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Li Yao, Nikol Flynn
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Advances in the development of biomaterials and stem cell therapy provide a promising approach to regenerating degenerated discs. The normal nucleus pulposus (NP) cells exhibit the similar phenotype as chondrocytes. Because dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be differentiated into chondrogenic cells, the DPSCs and DPSCs-derived chondrogenic cells encapsulated in type I and type II collagen hydrogels can potentially be transplanted into degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP) to repair damaged tissue...
February 13, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Daniel A Truchado, Michaël A J Moens, Sergio Callejas, Javier Pérez-Tris, Laura Benítez
Papillomaviruses are non-enveloped, DNA viruses that infect skin and mucosa of a wide variety of vertebrates, causing neoplasias or simply persisting asymptomatically. Avian papillomaviruses, with six fully sequenced genomes, are the second most studied group after mammalian papillomaviruses. In this study, we describe the first oral avian papillomavirus, detected in the tongue of a dead Yorkshire canary (Serinus canaria) and in oral swabs of the same bird and other two live canaries from an aviary in Madrid, Spain...
February 14, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Lin Long, Xiao-Xiao Pang, Fei Lei, Jia-Sheng Zhang, Wei Wang, Lian-Di Liao, Xiu-E Xu, Jian-Zhong He, Jian-Yi Wu, Zhi-Yong Wu, Li-Dong Wang, De-Chen Lin, En-Min Li, Li-Yan Xu
The human riboflavin transporter-3 (encoded by SLC52A3) plays a prominent role in riboflavin absorption. Interestingly, abnormal expression patterns of SLC52A3 in multiple types of human cancers have been recently noted. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its dysregulation remain unclear. In this study, we find that SLC52A3 has two transcript variants that differ in the transcriptional start site, and encode different proteins: SLC52A3a and SLC52A3b. Importantly, aberrant expressions of SLC52A3 are associated with stepwise development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) as well as the survival rates of ESCC patients...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Catherine M Legemate, Monique van der Kwaak, David Gobets, Menno Huikeshoven, Paul P M van Zuijlen
BACKGROUND: The ischial region is the site most affected by pressure sores and has the highest recurrence and complication rates compared to other affected sites. We developed a practical and safe pedicled flap for reconstruction of ischial pressure sores based on the rich available perforators from the internal pudendal artery and the surplus of skin at the infragluteal fold. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in all patients who underwent ischial pressure ulcer reconstruction using the PIPAP flap between March 2010 and March 2017...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
João Otávio Bandeira Diniz, Pedro Henrique Bandeira Diniz, Thales Levi Azevedo Valente, Aristófanes Corrêa Silva, Anselmo Cardoso de Paiva, Marcelo Gattass
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The processing of medical image is an important tool to assist in minimizing the degree of uncertainty of the specialist, while providing specialists with an additional source of detect and diagnosis information. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer that affects the female population around the world. It is also the most deadly type of cancer among women. It is the second most common type of cancer among all others. The most common examination to diagnose breast cancer early is mammography...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Christina Galonska, Jocelyn Charlton, Alexandra L Mattei, Julie Donaghey, Kendell Clement, Hongcang Gu, Arman W Mohammad, Elena K Stamenova, Davide Cacchiarelli, Sven Klages, Bernd Timmermann, Tobias Cantz, Hans R Schöler, Andreas Gnirke, Michael J Ziller, Alexander Meissner
In normal mammalian development cytosine methylation is essential and is directed to specific regions of the genome. Despite notable advances through mapping its genome-wide distribution, studying the direct contribution of DNA methylation to gene and genome regulation has been limited by the lack of tools for its precise manipulation. Thus, combining the targeting capability of the CRISPR-Cas9 system with an epigenetic modifier has attracted interest in the scientific community. In contrast to profiling the genome-wide cleavage of a nuclease competent Cas9, tracing the global activity of a dead Cas9 (dCas9) methyltransferase fusion protein is challenging within a highly methylated genome...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Shaohua Qi, Lingaonan He, Qin Zhang, Qing Dong, Yajun Wang, Qiuying Yang, Chaoguang Tian, Qun He, Ying Wang
Catalase is an important enzyme found in nearly all aerobic organisms and plays an essential role in protecting cells from oxidative damage by catalyzing the degradation of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. In filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, the expression levels of catalases are rigorously regulated by morphogenetic transition during growth and development in cells. Our study revealed that catalase-3 transcription is positively regulated by histone acetyltransferase GCN5 and the cross-pathway control gene cpc-1, as the cat-3 expression level is significantly decreased in gcn5KO and cpc-1 (j-5) mutants...
February 5, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Gael D Maganga, Ingrid Labouba, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Andriniaina A Nkili-Meyong, Daniel Obame Ondo, Eric M Leroy, Nicolas Berthet
Canine distemper (CD) is the most deadly disease in dogs with mortality rates reaching 50%. The pathological agent, the CD virus (CDV), generally causes a severe systemic disease, although the nervous form can coexist with the acute catarrhal form in the same individual. In this study, we describe an outbreak of 18 cases of CD that occurred in 2015 in a German Shepherd dog population in northwestern Gabon. In addition, we determined the sequence of the CDV genotype associated with this fatal distemper infection in Gabon and compared it with other published CDV sequences...
January 30, 2018: Virus Research
F Ahmad, P V Debes, G Palomar, A Vasemägi
Even though parasitic infections are often costly or deadly for the host, we know very little which genes influence parasite susceptibility and disease severity. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging and, at elevated water temperatures, potentially deadly disease of salmonid fishes that is caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. By screening > 7.6 K SNPs in 255 wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) and combining association mapping and random forest approaches, we identified several candidate genes for both the parasite resistance (inverse of relative parasite load; RPL) and the severe anemic response to the parasite...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Huanliang Yang, Yihong Xiao, Fei Meng, Fachao Sun, Meng Chen, Zilong Cheng, Yan Chen, Sidang Liu, Hualan Chen
Equine influenza virus is a major respiratory pathogen in horses. Although both horses and donkeys belong to the genus Equus, donkey infection with influenza viruses is rare. In March 2017, an influenza outbreak occurred in donkeys in Shandong province, China. The causative virus, A/donkey/Shandong/1/2017(H3N8), was isolated from a dead donkey. Genetic analysis indicated that the virus originated from influenza A (H3N8) clade 2 of the Florida sub-lineage that has been circulating in Asian equine populations...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Mahamane Haidara, Mohamed Haddad, Adama Denou, Guillaume Marti, Sandra Bourgeade-Delmas, Rokia Sanogo, Geneviève Bourdy, Agnès Aubouy
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is still one of the most deadly pathology worldwide. Efficient treatment is jeopardized by parasite resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives, and by poor access to treatment in endemic regions. Anti-malarial traditional remedies still offer new tracks for identifying promising antiplasmodial molecules, and a way to ensure that all people have access to care. The present study aims to validate the traditional use of Terminalia macroptera, a Malian plant used in traditional medicine...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ádila L M Lima, Iraci D de Lima, José F V Coutinho, Úrsula P S T de Sousa, Marcos A G Rodrigues, Mary E Wilson, