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steep slope

Chad M Sylvester, Diana J Whalen, Andy C Belden, Shana L Sanchez, Joan L Luby, Deanna M Barch
High shyness during early adolescence is associated with impaired peer relationships and risk for psychiatric disorders. Little is known, however, about the relation between shyness and trajectories of brain development over early adolescence. The current study longitudinally examined trajectories of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) within four brain networks in 147 adolescents. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at three different time points, at average ages 10.5 (range = 7...
December 8, 2017: Child Development
Tingting Wei, Teruo Kanki, Masashi Chikanari, Takafumi Uemura, Tsuyoshi Sekitani, Hidekazu Tanaka
Field-effect transistors using correlated electron materials with an electronic phase transition pave a new avenue to realize steep slope switching, to overcome device size limitations and to investigate fundamental science. Here, we present a new finding in gate-bias-induced electronic transport switching in a correlated electron material, i.e., a VO2 nanowire channel through a hybrid gate, which showed an enhancement in the resistive modulation efficiency accompanied by expansion of metallic nano-domains in an insulating matrix by applying gate biases near the metal-insulator transition temperature...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Walle Jemberu, Jantiene E M Baartman, Luuk Fleskens, Coen J Ritsema
Farmers possess a wealth of knowledge regarding soil erosion and soil and water conservation (SWC), and there is a great demand to access it. However, there has been little effort to systematically document farmers' experiences and perceptions of SWC measures. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) has largely evolved through local traditional practices rather than adoption based on scientific evidence. This research aimed to assess soil erosion and performance of different SWC measures from the farmers' perspective by documenting their perceptions and experiences in Koga catchment, Ethiopia...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Xuhui Xu, Qianglu Chen, Chenglin Chu, Guorong Li, Cunge Liu, Zheng Shi
Thick carbonate rocks were developed in the depression of the Tarim craton during the Cambrian-Middle Ordovician periods. The compressional tectonic movement during the Middle Caledonian-Hercynian created the paleouplifts, which became the base for the paleokarst in the Ordovician carbonate rocks. Based on the large quantity of seismic, drilling, and geological outcrop data, this study analyzed the paleokarst development in relation to the multi-stage tectonic movements in the Paleozoic Era and different stages of karstification and hypothesized paleogeomorphology and paleokarst water system of those stages...
2017: Carbonates and Evaporites
I López, L Aragonés, Y Villacampa, F J Navarro-González
The erosion of the world's coasts and the shortage of sand to mitigate beach erosion are leading to the increasingly common use of gravel for coastal protection and beach nourishment. Therefore, in order to determine the amount of gravel required for such actions, it is important to know perfectly the equilibrium profile of gravel beaches. However, at present, this profile is obtained from formulas obtained mainly after channel tests, and therefore most of them do not adapt to the real profiles formed by gravel beaches in nature...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Claude Vincent, Dany H Gagnon, Frédéric Dumont
PURPOSE: To assess the effects of a mobility service dog (MSD) on pain, fatigue, wheelchair-related functional tasks, participation and satisfaction among manual wheelchair users over a nine-month period. METHOD: A longitudinal study with repeated assessment times before and three, six and nine months after intervention was achieved. Intervention consisted in partnering each participant with a MSD. The setting is a well-established provincial service dog training school and participants homes...
