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steep slope

Sonja Th Kwee-Meier, Alexander Mertens, Sabina Jeschke
BACKGROUND: Uphill walking is particularly challenging for elderly persons. However, there is a lack of age-differentiated studies investigating the underlying differences in muscle activation when walking on sloped surfaces. These studies are needed, e.g., for planning of evacuations of large modern cruise ships with long walking distances on often inclined surfaces. METHODS: An age-differentiated, gender-balanced study with 26 young (20-30 years) and 26 elderly people (60-77 years) was therefore conducted, investigating uphill walking at 7° and at 14° contrasted to level walking on a treadmill...
April 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
Aziz Asadollahi, Lev Khazanovich
The emergence of ultrasonic dry point contact (DPC) transducers that emit horizontal shear waves has enabled efficient collection of high-quality data in the context of a nondestructive evaluation of concrete structures. This offers an opportunity to improve the quality of evaluation by adapting advanced imaging techniques. Reverse time migration (RTM) is a simulation-based reconstruction technique that offers advantages over conventional methods, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique. RTM is capable of imaging boundaries and interfaces with steep slopes and the bottom boundaries of inclusions and defects...
April 11, 2018: Ultrasonics
Zhiyuan Wang, Alejandro Lleras, Simona Buetti
Our lab recently found evidence that efficient visual search (with a fixed target) is characterized by logarithmic Reaction Time (RT) × Set Size functions whose steepness is modulated by the similarity between target and distractors. To determine whether this pattern of results was based on low-level visual factors uncontrolled by previous experiments, we minimized the possibility of crowding effects in the display, compensated for the cortical magnification factor by magnifying search items based on their eccentricity, and compared search performance on such displays to performance on displays without magnification compensation...
April 17, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Sushant Sonde, Bhaswar Chakrabarti, Yuzi Liu, Kiran Sasikumar, Jianqiang Lin, Liliana Stan, Ralu Divan, Leonidas E Ocola, Daniel Rosenmann, Pabitra Choudhury, Kai Ni, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan, Suman Datta, Supratik Guha
Large banks of cheap, fast, non-volatile, energy efficient, scalable solid-state memories are an increasingly essential component for today's data intensive computing. Conductive-bridge random access memory (CBRAM) - which involves voltage driven formation and dissolution of Cu or Ag filaments in a Cu (or Ag) anode/dielectric (HfO2 or Al2O3)/inert cathode device - possesses the necessary attributes to fit the requirements. Cu and Ag are, however, fast diffusers and known contaminants in silicon microelectronics...
April 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Qiqi Sun, Rui Wang, Yaxian Hu, Lunguang Yao, Shengli Guo
The spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity pose a great challenge to accurately estimate the carbon flux in global carbon cycling, which has primarily been researched in flatlands versus hillslope ecosystems. On an eroded slope (35°) of the semiarid Loess Plateau, soil respiration, soil moisture and soil temperature were measured in situ at upper and lower slope positions in triplicate from 2014 until 2016, and the soil biochemical and microbial properties were determined...
2018: PloS One
Liang Li, Jian Liu, Yan Liu, Chenguang Liu, He Zhang, Xiaoyu You, Kang Gu, Yuhang Wang, Jiubin Tan
Reflected light escape and mesoscopic penetration are two serious problems for optical characterization using microscopes. For specular samples with steep slopes, the detector does not receive enough light and the detection algorithm is not be able to detect the peak position, and would generate non-measured points. Moreover, the mesoscopic penetration phenomenon has been ignored when measuring and observing the shapes of samples with multi-layer structures. But this phenomenon, due to the transparency of materials to certain wavelengths of light, may result in serious errors in the measurements of the heights of samples, as well as errors in the descriptions of their shapes...
