Marinelli, Silvia Primativo, Lisa S Arduino
Right-brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect typically set the mid-point of horizontal lines to the right of the objective center. By contrast, healthy participants exhibit a reversed bias (pseudoneglect). The same effect has been described also when bisecting orthographic strings. In particular, for this latter kind of stimulus, some recent studies have shown that visuo-perceptual characteristics, like stimulus length, may contribute to both the magnitude and the direction bias of the bisection performance (Arduino et al...
January 2014: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Alicia Che, Matthew J Girgenti, Joseph LoTurco
BACKGROUND: Variants in dyslexia-associated genes, including DCDC2, have been linked to altered neocortical activation, suggesting that dyslexia associated genes might play as yet unspecified roles in neuronal physiology. METHODS: Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were used to compare the electrophysiological properties of regular spiking pyramidal neurons of neocortex in Dcdc2 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice. Ribonucleic acid sequencing and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed to identify and characterize changes in gene expression in Dcdc2 KOs...
September 1, 2014: Biological Psychiatry
Genevieve McArthur, Anne Castles, Saskia Kohnen, Linda Larsen, Kristy Jones, Thushara Anandakumar, Erin Banales
The aims of this study were to (a) compare sight word training and phonics training in children with dyslexia, and (b) determine if different orders of sight word and phonics training have different effects on the reading skills of children with dyslexia. One group of children (n = 36) did 8 weeks of phonics training (reading via grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules) and then 8 weeks of sight word training (reading irregular words as a whole), one group did the reverse (n = 36), and one group did phonics and sight word training simultaneously for two 8-week periods (n = 32)...
July 2015: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Anita Sharma, Vinod K Gothecha, Nisha K Ojha
Dyslexia is one of the commonest learning disability. It is defined as a disorder where a child, in spite of all the classroom teaching, is not able to attain the language skills of reading, writing and spelling according to their level of intelligence. Dyslexia individuals often have difficulty in relating to the association between sound and their respective letters. Reversing or transposing the letters while writing is characteristic with letters such as b and d, P and q, etc., The prevalence among school children is reported as 9...
October 2012: Ayu
Alison M Bacon, Fabrice B R Parmentier, Polly Barr
Impairments in working memory are suggested to be one of the defining characteristics of dyslexia, and deficits in verbal recall are well documented. However, the situation regarding visuospatial memory is less clear. In a widely used measure, the Corsi blocks task, sequences of visuospatial locations can be recalled forwards, in the order presented (CF), or backwards, in reverse order (CB). Previous research has suggested that, while CF draws on spatial-sequential resources, CB may load executive and distinctly visual processes...
2013: Memory
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