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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327807/ultrastructural-study-of-morphological-changes-in-schistosoma-mansoni-after-in-vitro-exposure-to-the-monoterpene-rotundifolone
#1
Thiago José Matos-Rocha, Marília Gabriela Dos Santos Cavalcanti, José Maria Barbosa-Filho, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro Lúcio, Dyana Leal Veras, Márcia Ortiz Mayo Marques, Luiz Carlos Alves, Fábio André Brayner
INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Here, we report the in vitro effect of rotundifolone, a monoterpene isolated from Mentha x villosa (Lamiaceae), on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. METHODS: The in vitro effect of rotundifolone on adult Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated by analysis of behavior and mortality and through a scanning electron microscopic analysis of ultrastructural changes in the tegument of the worms...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320966/tropical-dead-zones-and-mass-mortalities-on-coral-reefs
#2
Andrew H Altieri, Seamus B Harrison, Janina Seemann, Rachel Collin, Robert J Diaz, Nancy Knowlton
Degradation of coastal water quality in the form of low dissolved oxygen levels (hypoxia) can harm biodiversity, ecosystem function, and human wellbeing. Extreme hypoxic conditions along the coast, leading to what are often referred to as "dead zones," are known primarily from temperate regions. However, little is known about the potential threat of hypoxia in the tropics, even though the known risk factors, including eutrophication and elevated temperatures, are common. Here we document an unprecedented hypoxic event on the Caribbean coast of Panama and assess the risk of dead zones to coral reefs worldwide...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317111/an-experimental-test-of-the-habitat-amount-hypothesis-for-saproxylic-beetles-in-a-forested-region
#3
Sebastian Seibold, Claus Bässler, Roland Brandl, Lenore Fahrig, Bernhard Förster, Marco Heurich, Torsten Hothorn, Fabian Scheipl, Simon Thorn, Jörg Müller
The habitat-amount hypothesis challenges traditional concepts that explain species richness within habitats, such as the habitat-patch hypothesis, where species number is a function of patch size and patch isolation. It posits that effects of patch size and patch isolation are driven by effects of sample area, and thus that the number of species at a site is basically a function of the total habitat amount surrounding this site. We tested the habitat-amount hypothesis for saproxylic beetles and their habitat of dead wood by using an experiment comprising 190 plots with manipulated patch sizes situated in a forested region with a high variation in habitat amount (i...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286714/true-s-beaked-whale-mesoplodon-mirus-in-macaronesia
#4
Natacha Aguilar de Soto, Vidal Martín, Monica Silva, Roland Edler, Cristel Reyes, Manuel Carrillo, Agustina Schiavi, Talia Morales, Belen García-Ovide, Anna Sanchez-Mora, Nerea Garcia-Tavero, Lisa Steiner, Michael Scheer, Roland Gockel, Dylan Walker, Enrico Villa, Petra Szlama, Ida K Eriksson, Marisa Tejedor, Monica Perez-Gil, João Quaresma, Wojtek Bachara, Emma Carroll
The True's beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus, True 1913) is a poorly known member of the Ziphiidae family. Its distribution in the northern hemisphere is thought to be restricted to the temperate or warm temperate waters of the North Atlantic, while a few stranding records from the southern hemisphere suggest a wider and antitropical distribution, extending to waters from the Atlantic coast of Brazil to South Africa, Mozambique, Australia and the Tasman Sea coast of New Zealand. This paper (i) reports the first molecular confirmation of the occurrence of the True's beaked whale at the southern limit of its distribution recorded in the northeast Atlantic: the Azores and Canary Islands (macaronesian ecoregion); (ii) describes a new colouration for this species using evidence from a whale with molecular species confirmation; and (iii) contributes to the sparse worldwide database of live sightings, including the first underwater video recording of this species and close images of a calf...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270154/pandemics-pathogenicity-and-changing-molecular-epidemiology-of-cholera-in-the-era-of-global-warming
#5
REVIEW
Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury, Zannatun Nur, Nazia Hassan, Lorenz von Seidlein, Susanna Dunachie
BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative, non-spore forming curved rod is found in diverse aquatic ecosystems around the planet. It is classified according to its major surface antigen into around 206 serogroups, of which O1 and O139 cause epidemic cholera. A recent spatial modelling technique estimated that around 2.86 million cholera cases occur globally every year, and of them approximately 95,000 die. About 1.3 billion people are currently at risk of infection from cholera. Meta-analysis and mathematical modelling have demonstrated that due to global warming the burden of vector-borne diseases like malaria, leishmaniasis, meningococcal meningitis, viral encephalitis, dengue and chikungunya will increase in the coming years in the tropics and beyond...
