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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822349/the-icrc-am-pm-database-challenges-in-forensic-data-management-in-the-humanitarian-sphere
#1
Ute Hofmeister, Shuala S Martin, Carlos Villalobos, Juliana Padilla, Oran Finegan
Large-scale forensic investigations should include a robust data management system with software capable of performing all tasks relevant to achieving the objectives of the investigation. Data management involves the collection, archiving, analysis and reporting of data. A successful data management system requires the development of protocols, procedures and policies, such as on data protection, as well as tools, including software. Adequate training for staff is also required, along with strict quality control and assurance regimens...
July 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821560/optoacoustic-detection-of-early-therapy-induced-tumor-cell-death-using-a-targeted-imaging-agent
#2
Bangwen Xie, Michal R Tomaszewski, Andre Neves, Susana Ros, De-En Hu, Sarah McGuire, Stefanie Roshy Mullins, David A Tice, Richard C A Sainson, Sarah E Bohndiek, Robert W Wilkinson, Kevin M Brindle
The development of new treatments and their deployment in the clinic may be assisted by imaging methods that allow an early assessment of treatment response in individual patients. The C2A domain of Synaptotagmin-I (C2Am), which binds to the phosphatidylserine (PS) exposed by apoptotic and necrotic cells, has been developed as an imaging probe for detecting cell death. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) is a real-time and clinically applicable imaging modality that was used here with a near infrared (NIR) fluorophore-labeled C2Am to image tumor cell death in mice treated with a TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 (TRAILR2) agonist and with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820134/patterns-of-human-plague-in-uganda-2008-2016
#3
Joseph D Forrester, Titus Apangu, Kevin Griffith, Sarah Acayo, Brook Yockey, John Kaggwa, Kiersten J Kugeler, Martin Schriefer, Christopher Sexton, C Ben Beard, Gordian Candini, Janet Abaru, Bosco Candia, Jimmy Felix Okoth, Harriet Apio, Lawrence Nolex, Geoffrey Ezama, Robert Okello, Linda Atiku, Joseph Mpanga, Paul S Mead
Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008-2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818649/sequence-analysis-of-mtdna-coi-barcode-region-revealed-three-haplotypes-within-culex-pipiens-assemblage
#4
Mona Koosha, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Hassan Vatandoost, Shahyad Azari-Hamidian, Mohammad Reza Abai, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Fatemeh Mohtarami
Members of the Culex (Culex) pipiens assemblage are known vectors of deadly encephalitides, periodic filariasis, and West Nile virus throughout the world. However, members of this assemblage are morphologically indistinguishable or hard to distinguish and play distinct roles in transmission of the diseases. The current study aimed to provide further evidence on utility of the two most popular nuclear (ITS2-rDNA) and mitochondrial (COI barcode region) genetic markers to identify members of the assemblage. Culex pipiens assemblage specimens from different climate zones of Iran were collected and identified to species level based on morphological characteristics...
August 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818115/the-use-of-genetic-markers-to-estimate-relationships-between-dogs-in-the-course-of-criminal-investigations
#5
Roberta Ciampolini, Francesca Cecchi, Isabella Spinetti, Anna Rocchi, Filippo Biscarini
OBJECTIVE: Attacks on humans by dogs in a pack, though uncommon, do happen, and result in severe, sometimes fatal, injuries. We describe the role that canine genetic markers played during the investigation of a fatal dog-pack attack involving a 50-year-old male truck driver in a parking lot in Tuscany (Italy). Using canine specific STR genetic markers, the local authorities, in the course of their investigations, reconstructed the genetic relationships between the dogs that caused the deadly aggression and other dogs belonging to the owner of the parking who, at the moment of the aggression, was located in another region of Italy...
August 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816628/outbreak-and-cocirculation-of-three-different-usutu-virus-strains-in-eastern-germany
#6
Michael Sieg, Volker Schmidt, Ute Ziegler, Markus Keller, Dirk Höper, Kristin Heenemann, Antje Rückner, Hermann Nieper, Aemero Muluneh, Martin H Groschup, Thomas W Vahlenkamp
Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus accounting for large-scale deaths in resident bird populations. In this study, we show the introduction of USUV to Eastern Germany resulting in massive death of birds, particularly blackbirds (Turdus merula). We found that three diverse USUV lineages ("Europe 3," "Africa 2," and "Africa 3-like") circulated simultaneously. Moreover, we detected USUV in Culex pipiens in a region where no dead birds were reported, strengthening the need for mosquito monitoring to uncover the spread of arboviruses...
August 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806635/oryong-501-sinking-incident-in-the-bering-sea-international-dvi-cooperation-in-the-asia-pacific
#7
Nak-Eun Chung, Anton Castilani, Wilfredo E Tierra, Philip Beh, Mohd Shah Mahmood
On December 1st, 2014, the sinking of Oryong 501 occurred in the Bering Sea off the east coast of Russia. A total of 60 crew members, including 35 Indonesians, 13 Filipinos, 11 South Koreans and 1 Russian inspector were on board out of which only seven survived. Through an international rescue operation, the dead bodies of 27 were found and the remaining 26 crew are still missing. After transferring the dead bodies to the Busan Harbor in South Korea, the operation to identify the deceased began involving DVI teams from three countries: Korea, Indonesia and the Philippines...
