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dead region

Liyuan Shi, Guirong Yang, Zhikai Zhang, Lianxu Xia, Ying Liang, Hongli Tan, Jinrong He, Jianguo Xu, Zhizhong Song, Wei Li, Peng Wang
The third plague pandemic originated from Yunnan Province, China in the middle of the 19th century. The last human plague epidemic in Yunnan occurred from 1986-2005. On June 6, 2016, a case of human plague was reported in the Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. The patient suffered from primary septicemic plague after exposure to a dead house rat (Rattus flavipectus), which has been identified as the main plague reservoir in the local epizootic area. Moreover, a retrospective investigation identified another bubonic plague case in this area...
2018: PloS One
Venkatayogi Sudarshan, Adimalla Narsimha, S V G Das
Excess fluoride in drinking water has been one of the leading problem faced by the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Significantly in India the people suffer from fluorosis comparing to other toxic elements like Arsenic etc., in drinking water. Approximately, in India the excessive fluoride in groundwater is noticed in 177 districts covering 21 states, affecting 66 million people, including 6 million children and Moreover, the latest estimation gives nearly 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, are affected by the deadly disease of fluorosis [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14]...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Katja Fennel, Jeremy M Testa
Aquatic environments experiencing low-oxygen conditions have been described as hypoxic, suboxic, or anoxic zones; oxygen minimum zones; and, in the popular media, the misnomer "dead zones." This review aims to elucidate important aspects underlying oxygen depletion in diverse coastal systems and provides a synthesis of general relationships between hypoxia and its controlling factors. After presenting a generic overview of the first-order processes, we review system-specific characteristics for selected estuaries where adjacent human settlements contribute to high nutrient loads, river-dominated shelves that receive large inputs of fresh water and anthropogenic nutrients, and upwelling regions where a supply of nutrient-rich, low-oxygen waters generates oxygen minimum zones without direct anthropogenic influence...
June 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Sara L Zimmer, Rachel M Simpson, Laurie K Read
Among Euglenozoans, mitochondrial RNA editing occurs in the diplonemids and in the kinetoplastids that include parasitic trypanosomes. Yet U-indel editing, in which open reading frames (ORFs) on mRNAs are generated by insertion and deletion of uridylates in locations dictated by guide RNAs, appears confined to kinetoplastids. The nature of guide RNA and edited mRNA populations has been cursorily explored in a surprisingly extensive number of species over the years, although complete sets of fully edited mRNAs for most kinetoplast genomes are largely missing...
June 11, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Salman Al Sabah, Nourah Alsharqawi, Eliana Al Haddad
INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of terrorist attacks are still recurrent incidents plaguing the middle east region. However, Kuwait has been mostly spared from these attacks over the years. Therefore, when the bombing of the mosque in 2015 happened, it shocked a country that is not prepared for such disasters. Our aim was to present the incident that occurred on that day and on the lessons learned from it. METHODS: A collaborative effort among the hospitals in Kuwait examined the details and outcomes of the initial response to the bombing...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Manuel A Ramirez-Garcia, Yousuf M Khalifa, Mark R Buckley
Corneal endothelial cell (CEC) loss occurs with surgical anterior segment surgery and corneal transplantation tissue manipulation as well as from contact with synthetic materials like intraocular lenses and tube shunts. While several studies have quantified CEC loss for specific surgical steps, the vulnerability of CECs to isolated, controllable and measurable mechanical forces has not been assessed previously. The purpose of this study was to develop an experimental testing platform where the susceptibility of CECs to controlled mechanical trauma could be measured...
June 5, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Sylvia Schick, Daniela Heinrich, Matthias Graw, Raúl Aranda, Uta Ferrari, Steffen Peldschus
Fatal falls are frequent and seem to be an increasing problem in the elderly. Especially ground level falls (GLFs) and falls on or from stairs and steps (stairs falls) are worth examining for forensic classification and in order to improve the development of preventive measures. We retrospectively analyzed 261 fatal falls of elderly age 65 + years, which were autopsied at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Munich between 2008 and 2014. After careful screening, the sub-set of all 77 GLFs and 39 stairs falls were analyzed towards socio-demographic characteristics, fall circumstances, injuries, and circumstances of death...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Shigeki Takeda, Kiyoshi Onda, Yuichi Yoshida
Neuropathological examinations of the brain in cases of brain death are usually insufficient because of autolysis. We examined a case of sporadic-type cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related hemorrhage (sCAA-H) in a 74-year-old Japanese woman who had been clinically established as brain dead 7 days before cardiac arrest. The brain was macerated, and a huge hematoma was evident in the right parieto-occipital region. Ordinary neuropathological examination was unable to clarify where the hematoma was located in the brain parenchyma or the subarachnoid space (SAS)...