March 7, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264063/acute-death-of-astrocytes-in-blast-exposed-rat-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#6
Anna P Miller, Alok S Shah, Brandy V Aperi, Shekar N Kurpad, Brian D Stemper, Aleksandra Glavaski-Joksimovic
Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) affects civilians, soldiers, and veterans worldwide and presents significant health concerns. The mechanisms of neurodegeneration following bTBI remain elusive and current therapies are largely ineffective. It is important to better characterize blast-evoked cellular changes and underlying mechanisms in order to develop more effective therapies. In the present study, our group utilized rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs) as an in vitro system to model bTBI. OHCs were exposed to either 138 ± 22 kPa (low) or 273 ± 23 kPa (high) overpressures using an open-ended helium-driven shock tube, or were assigned to sham control group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262733/network-theory-may-explain-the-vulnerability-of-medieval-human-settlements-to-the-black-death-pandemic
#7
José M Gómez, Miguel Verdú
Epidemics can spread across large regions becoming pandemics by flowing along transportation and social networks. Two network attributes, transitivity (when a node is connected to two other nodes that are also directly connected between them) and centrality (the number and intensity of connections with the other nodes in the network), are widely associated with the dynamics of transmission of pathogens. Here we investigate how network centrality and transitivity influence vulnerability to diseases of human populations by examining one of the most devastating pandemic in human history, the fourteenth century plague pandemic called Black Death...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260423/organ-shortage-can-we-decrease-the-demand
#8
Antoine Stephan
The shortage of organs for transplant is a universal problem. The World Health Organization is urging every nation to seek self-sufficiency regarding their organ procurement program. Reaching self-sufficiency inevitably requires the provision of a well-developed deceased-donor organ procurement program. Most countries represented by the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation still rely on living-donor organ donations. Some of these countries have been relatively successful in promoting deceased-donor donation as well...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254460/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-about-malaria-in-south-western-saudi-arabia-a-household-based-cross-sectional-survey
#9
Sami Khairy, Khaled Al-Surimi, Anna Ali, Hussam M Shubily, Nisreen Al Walaan, Mowafa Househ, Ashraf El-Metwally
This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) concerning malaria and malaria prevention among rural populations residing in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This was a household-based cross-sectional survey, using structured questionnaire that was developed and distributed among households selected randomly from 19 villages (clusters) located in a southwestern region of Saudi Arabia, north of the border with Yemen. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 20...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250132/cytoplasmic-motifs-in-the-nipah-virus-fusion-protein-modulate-virus-particle-assembly-and-egress
#10
Gunner P Johnston, Erik M Contreras, Jeffrey Dabundo, Bryce A Henderson, Keesha M Matz, Victoria Ortega, Alfredo Ramirez, Arnold Park, Hector C Aguilar
Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus, has a mortality rate in humans of approximately 75%. While several studies have begun our understanding of NiV particle formation, the mechanism of this process remains to be fully elucidated. For many paramyxoviruses, M proteins drive viral assembly and egress; however, some paramyxoviral glycoproteins have been reported as important or essential in budding. For NiV the matrix protein (M), the fusion glycoprotein (F), and to a much lesser extent the attachment glycoprotein (G), autonomously induce the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248124/-multiple-firearm-injury-caused-with-a%C3%A2-blank-pistol
#11
Eva Nevická, Rastislav Rozboril, Boris Ťažký, Ivan Závodný, Martin Zdarílek, Jozef Šidlo
The authors present a case of a complex suicide of a 60-year-old woman found dead on her bed. A blank pistol Umarex caliber 9-mm, several blank cartridges and a lot of drug packages were discovered near the body. The woman suffered from a psychiatric depression. There were three gunshot wounds on the body: in the right temporal region, on the palatum of the mouth and on the left chest wall. The gunshot wounds in the right temporal region and in the mouth had central circle defects with the margins of stellate or star-like appearance and blackening...
2017: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245928/evaluation-of-dental-adhesive-systems-incorporating-an-antibacterial-monomer-eugenyl-methacrylate-egma-for-endodontic-restorations
#12
A Almaroof, S A Niazi, L Rojo, F Mannocci, S Deb
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to incorporate EgMA, an antibacterial monomer into two commercial dental adhesive systems for their application in endodontic restoration with the aim to disinfect the root canal space before curing and to inhibit bacterial growth on their surfaces after being cured. METHODS: EgMA monomer was added at 20%wt. into the formulation of the single-component self-etch, Clearfil Universal Bond™ (CUB) and into the catalyst and the adhesive components of the total-etch Adper Scotchbond-multipurpose™ (SBMP) adhesive systems...
