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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902491/the-adaptation-rate-of-a-quantitative-trait-in-an-environmental-gradient
#1
R Hermsen
The spatial range of a species habitat is generally determined by the ability of the species to cope with biotic and abiotic variables that vary in space. Therefore, the species range is itself an evolvable property. Indeed, environmental gradients permit a mode of evolution in which range expansion and adaptation go hand in hand. This process can contribute to rapid evolution of drug resistant bacteria and viruses, because drug concentrations in humans and livestock treated with antibiotics are far from uniform...
November 30, 2016: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890416/larix-decidua-%C3%AE-18-o-tree-ring-cellulose-mainly-reflects-the-isotopic-signature-of-winter-snow-in-a-high-altitude-glacial-valley-of-the-european-alps
#2
Giovanni Leonelli, Giovanna Battipaglia, Paolo Cherubini, Matthias Saurer, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Maurizio Maugeri, Barbara Stenni, Stella Fusco, Valter Maggi, Manuela Pelfini
We analyzed the chronologies of cellulose stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) and tree-ring widths from European larch (Larix decidua) in a high-altitude site (2190ma.s.l.) at the bottom of a glacial valley in the Italian Alps, and investigated their dependence on monthly meteorological variables and δ(18)O precipitation values. The δ(18)O of tree-ring cellulose appears to be strongly driven by the δ(18)O of winter snowfall (November to March), which suggests that larch trees mostly use the snow-melt water of the previous winter during the growing season...
November 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888424/export-of-non-point-source-suspended-sediment-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-from-sloping-highland-agricultural-fields-in-the-east-asian-monsoon-region
#3
Arif Reza, Jaesung Eum, Sungmin Jung, Youngsoon Choi, Jeffrey S Owen, Bomchul Kim
Excess sediment and nutrient export from agricultural fields with steep slopes is a major concern linked to surface water quality in Korea. In this study, the export of suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) and their event mean concentrations (EMCs) in surface runoff from a highland mixed land use (61% forested, 30% cropped, 9% other) watershed were quantified. In 2007, the Korean Ministry of Environment (MoE) declared the study area as a priority region for non-point source (NPS) pollution management and initiated various best management practices (BMPs) in the study watershed...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882352/quantitative-evaluation-of-the-antiretroviral-efficacy-of-dolutegravir
#4
Sarah B Laskey, Robert F Siliciano
The second-generation HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI) dolutegravir (DTG) has had a major impact on the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Here we describe important but previously undetermined pharmacodynamic parameters for DTG. We show that the dose-response curve slope, which indicates cooperativity and is a major determinant of antiviral activity, is higher for DTG than for first-generation InSTIs. This steepness does not reflect inhibition of multiple steps in the HIV-1 life cycle, as is the case for allosteric integrase inhibitors and HIV-1 protease inhibitors...
November 17, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878409/analysis-of-the-functional-muscle-bone-unit-of-the-forearm-in-patients-with-phenylketonuria-by-peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomography
#5
Daniela Choukair, Carolin Kneppo, Reinhard Feneberg, Eckhard Schönau, Martin Lindner, Stefan Kölker, Georg F Hoffmann, Burkhard Tönshoff
Bone disease in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) is incompletely characterized. We therefore analyzed, in a cross-sectional study radius macroscopic bone architecture and forearm muscle size by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and muscle strength by hand dynamometry in a large cohort (n = 56) of adolescent and adult patients with PKU aged 26.0 ± 8.9 (range, 11.8-41.5) years. Data were compared with a reference population (n = 700) from the DONALD study using identical methodology...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866743/a-data-mining-framework-for-exploring-the-multi-relation-between-fish-species-and-water-quality-through-self-organizing-map
#6
Wen-Ping Tsai, Shih-Pin Huang, Su-Ting Cheng, Kwang-Tsao Shao, Fi-John Chang
The steep slopes of rivers can easily lead to large variations in river water quality during typhoon seasons in Taiwan, which may poses significant impacts on riverine eco-hydrological environments. This study aims to investigate the relationship between fish communities and water quality by using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for comprehending the upstream eco-hydrological system in northern Taiwan. We collected a total of 276 heterogeneous datasets with 8 water quality parameters and 25 fish species from 10 sampling sites...
