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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647913/how-adaptation-makes-low-firing-rates-robust
#1
Arthur S Sherman, Joon Ha
Low frequency firing is modeled by Type 1 neurons with a SNIC, but, because of the vertical slope of the square-root-like f-I curve, low f only occurs over a narrow range of I. When an adaptive current is added, however, the f-I curve is linearized, and low f occurs robustly over a large I range. Ermentrout (Neural Comput. 10(7):1721-1729, 1998) showed that this feature of adaptation paradoxically arises from the SNIC that is responsible for the vertical slope. We show, using a simplified Hindmarsh-Rose neuron with negative feedback acting directly on the adaptation current, that whereas a SNIC contributes to linearization, in practice linearization over a large interval may require strong adaptation strength...
December 2017: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625526/body-mass-index-and-all-cause-mortality-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#2
REVIEW
Mehran Rahimlu, Sakineh Shab-Bidar, Kurosh Djafarian
This article provides a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause and disease-specific mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) by pooling together early stage, hemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis patients. We evaluated eligible studies that published between 1966 and December 2014 by searching in PubMed, Object View and Interaction Design (OVID), and the Scopus databases. We used random-effects generalized least squares spline models for trend estimation to derive pooled dose-response estimates...
July 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617337/tunable-temperature-response-of-a-thermochromic-photonic-gel-sensor-containing-n-isopropylacrylamide-and-4-acryloyilmorpholine
#3
Hwanam Kye, Young Gook Koh, Youkyung Kim, Sung Gu Han, Hyunjung Lee, Wonmok Lee
In this study, thermochromic photonic gels were fabricated using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as a hydrogel building block, and 4-Acryloyl morpholine (ACMO) and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) as thermoresponsive monomers with different critical solution temperature behaviors. Rapid photopolymerization of opal-templated monomer mixtures of varying ACMO contents formed five individual thermochromic inverse opal photonic gels integrated on a single substrate. With temperature variation from 10 °C to 80 °C, the changes in reflective colors and reflectance spectra of the respective thermochromic gels were noted, and λpeak changes were plotted...
June 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616175/seasonal-habitat-use-by-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-mole-national-park-of-ghana
#4
George Ashiagbor, Emmanuel Danquah
To avoid unnecessary waste of limited resources and to help prioritize areas for conservation efforts, this study aimed to provide information on habitat use by elephants between the wet and dry seasons in the Mole National Park (MNP) of Ghana. We compiled coordinates of 516 locations of elephants' encounters, 256 for dry season and 260 for wet season. Using nine predictor variables, we modeled the probability of elephant's distribution in MNP. We threshold the models to "suitable" and "nonsuitable" regions of habitat use using the equal training sensitivity and specificity values of 0...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613894/individual-defects-in-inas-ingaassb-gasb-nanowire-tunnel-field-effect-transistors-operating-below-60-mv-decade
#5
Elvedin Memisevic, Markus Hellenbrand, Erik Lind, Axel R Persson, Saurabh Sant, Andreas Schenk, Johannes Svensson, Lars-Erik Wernersson, Lars Reine Wallenberg
Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors (TunnelFET), a leading steep-slope transistor candidate, is still plagued by defect response and there is a large discrepancy between measured and simulated device performance. In this work, highly scaled InAs-InxGa1-xAsySb1-y-GaSb vertical nanowire TunnelFET with ability to operate well below 60 mV/decade at technically relevant currents are fabricated and characterized. The structure, composition, and strain is characterized using transmission electron microscopy with emphasis on the heterojunction...
June 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567175/carrier-properties-of-b-atomic-layer-doped-si-films-grown-by-ecr-ar-plasma-enhanced-cvd-without-substrate-heating
#6
Masao Sakuraba, Katsutoshi Sugawara, Takayuki Nosaka, Hisanao Akima, Shigeo Sato
The atomic-layer (AL) doping technique in epitaxy has attracted attention as a low-resistive ultrathin semiconductor film as well as a two-dimensional (2-D) carrier transport system. In this paper, we report carrier properties for B AL-doped Si films with suppressed thermal diffusion. B AL-doped Si films were formed on Si(100) by B AL formation followed by Si cap layer deposition in low-energy Ar plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition without substrate heating. After fabrication of Hall-effect devices with the B AL-doped Si films on unstrained and 0...
2017: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545891/numerical-modelling-of-methane-oxidation-efficiency-and-coupled-water-gas-heat-reactive-transfer-in-a-sloping-landfill-cover
#7
S Feng, C W W Ng, A K Leung, H W Liu
Microbial aerobic methane oxidation in unsaturated landfill cover involves coupled water, gas and heat reactive transfer. The coupled process is complex and its influence on methane oxidation efficiency is not clear, especially in steep covers where spatial variations of water, gas and heat are significant. In this study, two-dimensional finite element numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the performance of unsaturated sloping cover. The numerical model was calibrated using a set of flume model test data, and was then subsequently used for parametric study...
