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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222030/regional-ventilation-distribution-and-dead-space-in-anaesthetised-horses-treated-with-and-without-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-novel-insights-by-electrical-impedance-tomography-and-volumetric-capnography
#1
Martina Mosing, Ulrike Auer, Paul MacFarlane, David Bardell, Johannes P Schramel, Stephan H Böhm, Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Andreas D Waldmann
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on regional distribution of ventilation and dead space in anaesthetized horses. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, experimental, crossover study. ANIMALS: A total of eight healthy adult horses. METHODS: Horses were anaesthetized twice with isoflurane in 50% oxygen and medetomidine as continuous infusion in dorsal recumbency, and administered in random order either CPAP (8 cmH2O) or NO CPAP for 3 hours...
July 3, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214655/an-anatomic-description-of-intrinsic-brachial-muscles-in-the-crab-eating-fox-cerdocyon-thous-linnaeus-1776-and-report-of-a-variant-arterial-distribution
#2
J Vélez, J Ramírez, O Aristizábal
The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) is a wild canid distributed throughout South America. It is one of the wild canids reported being hit by vehicles and injured in snares, thus inducing trauma or injury to the musculoskeletal system, possibly occurring in the brachial region. The main objective of this research was to provide an anatomic description of the crab-eating fox's intrinsic brachial muscles including shape, origin, insertion, innervation and arterial blood supply, compared with that of the domestic dog...
December 6, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210355/neuroangiostrongyliasis-the-subarachnoid-phase-and-its-implications-for-anthelminthic-therapy
#3
Paul Prociv, Megan Turner
Infection with the Rat Lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the leading cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis worldwide. From its origins in southeastern Asia, the parasite was spread extensively throughout the twentieth century and is now established in many of the world's warmer regions. Its clinical effects range from mild and transient symptoms, usually headache with peripheral nerve dysfunction, to severe and permanent central nervous system (CNS) damage, occasionally fatal. The severity and prognosis of disease are determined by the larval dose, acquired by ingesting infected intermediate hosts (slugs and snails) or, less often, paratenic hosts, such as crabs, shrimps, frogs, and monitor lizards...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202090/joint-spatial-modelling-of-disease-risk-using-multiple-sources-an-application-on-hiv-prevalence-from-antenatal-sentinel-and-demographic-and-health-surveys-in-namibia
#4
D Ntirampeba, I Neema, L N Kazembe
Background: In disease mapping field, researchers often encounter data from multiple sources. Such data are fraught with challenges such as lack of a representative sample, often incomplete and most of which may have measurement errors, and may be spatially and temporally misaligned. This paper presents a joint model in the effort to deal with the sampling bias and misalignment. Methods: A joint (bivariate) spatial model was applied to estimate HIV prevalence using two sources: 2014 National HIV Sentinel survey (NHSS) among pregnant women aged 15-49 years attending antenatal care (ANC) and the 2013 Namibia Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS)...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201839/trauma-patterns-of-drowning-after-falling-from-bridges-over-han-river
#5
Jung Hwan Lee, Chung Kee Chough, Jae Il Lee
Objective: Recently, the number of patients who fell or jumped from bridges over Han River has rapidly increased. However, the injury patterns and outcomes of these patients have been poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the injury characteristics of these patients. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all patients who were transferred to the Emergency Room due to jumping or falling from bridges over Han River between 2011 and 2015...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196341/vapor-pressure-deficit-predicts-epiphyte-abundance-across-an-elevational-gradient-in-a-tropical-montane-region
#6
Sybil G Gotsch, Kenneth Davidson, Jessica G Murray, Vanessa J Duarte, Danel Draguljić
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are important ecosystems to study and preserve because of their high biodiversity and critical roles in local and regional ecosystem processes. TMCFs may be particularly affected by changes in climate because of the narrow bands of microclimate they occupy and the vulnerability of TMCF species to projected increases in cloud base heights and drought. A comprehensive understanding of the structure and function of TMCFs is lacking and difficult to attain because of variation in topography within and across TMCF sites...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193947/-tuberculosis-caused-by-mycobacterium-bovis-a-re-emerging-infection
#7
Edgar Pérez-Barragán, Bulmaro Manjarrez-Tellez
Currently, tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem, is present in all regions of the world and remains one of the most deadly communicable diseases, particularly associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Cases of TB Mycobacterium bovis more and more frequent, especially in vulnerable populations. TB caused by M. bovis clinical, radiological and histologically indistinguishable from tuberculosis caused by M. tuberculosis; however, there are some differences that make M. tuberculosis particular...