November 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830350/longitudinal-changes-in-audiometric-phenotypes-of-age-related-hearing-loss
#7
Kenneth I Vaden, Lois J Matthews, Mark A Eckert, Judy R Dubno
Presbyacusis, or age-related hearing loss, can be characterized in humans as metabolic and sensory phenotypes, based on patterns of audiometric thresholds that were established in animal models. The metabolic phenotype is thought to result from deterioration of the cochlear lateral wall and reduced endocochlear potential that decreases cochlear amplification and produces a mild, flat hearing loss at lower frequencies coupled with a gradually sloping hearing loss at higher frequencies. The sensory phenotype, resulting from environmental exposures such as excessive noise or ototoxic drugs, involves damage to sensory and non-sensory cells and loss of the cochlear amplifier, which produces a 50-70 dB threshold shift at higher frequencies...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816820/the-impact-of-perceived-intensity-and-frequency-of-police-work-occupational-stressors-on-the-cortisol-awakening-response-car-findings-from-the-bcops-study
#8
John M Violanti, Desta Fekedulegn, Michael E Andrew, Tara A Hartley, Luenda E Charles, Diane B Miller, Cecil M Burchfiel
Police officers encounter unpredictable, evolving, and escalating stressful demands in their work. Utilizing the Spielberger Police Stress Survey (60-item instrument for assessing specific conditions or events considered to be stressors in police work), the present study examined the association of the top five highly rated and bottom five least rated work stressors among police officers with their awakening cortisol pattern. Participants were police officers enrolled in the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study (n=338)...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798200/reduction-of-cortical-oxygenation-in-chronic-kidney-disease-evidence-obtained-with-a-new-analysis-method-of-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Bastien Milani, Annalisa Ansaloni, Sofia Sousa-Guimaraes, Nima Vakilzadeh, Maciej Piskunowicz, Bruno Vogt, Matthias Stuber, Michel Burnier, Menno Pruijm
BACKGROUND: Determinations of renal oxygenation by blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have given heterogeneous results, possibly due to the lack of a reproducible method to analyse BOLD-MRI. It therefore remains uncertain whether patients with CKD have a reduced renal tissue oxygenation. We developed a new method to analyse BOLD-MRI signals and applied it to CKD patients and controls. METHODS: MRI was performed under standardized conditions before and 15 min after IV furosemide in 104 CKD patients, 61 hypertensives and 42 controls...
October 17, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794690/neural-substrates-of-overgeneralized-conditioned-fear-in-ptsd
#10
Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Philip C Burton, Shai M Chazin, Adrienne B Manbeck, Tori Espensen-Sturges, Samuel E Cooper, Scott R Sponheim, Shmuel Lissek
OBJECTIVE: Heightened generalization of fear from an aversively reinforced conditioned stimulus (CS+, a conditioned danger cue) to resembling stimuli is widely accepted as a pathogenic marker of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Indeed, a distress response to benign stimuli that "resemble" aspects of the trauma is a central feature of the disorder. To date, the link between overgeneralization of conditioned fear and PTSD derives largely from clinical observations, with limited empirical work on the subject...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794458/myosin-content-of-single-muscle-fibers-following-short-term-disuse-and-active-recovery-in-young-and-old-healthy-men
#11
Lars G Hvid, Lorenza Brocca, Niels Ørtenblad, Charlotte Suetta, Per Aagaard, Michael Kjaer, Roberto Bottinelli, Maria Antonietta Pellegrino
Short-term disuse and subsequent recovery affect whole muscle and single myofiber contractile function in young and old. While the loss and recovery of single myofiber specific force (SF) following disuse and rehabilitation has been shown to correlate with alterations in myosin concentrations in young, it is unknown whether similar relationships exist in old. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 14days lower limb disuse followed by 28days of active recovery on single muscle fiber myosin content in old (68yrs) and young (24yrs) recreationally physically active healthy men...
October 26, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794230/dune-scale-distribution-pattern-of-herbaceous-plants-and-their-relationship-with-environmental-factors-in-a-saline-alkali-desert-in-central-asia
#12
Ye Tao, Gan-Lin Wu, Yuan-Ming Zhang
Sand dunes are the main landforms in modern deserts worldwide. As an important type of desert vegetation, herbaceous plants have long been acknowledged for their important ecological functions. We focus on the dune-scale distribution pattern of herbaceous plants and their relationship with the environment. During the early summer of 2010, the herbaceous plant density, coverage, aboveground biomass and eighteen environmental factors were surveyed from 214 plots (5m×5m) across two linear sand dunes (220m×110m) located in the Gurbantunggut Desert, China, a typical saline-alkali desert in Central Asia...