May 22, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539624/sediment-transport-capacity-of-concentrated-flows-on-steep-loessial-slope-with-erodible-beds
#8
Hai Xiao, Gang Liu, Puling Liu, Fenli Zheng, Jiaqiong Zhang, Feinan Hu
Previous research on sediment transport capacity has been inadequate and incomplete in describing the detachment and transport process of concentrated flows on slope farmlands during rill development. An indoor concentrated flow scouring experiment was carried out on steep loessial soil slope with erodible bed to investigate the sediment transport capacity under different flow rates and slope gradients. The results indicated that the sediment transport capacity increases with increasing flow rate and slope gradient, and these relationships can be described by power functions and exponential functions, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538209/peritoneal-recurrence-in-gastric-cancer-following-curative-resection-can-be-predicted-by-postoperative-but-not-preoperative-biomarkers-a-single-institution-study-of-320-cases
#9
Fan Wu, Chunmei Shi, Riping Wu, Zhiqing Huang, Qiang Chen
To determine the risk factors for peritoneal recurrence in gastric cancer patients after curative resection, we included 320 patients with stage I-III primary gastric cancer between January 2008 and June 2012. Data on each patient's surgical and pathological information, preoperative and postoperative tumor markers were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The risk factors for peritoneal recurrence were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. In patients with peritoneal recurrence, advanced T or N stage, low differentiation, vascular/lymphatic invasion, perineural invasion, and elevated postoperative CEA/CA19-9 were more common than in patients without peritoneal recurrence...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500272/probing-the-lithium-response-pathway-in-hipscs-implicates-the-phosphoregulatory-set-point-for-a-cytoskeletal-modulator-in-bipolar-pathogenesis
#10
Brian T D Tobe, Andrew M Crain, Alicia M Winquist, Barbara Calabrese, Hiroko Makihara, Wen-Ning Zhao, Jasmin Lalonde, Haruko Nakamura, Glenn Konopaske, Michelle Sidor, Cameron D Pernia, Naoya Yamashita, Moyuka Wada, Yuuka Inoue, Fumio Nakamura, Steven D Sheridan, Ryan W Logan, Michael Brandel, Dongmei Wu, Joshua Hunsberger, Laurel Dorsett, Cordulla Duerr, Ranor C B Basa, Michael J McCarthy, Namrata D Udeshi, Philipp Mertins, Steven A Carr, Guy A Rouleau, Lina Mastrangelo, Jianxue Li, Gustavo J Gutierrez, Laurence M Brill, Nikolaos Venizelos, Guang Chen, Jeffrey S Nye, Husseini Manji, Jeffrey H Price, Colleen A McClung, Hagop S Akiskal, Martin Alda, De-Maw M Chuang, Joseph T Coyle, Yang Liu, Yang D Teng, Toshio Ohshima, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Richard L Sidman, Shelley Halpain, Stephen J Haggarty, Yoshio Goshima, Evan Y Snyder
The molecular pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BPD) is poorly understood. Using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to unravel such mechanisms in polygenic diseases is generally challenging. However, hiPSCs from BPD patients responsive to lithium offered unique opportunities to discern lithium's target and hence gain molecular insight into BPD. By profiling the proteomics of BDP-hiPSC-derived neurons, we found that lithium alters the phosphorylation state of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2)...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487249/combining-tdcs-with-prismatic-adaptation-for-non-invasive-neuromodulation-of-the-motor-cortex
#11
Martina Bracco, Giuseppa Renata Mangano, Patrizia Turriziani, Daniela Smirni, Massimiliano Oliveri
BACKGROUND: Prismatic adaptation (PA) shifts visual field laterally and induces lateralized deviations of spatial attention. Recently, it has been suggested that prismatic goggles are also able to modulate brain excitability, with cognitive after-effects documented even in tasks not necessarily spatial in nature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to test whether neuromodulatory effects obtained from tDCS and prismatic goggles could interact and induce homeostatic changes in corticospinal excitability...
May 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487047/anodal-and-cathodal-electrical-stimulation-over-v5-improves-motion-perception-by-signal-enhancement-and-noise-reduction
#12
Luca Battaglini, Stefano Noventa, Clara Casco
BACKGROUND: The effect that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has on discrimination of coherent motion (CM) signals in a field of randomly moving dots (noise) can be accounted for by both noise reduction and signal enhancement. OBJECTIVE: To distinguish between noise reduction and signal enhancement, we monitored the discrimination of the correct CM direction as a function of the coherence level (using the psychophysical method of constant stimuli)...