September 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192585/yeast-eif4a-enhances-recruitment-of-mrnas-regardless-of-their-structural-complexity
#8
Paul Yourik, Colin Echeverría Aitken, Fujun Zhou, Neha Gupta, Alan G Hinnebusch, Jon R Lorsch
eIF4A is a DEAD-box RNA-dependent ATPase thought to unwind RNA secondary structure in the 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs to promote their recruitment to the eukaryotic translation pre-initiation complex (PIC). We show that eIF4A's ATPase activity is markedly stimulated in the presence of the PIC, independently of eIF4E•eIF4G, but dependent on subunits i and g of the heteromeric eIF3 complex. Surprisingly, eIF4A accelerated the rate of recruitment of all mRNAs tested, regardless of their degree of structural complexity...
November 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191622/interplay-between-behavior-morphology-and-physiology-supports-lepidophagy-in-the-catfish-pachypterus-khavalchor-siluriformes-horabagridae
#9
Sachin M Gosavi, Sanjay S Kharat, Pradeep Kumkar, Sushant S Navarange
The present study demonstrates the scale-eating behavior of a siluroid catfish, Pachypterus khavalchor, and the role of its oral structure and bacterial endosymbionts in shaping this lepidophagous habit. Scale-eating behavior in P. khavalchor was studied using a series of behavioral experiments. P. khavalchor was found to feed only on the scales of live fish and never of dead fish, even after 72h of starvation. It was nocturnal in habit and attacked all species that were used as prey. Attacking behavior showed extensive chasing of prey species followed by a powerful random strike at the flank or close to the caudal region in posterior oblique position...
July 12, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190660/actionable-mutations-in-canine-hemangiosarcoma
#10
Guannan Wang, Ming Wu, Martha A Maloneyhuss, John Wojcik, Amy C Durham, Nicola J Mason, David B Roth
BACKGROUND: Angiosarcomas (AS) are rare in humans, but they are a deadly subtype of soft tissue sarcoma. Discovery sequencing in AS, especially the visceral form, is hampered by the rarity of cases. Most diagnostic material exists as archival formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue which serves as a poor source of high quality DNA for genome-wide sequencing. We approached this problem through comparative genomics. We hypothesized that exome sequencing a histologically similar tumor, hemangiosarcoma (HSA), that occurs in approximately 50,000 dogs per year, may lead to the identification of potential oncogenic drivers and druggable targets that could also occur in angiosarcoma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187562/development-and-validation-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-candida-auris-from-surveillance-samples
#11
L Leach, Y Zhu, S Chaturvedi
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast causing invasive healthcare-associated infection with high mortality worldwide. Rapid identification of C. auris is of primary importance for the implementation of public health measures to control the spread of infection. To achieve these goals, we developed and validated a TaqMan based real-time PCR assay targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the ribosomal gene. The assay was highly specific, reproducible, and sensitive with the detection limit of one C...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184362/analysis-of-spatial-dynamic-of-epizootic-process-of-bluetongue-and-its-risk-factors
#12
Fayssal Bouchemla, Olga Mikhailovna Popova, Valerey Alexandrovich Agoltsov
Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the spatial dynamic occurrence and patterns of the global spread of bluetongue (BT) disease for the period from 1996 to 2016, as well as the assessment of the risk of occurrence and its spread in 2017-2018. Materials and Methods: Outbreaks (serum samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected animals in infected points) were confirmed and reported officially by veterinary departments which represent different geographical regions in the world to World Organization for Animal Health...
October 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184361/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-broiler-chickens
#13
Gamal Younis, Amal Awad, Nada Mohamed
Aim: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most common bacterial diseases affecting poultry worldwide. This study was designed to determine the occurrence, antibiotic resistance profile, and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli isolated from diseased and freshly dead broilers. Materials and Methods: In that context, a total of 200 broilers samples were examined by standard microbiological techniques for isolation of E...
October 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179918/when-dna-topology-turns-deadly-rna-polymerases-dig-in-their-r-loops-to-stand-their-ground-new-positive-and-negative-super-twists-in-the-replication-transcription-conflict
#14
REVIEW
Andrei Kuzminov
Head-on replication-transcription conflict is especially bitter in bacterial chromosomes, explaining why actively transcribed genes are always co-oriented with replication. The mechanism of this conflict remains unclear, besides the anticipated accumulation of positive supercoils between head-on-conflicting polymerases. Unexpectedly, experiments in bacterial and human cells reveal that head-on replication-transcription conflict induces R-loops, indicating hypernegative supercoiling [(-)sc] in the region - precisely the opposite of that assumed...