August 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803015/calf-and-replacement-heifer-mortality-from-birth-until-weaning-in-pasture-based-dairy-herds-in-new-zealand
#8
E L Cuttance, W A Mason, J McDermott, R A Laven, S McDougall, C V C Phyn
The aims of this study were to (1) estimate the perinatal (birth to 24 h) and postnatal (∼24 h to the mean weaning age of 13 wk) mortality risk in pasture-based dairy calves until weaning, and (2) identify associated risk factors in the 2015 calving season. A prospective survey of 32 seasonal calving dairy farms was undertaken. Farmers recorded (daily) the number and sex of the calves alive or dead in the paddocks where cows calved. All daily animal movements in and out of the calf rearing facilities, including death and euthanasia, and the identification of the animals (if applicable) were recorded, and a survey of the farm management practices was undertaken...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800774/angiostrongylus-vasorum-in-wolves-in-italy-prevalence-and-pathological-findings
#9
Claudio De Liberato, Goffredo Grifoni, Raniero Lorenzetti, Roberta Meoli, Cristiano Cocumelli, Antonio Mastromattei, Francesco Scholl, Pasquale Rombolà, Pietro Calderini, Gianpaolo Bruni, Claudia Eleni
BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode residing in the heart and pulmonary vessels of dogs and wild carnivores. In Europe the red fox is its reservoir, while only three records from wolves have been published. Angiostrongylus vasorum has a worldwide distribution, and many pieces of evidence demonstrate that it is spreading from endemic areas to new ones. In Italy, A. vasorum was reported with increasing frequency in dogs and foxes in the last decades, and now it is considered endemic throughout the country...
August 11, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790297/-techniques-for-preventing-postoperative-complication-in-esophageal-salvage-surgery
#10
Mitsuru Iwama, Takushi Yasuda, Osamu Shiraishi, Hiroaki Kato, Yoko Hiraki, Yumiko Tanaka, Atsushi Yasuda, Masayuki Shinkai, Motohiro Imano, Yutaka Kimura, Haruhiko Imamoto
Patients with esophageal cancer are often treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT). Regardless of arrival at dCRT, the risk of local/regional recurrence during follow-up is significant. Many patient are faced with limited options for therapy once dCRT has failed. Salvage surgery is the only way for complete cure of patients with local/regional recurrent esophageal cancer after dCRT. However, salvage surgery has a significant high risk of fatal complications. We examine our preventive measures to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications after salvage surgery for thoracic esophageal cancer...
July 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782036/deadly-heat-waves-projected-in-the-densely-populated-agricultural-regions-of-south-asia
#11
Eun-Soon Im, Jeremy S Pal, Elfatih A B Eltahir
The risk associated with any climate change impact reflects intensity of natural hazard and level of human vulnerability. Previous work has shown that a wet-bulb temperature of 35°C can be considered an upper limit on human survivability. On the basis of an ensemble of high-resolution climate change simulations, we project that extremes of wet-bulb temperature in South Asia are likely to approach and, in a few locations, exceed this critical threshold by the late 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772262/evolution-and-emergence-of-pathogenic-viruses-past-present-and-future
#12
Mohammad K Parvez, Shama Parveen
Incidences of emerging/re-emerging deadly viral infections have significantly affected human health despite extraordinary progress in the area of biomedical knowledge. The best examples are the recurring outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya fever in tropical and sub-tropical regions, the recent epidemic of Zika in the Americas and the Caribbean, and the SARS, MERS, and influenza A outbreaks across the globe. The established natural reservoirs of human viruses are mainly farm animals, and, to a lesser extent, wild animals and arthropods...