July 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472092/influence-of-slope-steepness-foot-position-and-turn-phase-on-plantar-pressure-distribution-during-giant-slalom-alpine-ski-racing
#13
Thomas Falda-Buscaiot, Frédérique Hintzy, Patrice Rougier, Patrick Lacouture, Nicolas Coulmy
The purpose of this study was to investigate the evolution of ground reaction force during alpine skiing turns. Specifically, this study investigated how turn phases and slope steepness affected the whole foot normal GRF pattern while performing giant slalom turns in a race-like setting. Moreover, the outside foot was divided into different plantar regions to see whether those parameters affected the plantar pressure distribution. Eleven skiers performed one giant slalom course at race intensity. Runs were recorded synchronously using a video camera in the frontal plane and pressure insoles under both feet's plantar surface...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460250/measurement-of-root-surface-area-of-permanent-teeth-in-a-chinese-population
#14
Y Gu, Q Zhu, Y Tang, Y Zhang, X Feng
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the remaining area of periodontal attachment and the attachment levels for each type of permanent teeth in a Chinese population by using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scans. DESIGN: A total of 440 extracted permanent teeth (including each tooth type except for the third molars) were collected from a Chinese population and scanned using a micro-CT. The CT data were input into Mimics 15...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422528/effect-of-psychopharmacotherapy-on-body-mass-index-among-children-and-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorders
#15
Ayush Patel, Wenyaw Chan, Rajender R Aparasu, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Jeff T Sherer, Rohan Medhekar, Hua Chen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term effect of all treatment options for pediatric bipolar disorders on body mass index (BMI) and to explore individual characteristics associated with less BMI increase during psychotropic medication exposures. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by using the 1995 to 2010 General Electric Electronic Medical Record database. Individuals aged 18 years or younger who had a new bipolar disorder episode were identified. Treatment exposure was defined based on the medication regimens patients received, which include atypical antipsychotic (AT) monotherapy, mood stabilizer (MS) monotherapy, antidepressant (AD) monotherapy, AT+MS polytherapy, AT+AD polytherapy, MS+AD polytherapy, and no treatment...
May 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402791/survey-of-corticioid-fungi-in-north-american-pinaceous-forests-reveals-hyperdiversity-underpopulated-sequence-databases-and-species-that-are-potentially-ectomycorrhizal
#16
Lisa M Rosenthal, Karl-Henrik Larsson, Sara Branco, Judy A Chung, Sydney I Glassman, Hui-Ling Liao, Kabir G Peay, Dylan P Smith, Jennifer M Talbot, John W Taylor, Else C Vellinga, Rytas Vilgalys, Thomas D Bruns
The corticioid fungi are commonly encountered, highly diverse, ecologically important, and understudied. We collected specimens in 60 pine and spruce forests across North America to survey corticioid fungal frequency and distribution and to compile an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) database for the group. Sanger sequences from the ITS region of vouchered specimens were compared with sequences on GenBank and UNITE, and with high-throughput sequence data from soil and roots taken at the same sites. Out of 425 high-quality Sanger sequences from vouchered specimens, we recovered 223 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs), the majority of which could not be assigned to species by matching to the BLAST database...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388853/psychometrically-equivalent-bisyllabic-words-for-speech-recognition-threshold-testing-in-vietnamese
#17
Richard W Harris, David L McPherson, Claire M Hanson, Dennis L Eggett
OBJECTIVE: This study identified, digitally recorded, edited and evaluated 89 bisyllabic Vietnamese words with the goal of identifying homogeneous words that could be used to measure the speech recognition threshold (SRT) in native talkers of Vietnamese. DESIGN: Native male and female talker productions of 89 Vietnamese bisyllabic words were recorded, edited and then presented at intensities ranging from -10 to 20 dBHL. Logistic regression was used to identify the best words for measuring the SRT...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386922/technical-descriptions-of-four-hemispherectomy-approaches-from-the-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery-meeting-at-gothenburg-2014
#18
REVIEW
James E Baumgartner, Jeffrey P Blount, Thomas Blauwblomme, P Sarat Chandra
Hemispherectomy is a complex multistep procedure with a steep learning curve. Several surgical approaches have been developed, but each requires considerable practice to master. Four experienced pediatric neurosurgeons, who participated in the 2014 Gothenburg Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery Meeting, provided succinct technical summaries of four hemispherectomy approaches: modified functional hemispherectomy, peri-insular hemispherotomy, parasagittal hemispherotomy, and endoscopic-assisted hemispherotomy. No clinical or outcome data are included...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371805/restitution-slope-is-principally-determined-by-steady-state-action-potential-duration
#19
Michael J Shattock, Kyung Chan Park, Hsiang-Yu Yang, Angela W C Lee, Steven Niederer, Kenneth T MacLeod, James Winter
Aims: The steepness of the action potential duration (APD) restitution curve and local tissue refractoriness are both thought to play important roles in arrhythmogenesis. Despite this, there has been little recognition of the apparent association between steady-state APD and the slope of the restitution curve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that restitution slope is determined by APD and to examine the relationship between restitution slope, refractoriness and susceptibility to VF...
June 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349665/steeper-change-in-body-mass-across-four-decades-predicts-poorer-cardiometabolic-outcomes-at-midlife
#20
Hong Xian, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Weijian Liu, Richard L Hauger, Kristen C Jacobson, Michael J Lyons, Matthew Panizzon, Chandra A Reynolds, Eero Vuoksimaa, William S Kremen, Carol E Franz
OBJECTIVE: This study examined patterns of change in adiposity across four decades starting in young adulthood as well as associations between change and midlife cardiometabolic outcomes. METHODS: BMI was assessed at ages 20, 40, 56, and 62 years in 977 male veterans from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Age 62 (range 56-66) cardiometabolic outcomes included hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and ischemic heart disease. Analyses included latent growth modeling (LGM), latent class growth modeling (LCGM), and logistic regression models...
April 2017: Obesity
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