April 6, 2018: Nanoscale
Milan Muška, Michal Tušer, Jaroslava Frouzová, Tomáš Mrkvička, Daniel Ricard, Jaromír Seďa, Federico Morelli, Jan Kubečka
Understanding spatial distribution of organisms in heterogeneous environment remains one of the chief issues in ecology. Spatial organization of freshwater fish was investigated predominantly on large-scale, neglecting important local conditions and ecological processes. However, small-scale processes are of an essential importance for individual habitat preferences and hence structuring trophic cascades and species coexistence. In this work, we analysed the real-time spatial distribution of pelagic freshwater fish in the Římov Reservoir (Czechia) observed by hydroacoustics in relation to important environmental predictors during 48 hours at 3-h interval...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hwat Bing So, Ashraf M Khalifa, Bofu Yu, Chris Caroll, Peter Burger, David Mulligan
Open-cut coal mining in Queensland results in the formation of extensive saline overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75% or 37o). These spoil-piles are generally found in multiple rows, several kilometers in length and heights of up to 50 or 60 m above the original landscape. They are highly dispersive and erodible. Legislation demands that these spoil piles be rehabilitated to minimize on-site and off-site discharges of sediment and salt into the surrounding environment...
2018: PloS One
Eduardo Leorri, Andrew R Zimmerman, Siddhartha Mitra, Robert R Christian, Francisco Fatela, David J Mallinson
The age and ability of salt marshes to accumulate and sequester carbon is often assessed using the carbon isotopic signatures (Δ14 C and δ13 C) of sedimentary organic matter. However, transfers of allochthonous refractory carbon (CRF ) from the watershed to marshes would not represent new C sequestration. To better understand how refractory carbon (CRF ) inputs affect assessments of marsh age and C sequestration, Δ14 C and δ13 C of both total organic carbon (TOC), CRF , and non-CRF organic matter fractions were measured in salt marshes from four contrasting systems on the North Atlantic coast...
March 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sanjaya K Satapathy, Kiran Joglekar, Miklos Z Molnar, Bilal Ali, Humberto C Gonzalez, Jason M Vanatta, James D Eason, Satheesh P Nair
BACKGROUND: The effect of anti-viral therapy (AVT) on kidney function in liver transplant (LT) recipients has not been well described despite known association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We compared the incidence of CKD, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 204 LT recipients with HCV based on treatment response to AVT. RESULTS: The median eGFR at baseline (3 months post-LT) was similar in the SVR (n=145) and non-SVR group (n=59) (69±21 vs...
March 23, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Jessie C Buettel, Andrew Cole, John M Dickey, Barry W Brook
The spatial analysis of dimensionless points (e.g., tree locations on a plot map) is common in ecology, for instance using point-process statistics to detect and compare patterns. However, the treatment of one-dimensional linear features (fibre processes) is rarely attempted. Here we appropriate the methods of vector sums and dot products, used regularly in fields like astrophysics, to analyse a data set of mapped linear features (logs) measured in 12 × 1-hectare forest plots. For this demonstrative case study, we ask two deceptively simple questions: do trees tend to fall downhill, and if so, does slope gradient matter? Despite noisy data and many potential confounders, we show clearly that topography (slope direction and steepness) of forest plots does matter to treefall...
March 23, 2018: Ecology
Arch Creasy, Joseph Lomino, Gregory Barker, Anurag Khetan, Giorgio Carta
Protein retention in hydrophobic interaction chromatography is described by the solvophobic theory as a function of the kosmostropic salt concentration. In general, an increase in salt concentration drives protein partitioning to the hydrophobic surface while a decrease reduces it. In some cases, however, protein retention also increases at low salt concentrations resulting in a U-shaped retention factor curve. During gradient elution the salt concentration is gradually decreased from a high value thereby reducing the retention factor and increasing the protein chromatographic velocity...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Abderrezak Kamel Toubal, Mohammed Achite, Sylvain Ouillon, Abdelatif Dehni
Soil losses must be quantified over watersheds in order to set up protection measures against erosion. The main objective of this paper is to quantify and to map soil losses in the Wadi Sahouat basin (2140 km2 ) in the north-west of Algeria, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model assisted by a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. The Model Builder of the GIS allowed the automation of the different operations for establishing thematic layers of the model parameters: the erosivity factor (R), the erodibility factor (K), the topographic factor (LS), the crop management factor (C), and the conservation support practice factor (P)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Fangxu Yang, Lingjie Sun, Jiangli Han, Baili Li, Xi Yu, Xiaotao Zhang, Xiaochen Ren, Wenping Hu
Anodization is a promising technique to form high- k dielectrics for low-power organic field-effect transistor (OFET) applications. However, the surface quality of the dielectric, which is mainly inherited from the metal electrode, can be improved further than other fabrication techniques, such as sol-gel. In this study, we applied the template stripping method to fabricate a low-power single-crystalline OFET based on the anodized AlOx dielectric. We found that the template stripping method largely improves the surface roughness of the deposited Al and allows for the formation of a high-quality AlOx high- k dielectric by anodization...