August 4, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767681/study-of-three-interesting-amanita-species-from-thailand-morphology-multiple-gene-phylogeny-and-toxin-analysis
#13
Benjarong Thongbai, Steven L Miller, Marc Stadler, Kathrin Wittstein, Kevin D Hyde, Saisamorn Lumyong, Olivier Raspé
Amanita ballerina and A. brunneitoxicaria spp. nov. are introduced from Thailand. Amanita fuligineoides is also reported for the first time from Thailand, increasing the known distribution of this taxon. Together, those findings support our view that many taxa are yet to be discovered in the region. While both morphological characters and a multiple-gene phylogeny clearly place A. brunneitoxicaria and A. fuligineoides in sect. Phalloideae (Fr.) Quél., the placement of A. ballerina is problematic. On the one hand, the morphology of A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761359/nuclear-ddx3-expression-predicts-poor-outcome-in-colorectal-and-breast-cancer
#14
Marise R Heerma van Voss, Farhad Vesuna, Guus M Bol, Jan Meeldijk, Ana Raman, G Johan Offerhaus, Horst Buerger, Arvind H Patel, Elsken van der Wall, Paul J van Diest, Venu Raman
PURPOSE: DEAD box protein 3 (DDX3) is an RNA helicase with oncogenic properties that shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus. The majority of DDX3 is found in the cytoplasm, but a subset of tumors has distinct nuclear DDX3 localization of yet unknown biological significance. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of and mechanisms behind nuclear DDX3 expression in colorectal and breast cancer. METHODS: Expression of nuclear DDX3 and the nuclear exporter chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 304 colorectal and 292 breast cancer patient samples...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749390/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-india-current-evidence-on-diagnosis-management
#15
REVIEW
Rajendra Prasad, Abhijeet Singh, Viswesvaran Balasubramanian, Nikhil Gupta
Emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has significantly threatened to jeopardize global efforts to control TB, especially in HIV endemic regions. XDR-TB is mainly an iatrogenically created issue, and understanding the epidemiological and risk factors associated with it is of paramount importance in curbing this menace. Emergence of this deadly phenomenon can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and effective treatment with second-line drugs in rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) as well as multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747493/role-of-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-matrix-m-protein-in-suppressing-host-transcription
#16
Qi Ke, Wade Weaver, Adam Pore, Bartolomeo Gorgoglione, Julia Halo Wildschutte, Peng Xiao, Brian S Shepherd, Allyn Spear, Krishnamurthy Malathi, Carol A Stepien, Vikram N Vakharia, Douglas W Leaman
Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSV) is a pathogenic fish rhabdovirus found in discrete locales throughout the northern hemisphere. VHSV infection of fish cells leads to upregulation of the host's virus detection response, but the virus quickly suppresses interferon (IFN) production and antiviral genes expression. By systematically screening each of the six VHSV structural and nonstructural genes, we have identified matrix protein (M) as its most potent anti-host protein. VHSV-IVb M alone suppressed mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and type I IFN-induced gene expression in a dose-dependent manner...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737119/passive-surveillance-of-united-kingdom-bats-for-lyssaviruses-2005-2015
#17
E L Wise, D A Marston, A C Banyard, H Goharriz, D Selden, N Maclaren, T Goddard, N Johnson, L M McElhinney, A Brouwer, J N Aegerter, G C Smith, D L Horton, A C Breed, A R Fooks
Passive surveillance for lyssaviruses in UK bats has been ongoing since 1987 and has identified 13 cases of EBLV-2 from a single species; Myotis daubentonii. No other lyssavirus species has been detected. Between 2005 and 2015, 10 656 bats were submitted, representing 18 species, creating a spatially and temporally uneven sample of British bat fauna. Uniquely, three UK cases originate from a roost at Stokesay Castle in Shropshire, England, where daily checks for grounded and dead bats are undertaken and bat carcasses have been submitted for testing since 2007...
September 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734268/dna-barcoding-allows-identification-of-european-fanniidae-diptera-of-forensic-interest
#18
Andrzej Grzywacz, Dominika Wyborska, Marcin Piwczyński
In forensic entomology practice, species identification is a prerequisite for any further analysis of collected material. Although morphology-based taxonomy may be hindered by a range of factors, these are not obstacles for a molecular identification approach, so-called DNA barcoding. The Fanniidae are a dipteran family that is attracted to and breeds in decomposing animal carrion and dead human bodies. However, morphological identification of fanniids, both at adult and immature stages, is considered to be difficult, particularly for non-experts...
June 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719316/high-mortality-and-coinfection-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-patients-with-histoplasmosis-in-guatemala
#19
Blanca Samayoa, Monika Roy, Angela Ahlquist Cleveland, Narda Medina, Dalia Lau-Bonilla, Christina M Scheel, Beatriz L Gomez, Tom Chiller, Eduardo Arathoon
Histoplasmosis is one of the most common and deadly opportunistic infections among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Latin America, but due to limited diagnostic capacity in this region, few data on the burden and clinical characteristics of this disease exist. Between 2005 and 2009, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age with suspected histoplasmosis at a hospital-based HIV clinic in Guatemala City. A case of suspected histoplasmosis was defined as a person presenting with at least three of five clinical or radiologic criteria...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716150/swedish-norwegian-co-operation-in-the-treatment-of-three-hypothermia-victims-a-case-report
#20
Anders Wetting Carlsen, Nils K Skjaervold, Nils Johan Berg, Øystein Karlsen, Eli Gunnarson, Alexander Wahba
BACKGROUND: Accidental hypothermia with cardiac arrest represents a challenge for pre-hospital rescuers as well as in-hospital staff. For pre-hospital personnel, the main focus is to get the patient to the correct destination without unnecessary delay. For in-hospital personnel early information is vital to assess the possibility for resuscitation with extracorporeal re-warming. The challenge is augmented when rescuers must cross national borders to reach and/or deliver the patients. We present a case where three adolescent boys suffered severe hypothermia after a canoeing accident in Sweden...
July 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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