November 24, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177968/microscopic-characterization-of-orchid-mycorrhizal-fungi-scleroderma-as-a-putative-novel-orchid-mycorrhizal-fungus-of-vanilla-in-different-crop-systems
#15
Ma Del Carmen A González-Chávez, Terry J Torres-Cruz, Samantha Albarrán Sánchez, Rogelio Carrillo-González, Luis Manuel Carrillo-López, Andrea Porras-Alfaro
Vanilla is an orchid of economic importance widely cultivated in tropical regions and native to Mexico. We sampled three species of Vanilla (V. planifolia, V. pompona, and V. insignis) in different crop systems. We studied the effect of crop system on the abundance, type of fungi, and quality of pelotons found in the roots using light and electron microscopy and direct sequencing of mycorrhizal structures. Fungi were identified directly from pelotons obtained from terrestrial roots of vanilla plants in the flowering stage...
November 25, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162604/suppression-of-hepatic-flot1-flotillin-1-by-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-impairs-the-disposal-of-remnant-lipoproteins-via-syndecan-1
#16
Keyang Chen, Qingsi Wu, Kongwang Hu, Chengwei Yang, Xiangdong Wu, Peter Cheung, Kevin Jon Williams
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the atherometabolic syndrome exhibit a deadly dyslipoproteinemia that arises in part from impaired hepatic disposal of C-TRLs (cholesterol- and triglyceride-rich remnant apoB [apolipoprotein B] lipoproteins). We previously identified syndecan-1 as a receptor for C-TRLs that directly mediates endocytosis via rafts, independent from coated pits. Caveolins and flotillins form rafts but facilitate distinct endocytotic pathways. We now investigated their participation in syndecan-1-mediated disposal of C-TRLs and their expression in T2DM liver...
November 21, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160222/database-documentation-of-marine-mammal-stranding-and-mortality-current-status-review-and-future-prospects
#17
REVIEW
Derek K P Chan, Henry C L Tsui, Brian C W Kot
Databases are systematic tools to archive and manage information related to marine mammal stranding and mortality events. Stranding response networks, governmental authorities and non-governmental organizations have established regional or national stranding networks and have developed unique standard stranding response and necropsy protocols to document and track stranded marine mammal demographics, signalment and health data. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe and review the current status of marine mammal stranding and mortality databases worldwide, including the year established, types of database and their goals; and (2) summarize the geographic range included in the database, the number of cases recorded, accessibility, filter and display methods...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147975/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-and-the-risk-of-a-second-amphibian-pandemic
#18
REVIEW
Tiffany A Yap, Natalie T Nguyen, Megan Serr, Alexander Shepack, Vance T Vredenburg
Amphibians are experiencing devastating population declines globally. A major driver is chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Bd was described in 1999 and has been linked with declines since the 1970s, while Bsal is a more recently discovered pathogen that was described in 2013. It is hypothesized that Bsal originated in Asia and spread via international trade to Europe, where it has been linked to salamander die-offs...
November 16, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141028/developing-methods-for-assessing-abundance-and-distribution-of-european-oysters-ostrea-edulis-using-towed-video
#19
Linnea Thorngren, Thomas Dunér Holthuis, Susanne Lindegarth, Mats Lindegarth
Due to large-scale habitat losses and increasing pressures, benthic habitats in general, and perhaps oyster beds in particular, are commonly in decline and severely threatened on regional and global scales. Appropriate and cost-efficient methods for mapping and monitoring of the distribution, abundance and quality of remaining oyster populations are fundamental for sustainable management and conservation of these habitats and their associated values. Towed video has emerged as a promising method for surveying benthic communities in a both non-destructive and cost-efficient way...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138589/clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-of-toxicity-from-amanita-mushroom-poisoning
#20
Satariya Trakulsrichai, Charuwan Sriapha, Achara Tongpoo, Umaporn Udomsubpayakul, Sunun Wongvisavakorn, Sahaphume Srisuma, Winai Wananukul
Objective: To describe and analyze the clinical characteristics and outcome of amatoxin poisoning cases. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of amatoxin poisoning cases from Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System, from May 2013 to August 2015. Results: There were 30 consultations with a total of 55 poisoning cases. Most cases were male and from the north-east region. Hepatitis, acute kidney injury, jaundice, and coagulopathy accounted for 74%, 46...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
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