June 6, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Kiyoko Tanaka, Narumi Ikeda, Kazuya Miyashita, Hideko Nuriya, Takahiko Hara
DDX1, a member of the DEAD box RNA helicase family, plays a critical role in testicular tumors. However, it remains to be clarified whether DDX1 is involved in other types of malignant tumors such as colorectal cancer. We disrupted the DDX1 gene in a human colorectal cancer cell line LoVo using the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene-targeting system. DDX1-KO LoVo cells exhibited a much slower growth rate, produced fewer colonies in soft agar medium, and generated smaller solid tumors in nude mice than parental LoVo cells...
June 5, 2018: Cancer Science
Lindsay DeVries, Julie G Arenberg
Speech understanding abilities vary widely among cochlear implant (CI) listeners. A potential source of this variability is the electrode-neuron interface (ENI), which includes peripheral factors such as electrode position and integrity of remaining spiral ganglion neurons. Suboptimal positioning of the electrode array has been associated with poorer speech outcomes; however, postoperative computerized tomography (CT) scans are often not available to clinicians. CT-estimated electrode-to-modiolus distance (distance from the inner wall of the cochlea) has been shown to account for some variability in behavioral thresholds...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Mirco Glitscher, Kiyoshi Himmelsbach, Kathrin Woytinek, Reimar Johne, Andreas Reuter, Jelena Spiric, Luisa Schwaben, Arnold Grünweller, Eberhard Hildt
Every year, there are about 20 Mio hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections and 60,000 deaths that are associated with HEV worldwide. At the present, there exists no specific therapy for HEV. The natural compound silvestrol has a potent antiviral effect against the (-)-strand RNA-virus Ebola virus, and also against the (+)-strand RNA viruses Corona-, Picorna-, and Zika virus. The inhibitory effect on virus spread is due to an inhibition of the DEAD-box RNA helicase eIF4A, which is required to unwind structured 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs)...
June 2, 2018: Viruses
Xiang Zhang, Wei Zhang, Xing-Gang Mao, Wei-Dong Cao, Hai-Ning Zhen, Shi-Jie Hu
Malignant high grade glioma (HGG) is the most common and extremely fatal type of primary intracranial tumor. These tumors recurred within 2 to 3 cm of the primary region of tumor resection in the majority of cases. Furthermore, the blood-brain barrier significantly limited the access of many systemically administered chemotherapeutics to the tumor, pointing towards a stringent need for new therapeutic patterns. Therefore, targeting therapy using local drug delivery for HGG becomes a priority for the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
May 29, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Raphaël Aeschlimann, Daniele Preziosi, Philipp Scheiderer, Michael Sing, Sergio Valencia, Jacobo Santamaria, Chen Luo, Hanjo Ryll, Florin Radu, Ralph Claessen, Cinthia Piamonteze, Manuel Bibes
When ferromagnetic films become ultrathin, key properties such as the Curie temperature and the saturation magnetization are usually depressed. This effect is thoroughly investigated in magnetic oxides such as half-metallic manganites, but much less in ferrimagnetic insulating perovskites such as rare-earth titanates RTiO3 , despite their appeal to design correlated 2D electron gases. Here, the magnetic properties of epitaxial DyTiO3 thin films are reported. While films thicker than about 50 nm show a bulk-like response, at low thickness a surprising increase of the saturation magnetization is observed...
May 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
Christian von Hoermann, Dennis Jauch, Carolin Kubotsch, Kirsten Reichel-Jung, Sandra Steiger, Manfred Ayasse
Anthropogenic land use causes global declines in biodiversity. Despite the knowledge that animal carrion is the most nutrient-rich form of dead organic matter, studies on landscape and local scales determining whether and the means by which land use intensity influences the diversity of the carrion-associated insect fauna are globally scarce. We investigated the effects of land use intensity and abiotic and biotic environmental factors on the abundance, species richness, and diversity of the important ecosystem-service-providing silphid beetle taxon (carrion beetles) in three regions of Germany...