March 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jaydip Dey, Saurabh Sakhre, Vikash Gupta, Ritesh Vijay, Sunil Pathak, Rajesh Biniwale, Rakesh Kumar
India's tourism industry has emerged as a leading industry with a potential to grow further in the next few decades. Dehradun, one of the famous tourist places in India located in the state of Uttarakhand, attracts tourist from all over the country and abroad. The surge in tourist number paved the way for new infrastructure projects like roads, buildings, and hotels, which in turn affects the topography of the mountainous region. In this study, remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to assess the impact of tourism on the land environment of Dehradun...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Hiroshi Yoshikura
The influenza season was defined as the period from week 36 of the year to week 20 of the next year in this report. The population size of prefectures (x) and number of the patients per prefecture (y) were initially uncorrelated but became correlated as the season advanced. The correlation with correlation coefficient >0.7 emerged earlier and earlier over time; it was week 5 of the next year in 2001/2002 but it was week 47 of the same year in 2014/2015. Once x and y became correlated, plots of y in the vertical axis against x in the horizontal axis fell on a straight line, y=Cxs , where s was the slope of the plots and C a constant...
February 28, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Bruce A Kimball, Aura M Alonso-Rodríguez, Molly A Cavaleri, Sasha C Reed, Grizelle González, Tana E Wood
The response of tropical forests to global warming is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting the future carbon balance of Earth. To determine the likely effects of elevated temperatures on tropical forest understory plants and soils, as well as other ecosystems, an infrared (IR) heater system was developed to provide in situ warming for the Tropical Responses to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Three replicate heated 4-m-diameter plots were warmed to maintain a 4°C increase in understory vegetation compared to three unheated control plots, as sensed by IR thermometers...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Zhihua Lin, Xinjian Fan, Mengmeng Sun, Changyong Gao, Qiang He, Hui Xie
We report a magnetically-actuated, peanut-shaped hematite colloid motor that can not only move in a rolling or wobbling mode in fluids but also perform single-cell manipulation and patterning in a non-contact manner. The peanut motor in the rolling mode can reach a maximal velocity of 10.6 μm s-1 under a rotating magnetic field of 130 Hz and 6.3 mT and can achieve a more precisely controllable motion in predefined tracks. By comparison, the peanut motor in the wobbling mode can reach a maximal velocity of 14...
February 14, 2018: ACS Nano
Koshi Kumagai, Naoki Hiki, Souya Nunobe, Satoshi Kamiya, Masahiro Tsujiura, Satoshi Ida, Manabu Ohashi, Toshiharu Yamaguchi, Takeshi Sano
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer requires traction or compression of the pancreas, with the extent depending on the anatomical position of the pancreas. This study investigated the impact of the position of the pancreas on postoperative complications and drain amylase concentrations after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG). METHODS: Gastric cancer patients who underwent LDG were assessed retrospectively. The following anatomical parameters were measured retrospectively in preoperative computed tomography sagittal projections: the length of the vertical line between the pancreas and the aorta (P-A length), representing the height of the slope looking down the celiac artery from the top of the pancreas, and the angle between a line drawn from the upper border of the pancreas to the root of the celiac artery and the aorta (UP-CA angle), representing the steepness of the slope...
February 12, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Eunah Ko, Jaemin Shin, Changhwan Shin
Simply including either single ferroelectric oxide layer or threshold selector, we can make conventional field effect transistor to have super steep switching characteristic, i.e., sub-60-mV/decade of subthreshold slope. One of the representative is negative capacitance FET (NCFET), in which a ferroelectric layer is added within its gate stack. The other is phase FET (i.e., negative resistance FET), in which a threshold selector is added to an electrode (e.g., source or drain) of conventional field effect transistor...
2018: Nano Convergence
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