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steep slope

Beatrix Siemering, Eileen Bresnan, Stuart C Painter, Chris J Daniels, Mark Inall, Keith Davidson
The edge of the North West European Shelf (NWES) is characterised by a steep continental slope and a northward flowing slope current. These topographic/hydrographic features separate oceanic water and shelf water masses hence potentially separate phytoplankton communities. The slope current may facilitate the advective transport of phytoplankton, with mixing at the shelf edge supporting nutrient supply and therefore phytoplankton production. On the west Scottish shelf in particular, little is known about the phytoplankton communities in and around the shelf break and adjacent waters...
2016: PloS One
Steven G Morgan, Alan L Shanks, Atsushi G Fujimura, Ad J H M Reniers, Jamie MacMahan, Chris D Griesemer, Marley Jarvis, Jenna Brown
Larvae of intertidal species develop at sea and must return to adult habitats to replenish populations. Similarly, nutrients, detritus and plankton provide important subsidies spurring growth and reproduction of macroalgae and filter-feeding invertebrates that form the foundation of intertidal communities. Together, these factors determine the density and intensity of interactions among community members. We hypothesized that spatial variation in surfzone hydrodynamics affects the delivery of plankton subsidies...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Saptarshi Das
This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nicole L Zaino, Mark J Hedgeland, Mario J Ciani, Alexander Martin Clark, Laurel Kuxhaus, Arthur J Michalek
Animal joints are valuable proxies for those of humans in biomechanical studies, however commonly used quadruped knees differ greatly from human knees in scale and morphometry. To test the suitability of the cervine stifle joint (deer knee) as a laboratory model, gross morphometry, ACL cross section, and ACL rupture strength were measured and compared to values previously reported for the knees of humans and commonly studied animals. Twelve knee joints from wild white-tailed deer were tested. Several morphometry parameters, including bicondylar width (53...
October 7, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Maria Michela Gianino, Jacopo Lenzi, Aida Muça, Maria Pia Fantini, Roberta Siliquini, Walter Ricciardi, Gianfranco Damiani
OBJECTIVE: To update amenable mortality in 32 OECD countries at 2013 (or last available year), to describe the time trends during 2000-2013, and to evaluate the association of these trends with various geographic areas. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data from 32 countries during 2000-2013, gathered from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. STUDY DESIGN: Time trend analysis. DATA COLLECTION: Using Nolte and McKee's list, age-standardized amenable mortality rates (SDRs) were calculated as the annual number of deaths over the population aged 0-74 years per 100,000 inhabitants...
October 5, 2016: Health Services Research
Joy C Perkinson, Michael J Aziz, Michael P Brenner, Miranda Holmes-Cerfon
We propose and experimentally test a method to fabricate patterns of steep, sharp features on surfaces, by exploiting the nonlinear dynamics of uniformly ion-bombarded surfaces. We show via theory, simulation, and experiment that the steepest parts of the surface evolve as one-dimensional curves that move in the normal direction at constant velocity. The curves are a special solution to the nonlinear equations that arises spontaneously whenever the initial patterning on the surface contains slopes larger than a critical value; mathematically they are traveling waves (shocks) that have the special property of being undercompressive...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jun Hyun Hwang, Soon-Woo Park
We assessed the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and peer cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for the initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 65,753 nonsmokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. A total of 3.8% of the Korean adolescents were 'ever e-cigarette' users and 1.2% were current users. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for current and ever e-cigarette use compared to those whose closest friends were non-smokers ranged from 2...
2016: PloS One
Thomas Küstner, Christian Würslin, Martin Schwartz, Petros Martirosian, Sergios Gatidis, Cornelia Brendle, Ferdinand Seith, Fritz Schick, Nina F Schwenzer, Bin Yang, Holger Schmidt
PURPOSE: To enable fast and flexible high-resolution four-dimensional (4D) MRI of periodic thoracic/abdominal motion for motion visualization or motion-corrected imaging. METHODS: We proposed a Cartesian three-dimensional k-space sampling scheme that acquires a random combination of k-space lines in the ky/kz plane. A partial Fourier-like constraint compacts the sampling space to one half of k-space. The central k-space line is periodically acquired to allow an extraction of a self-navigated respiration signal used to populate a k-space of multiple breathing positions...
September 25, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Stefan Gerhold, I Cetin Gülüm, Arpad Pinter
We consider the at-the-money (ATM) strike derivative of implied volatility as the maturity tends to zero. Our main results quantify the behaviour of the slope for infinite activity exponential Lévy models including a Brownian component. As auxiliary results, we obtain asymptotic expansions of short maturity ATM digital call options, using Mellin transform asymptotics. Finally, we discuss when the ATM slope is consistent with the steepness of the smile wings, as given by Lee's moment formula.
March 3, 2016: Appl Math Finance
Sayantan Das, Priyank Pravin Patel, Somasis Sengupta
BACKGROUND: With myriad geospatial datasets now available for terrain information extraction and particularly streamline demarcation, there arises questions regarding the scale, accuracy and sensitivity of the initial dataset from which these aspects are derived, as they influence all other parameters computed subsequently. In this study, digital elevation models (DEM) derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER V2), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM V4, C-Band, 3 arc-second), Cartosat -1 (CartoDEM 1...