October 26, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736920/phytoplankton-distribution-in-relation-to-environmental-drivers-on-the-north-west-european-shelf-sea
#13
Beatrix Siemering, Eileen Bresnan, Stuart C Painter, Chris J Daniels, Mark Inall, Keith Davidson
The edge of the North West European Shelf (NWES) is characterised by a steep continental slope and a northward flowing slope current. These topographic/hydrographic features separate oceanic water and shelf water masses hence potentially separate phytoplankton communities. The slope current may facilitate the advective transport of phytoplankton, with mixing at the shelf edge supporting nutrient supply and therefore phytoplankton production. On the west Scottish shelf in particular, little is known about the phytoplankton communities in and around the shelf break and adjacent waters...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733543/surfzone-hydrodynamics-as-a-key-determinant-of-spatial-variation-in-rocky-intertidal-communities
#14
Steven G Morgan, Alan L Shanks, Atsushi G Fujimura, Ad J H M Reniers, Jamie MacMahan, Chris D Griesemer, Marley Jarvis, Jenna Brown
Larvae of intertidal species develop at sea and must return to adult habitats to replenish populations. Similarly, nutrients, detritus and plankton provide important subsidies spurring growth and reproduction of macroalgae and filter-feeding invertebrates that form the foundation of intertidal communities. Together, these factors determine the density and intensity of interactions among community members. We hypothesized that spatial variation in surfzone hydrodynamics affects the delivery of plankton subsidies...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721489/two-dimensional-electrostrictive-field-effect-transistor-2d-efet-a-sub-60mv-decade-steep-slope-device-with-high-on-current
#15
Saptarshi Das
This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718092/white-tailed-deer-as-an-ex-vivo-knee-model-joint-morphometry-and-acl-rupture-strength
#16
Nicole L Zaino, Mark J Hedgeland, Mario J Ciani, Alexander Martin Clark, Laurel Kuxhaus, Arthur J Michalek
Animal joints are valuable proxies for those of humans in biomechanical studies, however commonly used quadruped knees differ greatly from human knees in scale and morphometry. To test the suitability of the cervine stifle joint (deer knee) as a laboratory model, gross morphometry, ACL cross section, and ACL rupture strength were measured and compared to values previously reported for the knees of humans and commonly studied animals. Twelve knee joints from wild white-tailed deer were tested. Several morphometry parameters, including bicondylar width (53...
October 7, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704525/declining-amenable-mortality-time-trend-2000-2013-and-geographic-area-analysis
#17
Maria Michela Gianino, Jacopo Lenzi, Aida Muça, Maria Pia Fantini, Roberta Siliquini, Walter Ricciardi, Gianfranco Damiani
OBJECTIVE: To update amenable mortality in 32 OECD countries at 2013 (or last available year), to describe the time trends during 2000-2013, and to evaluate the association of these trends with various geographic areas. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data from 32 countries during 2000-2013, gathered from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. STUDY DESIGN: Time trend analysis. DATA COLLECTION: Using Nolte and McKee's list, age-standardized amenable mortality rates (SDRs) were calculated as the annual number of deaths over the population aged 0-74 years per 100,000 inhabitants...
October 5, 2016: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698147/designing-steep-sharp-patterns-on-uniformly-ion-bombarded-surfaces
#18
Joy C Perkinson, Michael J Aziz, Michael P Brenner, Miranda Holmes-Cerfon
We propose and experimentally test a method to fabricate patterns of steep, sharp features on surfaces, by exploiting the nonlinear dynamics of uniformly ion-bombarded surfaces. We show via theory, simulation, and experiment that the steepest parts of the surface evolve as one-dimensional curves that move in the normal direction at constant velocity. The curves are a special solution to the nonlinear equations that arises spontaneously whenever the initial patterning on the surface contains slopes larger than a critical value; mathematically they are traveling waves (shocks) that have the special property of being undercompressive...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695093/association-between-peer-cigarette-smoking-and-electronic-cigarette-smoking-among-adolescent-nonsmokers-a-national-representative-survey
#19
Jun Hyun Hwang, Soon-Woo Park
We assessed the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and peer cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for the initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 65,753 nonsmokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. A total of 3.8% of the Korean adolescents were 'ever e-cigarette' users and 1.2% were current users. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for current and ever e-cigarette use compared to those whose closest friends were non-smokers ranged from 2...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667730/self-navigated-4d-cartesian-imaging-of-periodic-motion-in-the-body-trunk-using-partial-k-space-compressed-sensing
#20
Thomas Küstner, Christian Würslin, Martin Schwartz, Petros Martirosian, Sergios Gatidis, Cornelia Brendle, Ferdinand Seith, Fritz Schick, Nina F Schwenzer, Bin Yang, Holger Schmidt
PURPOSE: To enable fast and flexible high-resolution four-dimensional (4D) MRI of periodic thoracic/abdominal motion for motion visualization or motion-corrected imaging. METHODS: We proposed a Cartesian three-dimensional k-space sampling scheme that acquires a random combination of k-space lines in the ky/kz plane. A partial Fourier-like constraint compacts the sampling space to one half of k-space. The central k-space line is periodically acquired to allow an extraction of a self-navigated respiration signal used to populate a k-space of multiple breathing positions...
September 25, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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