2018: PloS One
Raquel G Loreto, João P M Araújo, Ryan M Kepler, Kimberly R Fleming, Corrie S Moreau, David P Hughes
Environmental conditions exert strong selection on animal behavior. We tested the hypothesis that the altered behavior of hosts due to parasitic manipulation is also subject to selection imposed by changes in environmental conditions over time. Our model system is ants manipulated by parasitic fungi to bite onto vegetation. We analyzed the correlation between forest type (tropical vs. temperate) and the substrate where the host bites (biting substrate: leaf vs. twigs), the time required for the fungi to reach reproductive maturity, and the phylogenetic relationship among specimens from tropical and temperate forests from different parts of the globe...
May 28, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Susan I Daraiseh, Ari Kassardjian, Karen E Alexander, Raed Rizkallah, Myra M Hurt
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional transcription factor that can activate or repress transcription depending on the promotor and/or the co-factors recruited. YY1 is phosphorylated in various signaling pathways and is critical for different biological functions including embryogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation, cell-cycle regulation and tumorigenesis. Here we report that YY1 is a substrate for c-Abl kinase phosphorylation at conserved residue Y254 in the spacer region. Pharmacological inhibition of c-Abl kinase by imatinib, nilotinib and GZD824, knock-down of c-Abl using siRNA, and the use of c-Abl kinase-dead drastically reduces tyrosine phosphorylation of YY1...
May 25, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Eiman Gaid, Abdullah Assiri, Scott McNabb, Weam Banjar
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) including device-associated HAI (DA-HAI) are a serious patient safety issue in hospitals worldwide, affecting 5-10% of hospitalized patients and deadly for patients in intensive care units (ICUs). (Vincent, 2003; Al-Tawfiq et al., 2013; Hu et al., 2013). DA-HAIs account for up to 23% of HAIs in ICUs and about 40% of all hospital infections (i.e. central line-associated blood stream infections [CLABSI], ventilator-associated pneumonia [VAP], and catheter-associated urinary tract infections [CAUTI])...
March 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Yukako Nakajo, Qiang Zhao, Jun-Ichiro Enmi, Hidehiro Iida, Jun C Takahashi, Hiroharu Kataoka, Keiko Yamato, Hiroji Yanamoto
Prolongation of the T2 relaxation time, an increase in T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-SI), and a decrease in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculated from diffusion-weighted images (DWI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are conventional indicators of the vasogenic (interstitial) or cytotoxic (cellular) cerebral edema that develops after ischemic stroke. However, these parameters obtained on stroke imaging have not given us a precise threshold at which we can determine the viability or vulnerability of the tissue, allowing us to decide on an intervention that will help reversible tissue in the acute phase...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Edit Strömbäck, Ulrika Aasa, Kajsa Gilenstam, Lars Berglund
Background: Powerlifting consists of the squat, bench press, and dead lift, and extreme loads are lifted during training and competitions. Previous studies, which have defined an injury as an event that causes an interruption in training or competitions, have reported a relatively low frequency of powerlifting injuries (1.0-4.4 injuries/1000 hours of training). No previous study has investigated the prevalence of injuries, defined as a condition of pain or impairment of bodily function that affects powerlifters' training, in a balanced sample of men and women, and no studies have established possible risk factors for an injury...
May 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Claude T Sabeta, Drienie Janse van Rensburg, Baby Phahladira, Debra Mohale, Robert F Harrison-White, Carlien Esterhuyzen, June H Williams
Both domestic and wild carnivore species are commonly diagnosed with rabies virus (RABV) infection in South Africa. Although the majority of confirmed rabies cases in wild carnivore species are reported from the yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata), the rest are from other wild carnivores including the highly endangered wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Lyssavirus infection was confirmed in two wild dogs and a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Madikwe Game Reserve, North West province in South Africa, in 2014 and 2015, using a direct fluorescent antibody test and immunohistochemistry...
April 26, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
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