November 20, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Yu Meng Wang, Tommy Cy Chan, Marco C Y Yu, Vishal Jhanji
PURPOSE: To compare the rate of disease progression in keratoconus before and after corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL). METHODS: 145 eyes were followed without CXL (no-CXL group) for a median duration of 31 months whereas 45 eyes were followed up for 41 months before (pre-CXL) and after (post-CXL) accelerated, epithelium-off crosslinking. Progression was defined based on significant slope found in linear mixed effect models against time. Swept-source optical coherence tomography was used for measurement of anterior steep keratometry, anterior flat keratometry (Ant Kf), anterior average keratometry (Ant Avg K); posterior steep keratometry, posteriorflat keratometry (Post Kf), posterior average keratometry (Post Avg K) and corneal thickness...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Ilija Uzelac, Yanyan C Ji, Daniel Hornung, Johannes Schröder-Scheteling, Stefan Luther, Richard A Gray, Elizabeth M Cherry, Flavio H Fenton
Rationale: Discordant alternans, a phenomenon in which the action potential duration (APDs) and/or intracellular calcium transient durations (CaDs) in different spatial regions of cardiac tissue are out of phase, present a dynamical instability for complex spatial dispersion that can be associated with long-QT syndrome (LQTS) and the initiation of reentrant arrhythmias. Because the use of numerical simulations to investigate arrhythmic effects, such as acquired LQTS by drugs is beginning to be studied by the FDA, it is crucial to validate mathematical models that may be used during this process...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Fan Wu, Chunmei Shi, Riping Wu, Zhiqing Huang, Qiang Chen
To determine the risk factors for peritoneal recurrence in gastric cancer patients after curative resection, we included 320 patients with stage I-III primary gastric cancer between January 2008 and June 2012. Data on each patient's surgical and pathological information, preoperative and postoperative tumor markers were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The risk factors for peritoneal recurrence were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. In patients with peritoneal recurrence, advanced T or N stage, low differentiation, vascular/lymphatic invasion, perineural invasion, and elevated postoperative CEA/CA19-9 were more common than in patients without peritoneal recurrence...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Jaya Rachwani, Kasey C Soska, Karen E Adolph
What do infants learn when they learn to sit upright? We tested behavioral flexibility in learning to sit-the ability to adapt posture to changes in the environment-in 6- to 9-month-old infants sitting on forward and backward slopes. Infants began with slant at 0°; then slant increased in 2° increments until infants lost balance. Infants kept balance on impressively steep slopes, especially in the forward direction, despite the unexpected movements of the apparatus. Between slant adjustments while the slope was stationary, infants adapted posture to the direction and degree of slant by leaning backward on forward slopes and forward on backward slopes...
December 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
Mikhail Saltychev, Katri Laimi, Jaana Pentti, Mika Kivimäki, Jussi Vahtera
The objective of this study was to identify subgroups among the participants in inpatient multidisciplinary musculoskeletal rehabilitation based on the differences in the shapes of trajectories of pain medication consumption during the 9 years around the time of intervention. A register-based study among 4578 public sector employees was conducted. Group-based trajectory analysis was done on the purchase of prescribed pain medications during the 9 years around the time of rehabilitation. The participants were on an average 50...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Rie Oka, Kyoko Shibata, Masaru Sakurai, Mitsuhiro Kometani, Masakazu Yamagishi, Kenichi Yoshimura, Takashi Yoneda
We aimed to clarify how the trajectories of 1-hour postload plasma glucose (PG) and 2-hour PG were different in the development of type 2 diabetes. Using data of repeated health checkups in Japanese workers from April 2006 to March 2016, longitudinal changes of fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour PG on the oral glucose tolerance test were analyzed with a linear mixed effects model. Of the 1464 nondiabetic subjects at baseline, 112 subjects progressed to type 2 diabetes during the observation period (progressors). In progressors, 1-hour PG and 2-hour PG showed gradual increases with slopes of 1...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
Alla P Stepanchuk
INTRODUCTION: The issue on the mode of blood motion in the bloodstream, where the arterial and venous flow is significantly different, has been of greater concern recently. However, the conclusions are largely based on the analysis of the geometric orientation in the wall of arteries of smooth muscle elements. The aim of our study was to examine the characteristics of the prominent configuration of cardial cavities and arterial vessels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The material for study were specimens of human heart, rabbit aorta and arterial microvessels of rat salivary glands, examined by injection and corrosive methods, scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Stefani Daryanto, Lixin Wang, Pierre André Jacinthe