February 25, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243249/non-destructive-phenotyping-to-identify-brachiaria-hybrids-tolerant-to-waterlogging-stress-under-field-conditions
#13
Juan de la Cruz Jiménez, Juan A Cardoso, Luisa F Leiva, Juanita Gil, Manuel G Forero, Margaret L Worthington, John W Miles, Idupulapati M Rao
Brachiaria grasses are sown in tropical regions around the world, especially in the Neotropics, to improve livestock production. Waterlogging is a major constraint to the productivity and persistence of Brachiaria grasses during the rainy season. While some Brachiaria cultivars are moderately tolerant to seasonal waterlogging, none of the commercial cultivars combines superior yield potential and nutritional quality with a high level of waterlogging tolerance. The Brachiaria breeding program at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, has been using recurrent selection for the past two decades to combine forage yield with resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237681/assessment-of-distribution-of-ventilation-and-regional-lung-compliance-by-electrical-impedance-tomography-in-anaesthetized-horses-undergoing-alveolar-recruitment-manoeuvres
#14
Tamas D Ambrisko, Johannes Schramel, Klaus Hopster, Sabine Kästner, Yves Moens
OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in the distribution of ventilation and regional lung compliances in anaesthetized horses during the alveolar recruitment manoeuvre (ARM). STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study in which a series of treatments were administered in a fixed order on one occasion. ANIMALS: Five adult Warmblood horses. METHODS: Animals were anaesthetized (xylazine, midazolam-ketamine, isoflurane), placed in dorsal recumbency and ventilated with 100% oxygen using peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 20 cmH2O and 0 cmH2O, respectively...
January 12, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237666/competition-between-low-and-high-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-in-a-two-patch-system
#15
Omar Saucedo, M Martcheva
Over the last decade, the epidemiology of avian influenza has undergone a significant transformation. Not only have we seen an increase in the number of outbreaks of the deadly strain known as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), but the number of birds infected, and the cost of control has risen drastically. Live poultry markets play a huge role in the bird to bird transmission of avian influenza. We develop a two patch model to determine the competition between low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and HPAI strains when migration is present...
February 23, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220657/a-geographic-study-of-west-nile-virus-in-humans-dead-corvids-and-mosquitoes-in-ontario-using-spatial-scan-statistics-with-a-survival-time-application
#16
A L Thomas-Bachli, D L Pearl, O Berke, E J Parmley, I K Barker
Surveillance of West Nile virus (WNv) in Ontario has included passive reporting of human cases and testing of trapped mosquitoes and dead birds found by the public. The dead bird surveillance programme was limited to testing within a public health unit (PHU) until a small number of birds test positive. These dead corvid and mosquito surveillance programmes have not been compared for their ability to provide early warning in geographic areas where human cases occur each year. Spatial scan statistics were applied to time-to-event survival data based on first cases of WNv in found dead corvids, mosquitoes and humans...
February 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218272/decline-causes-of-koalas-in-south-east-queensland-australia-a-17-year-retrospective-study-of-mortality-and-morbidity
#17
Viviana Gonzalez-Astudillo, Rachel Allavena, Allan McKinnon, Rebecca Larkin, Joerg Henning
Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997-2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217292/oxygen-or-cooling-to-make-a-decision-after-acute-ischemia-stroke
#18
REVIEW
Wen-Cao Liu, Xin-Chun Jin
The presence of a salvageable penumbra, a region of ischemic brain tissue with sufficient energy for short-term survival, has been widely agreed as the premise for thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which remains the only United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatment for acute ischemia stroke. However, the use of tPA has been profoundly constrained due to its narrow therapeutic time window and the increased risk of potentially deadly hemorrhagic transformation (HT)...
October 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209476/the-role-of-a-psp-producing-alexandrium-bloom-in-an-unprecedented-diamondback-terrapin-malaclemys-terrapin-mortality-event-in-flanders-bay-new-york-usa
#19
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Robert J Ossiboff, Craig A Burnell, Carlton D Rauschenberg, Kevin Hynes, Russell L Burke, Elizabeth M Bunting, Kim Durham, Christopher J Gobler
Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are a threatened or endangered species in much of their range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Over an approximately three-week period from late April to mid-May 2015, hundreds of adult diamondback terrapins were found dead on the shores of Flanders Bay, Long Island, New York, USA. Concurrent with the mortality event, elevated densities of the paralytic shellfish toxin (PST)-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense (>10(4) cells L(-1)) and high levels of PST in bivalves (maximal levels = 540 μg STX eq...
February 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207905/the-one-health-approach-to-identify-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-that-affect-community-involvement-in-the-control-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks
#20
Osama Ahmed Hassan, Hippolyte Affognon, Joacim Rocklöv, Peter Mburu, Rosemary Sang, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral mosquito-borne disease with the potential for global expansion, causes hemorrhagic fever, and has a high case fatality rate in young animals and in humans. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living in small village in Sudan with respect to RVF outbreaks. A special One Health questionnaire was developed to compile data from 235 heads of household concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to controlling RVF...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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