2016: SpringerPlus
Im-Kyung Kim, Jeonghyun Kang, Seung Hyuk Baik, Kang Young Lee, Seung-Kook Sohn
BACKGROUND: The use of a transparent cap is regarded as a simple method to obtain better outcomes compared with standard colonoscopy. In this study, we investigated whether cap-assisted colonoscopy can improve the quality of procedure-related outcomes in patients with a history of colorectal resection. METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled trial conducted at a single tertiary center by a single endoscopist (Kang J.). A total 183 patients after colorectal resection due to primary colorectal cancer were enrolled and 1:1 randomized to undergo either cap-assisted colonoscopy (CAP group) or standard colonoscopy (non-CAP group)...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Vanessa Hull, Jindong Zhang, Jinyan Huang, Shiqiang Zhou, Andrés Viña, Ashton Shortridge, Rengui Li, Dian Liu, Weihua Xu, Zhiyun Ouyang, Hemin Zhang, Jianguo Liu
Animals make choices about where to spend their time in complex and dynamic landscapes, choices that reveal information about their biology that in turn can be used to guide their conservation. Using GPS collars, we conducted a novel individual-based analysis of habitat use and selection by the elusive and endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We constructed spatial autoregressive resource utilization functions (RUF) to model the relationship between the pandas' utilization distributions and various habitat characteristics over a continuous space across seasons...
2016: PloS One
M Okuno, E Hatano, H Nishino, S Seo, K Taura, S Uemoto
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate whether the response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlates with the conversion rate, R0 resection rate, and survival in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). METHODS: We reviewed the literature of prospective, controlled trials of systemic chemotherapy for patients with unresectable liver-only CRLM, including resectable extrahepatic metastases. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
A Ennaceur, M D Hussain, R M Abuhamdah, R M Mostafa, P L Chazot
When exposed to an unfamiliar open space, animals experience fear and attempt to find an escape route. Anxiety emerges when animals are confronted with a challenging obstacle to this fear motivated escape. High anxiety animals do not take risks; they avoid the challenge. The present experiments investigated this risk avoidant behavior in mice. In experiment 1, BALB/c, C57BL/6J and CD-1 mice were exposed to a large platform with downward inclined steep slopes attached on two opposite sides. The platform was elevated 75 and 100cm from the ground, in a standard (SPDS) and in a raised (RPDS) configuration, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Ayele Almaw Fenta, Hiroshi Yasuda, Katsuyuki Shimizu, Nigussie Haregeweyn, Aklilu Negussie
Since the past two decades, watershed management practices such as construction of stone bunds and establishment of exclosures have been widely implemented in the semi-arid highlands of northern Ethiopia to curb land degradation by soil erosion. This study assessed changes in soil erosion for the years 1990, 2000 and 2012 as a result of such watershed management practices in Agula watershed using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation factors were computed in a geographic information system for 30 × 30 m raster layers using spatial data obtained from different sources...
November 2016: Environmental Management
Michele Orini, Peter Taggart, Neil Srinivasan, Martin Hayward, Pier D Lambiase
BACKGROUND: The restitution of the action potential duration (APDR) and conduction velocity (CVR) are mechanisms whereby cardiac excitation and repolarization adapt to changes in heart rate. They modulate the vulnerability to dangerous arrhythmia, but the mechanistic link between restitution and arrhythmogenesis remains only partially understood. METHODS: This paper provides an experimental and theoretical study of repolarization and excitation restitution properties and their interactions in the intact human epicardium...
2016: PloS One
Jong Yol Park, Marianne Ruidisch, Bernd Huwe
Previous studies have documented the occurrence of veterinary sulfonamide antibiotics in groundwater and rivers located far from pollution sources, although their transport and fate is relatively unknown. In mountainous agricultural fields, the transport behaviour can be influenced by climate, slope and physico-chemical properties of the sulfonamides. The objective of this research is to describe the transport behaviour of three sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine) in sloped agricultural fields located in the Haean catchment, South Korea...
August 31, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chamkor Singh, Arup K Das, Prasanta K Das
This work reports an experimental and a numerical study of the interfacial instability in a mercury-ferrofluid system caused by a spatially nonuniform magnetic field against the action of gravity and interfacial tension. The interface evolution is observed to be continuous till its movement is hindered by a physical boundary. In contrast to the behavior of the ferrofluid interface under uniform field, we noted the instability growth to be monotonic under a field gradient. A steepness in the growth curve is noticed during the later stages of the instability, indicating a high magnitude of the growth velocities...
July 2016: Physical Review. E
Kristiina Manderbacka, Martti Arffman, Sonja Lumme, Markku Lehikoinen, Klas Winell, Ilmo Keskimäki
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes requires continuous medical care including prevention of acute complications and risk reduction for long-term complications. Diabetic complications impose a substantial burden on public health and care delivery. We examined trends in regional differences in hospitalisations due to diabetes-related complications among the total diabetes population in Finland. RESEARCH DESIGN: A longitudinal register-based cohort study 1996-2011 among a total population with diabetes in Finland...
2016: BMJ Open
Caroline Praz, Benedikt Fasel, Philippe Vuistiner, Kamiar Aminian, Bengt Kayser
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe the effects of speed and gradient during uphill ski mountaineering on energy expenditure, to relate any changes to changes in stride characteristics, and to determine an optimal gradient and speed allowing minimization of energy expenditure. METHODS: 11 subjects were tested on snowy trails using their mountaineering skis (fitted with skins), boots and poles, at three gradients (7, 11 and 33 %) at 80 % of maximum heart rate (HRmax), and at 11 % also at 90 and 100 % of HRmax...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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