Agriculture is a significant contributor to phosphorus (P) enrichment in aquatic ecosystems. No-till (NT) farming has been proposed as an alternative approach to conventional tillage (CT) in reducing soil P export, but published data have shown contrasting impacts, likely due to the interacting effects of different physical (climate region, rainfall variability, transport pathway, slope gradient) and management variables (NT duration, crop species). We conducted a meta-analysis to understand the extent to which each of these variables controls the concentration and load of different P fractions (dissolved P, particulate P) in agricultural runoff and leaching...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
K Meusburger, P Porto, L Mabit, C La Spada, L Arata, C Alewell
The expected growing population and challenges associated with globalisation will increase local food and feed demands and enhance the pressure on local and regional upland soil resources. In light of these potential future developments it is necessary to define sustainable land use and tolerable soil loss rates with methods applicable and adapted to mountainous areas. Fallout-radionuclides (FRNs) are proven techniques to increase our knowledge about the status and resilience of agro-ecosystems. However, the use of the Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) method is complicated in the European Alps due to its heterogeneous input and the timing of the Chernobyl fallout, which occurred during a few single rain events on partly snow covered ground...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Research
Melissa Morselli, Chiara Maria Vitale, Alessio Ippolito, Sara Villa, Roberto Giacchini, Marco Vighi, Antonio Di Guardo
The use of plant protection products (PPPs) in agricultural areas implies potential chemical loadings to surface waters, which can pose a risk to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Due to the spatio-temporal variability of PPP applications and of the processes regulating their transport to surface waters, aquatic organisms are typically exposed to pulses of contaminants. In small mountain watersheds, where runoff fluxes are more rapid due to the steep slopes, such exposure peaks are particularly likely to occur...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hagai Levine, Niels Jørgensen, Anderson Martino-Andrade, Jaime Mendiola, Dan Weksler-Derri, Irina Mindlis, Rachel Pinotti, Shanna H Swan
BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of recent trends in sperm counts as measured by sperm concentration (SC) and total sperm count (TSC), and their modification by fertility and geographic group...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
Jason L Sanders, Wensheng Guo, Ellen S O'Meara, Robert C Kaplan, Michael N Pollak, Traci M Bartz, Anne B Newman, Linda P Fried, Anne R Cappola
Background: Disruption of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) increases health and life span in animal models, though this is unconfirmed in humans. If IGF-I stability indicates homeostasis, the absolute level of IGF-I may be less clinically relevant than maintaining an IGF-I setpoint. Methods: Participants were 945 U.S. community-dwelling individuals aged ≥65 years enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study with IGF-I levels at 3-6 timepoints. We examined the association of baseline IGF-I level, trajectory slope, and variability around the trajectory with mortality...
July 23, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jan Rejšek, Vladimír Vrkoslav, Vít Pokorný, Vladimír Přibyl, Josef Cvačka
The analysis of nonplanar samples in ambient mass spectrometry poses a formidable challenge. Here, an ion source equipped with laser triangulation for analyzing nonplanar surfaces was constructed. It was designed as a two-position device, where the sample height was measured using laser triangulation and the target compounds were then analyzed. Thanks to a stage movable in xyz, the ion source maintained an optimal vertical distance between the sample and the sampling capillary for each measured spot during the surface analysis...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Pang-Shiuan Liu, Ching-Ting Lin, Boris Hudec, Tuo-Hung Hou
Carrier transport in layered transition-metal dichalcogenides is highly sensitive to surrounding charges because of the atomically thin thickness. By exploiting this property, we report a new internal current amplification mechanism through positive feedback induced by dielectric hole trapping in a MoS<sub>2</sub> back-gate transistor on a tantalum oxide substrate. The device exhibits an extremely steep subthreshold slope of 17 mV/decade, which is strongly dependent on the substrate material and drain bias...
September 28, 2017: Nanotechnology
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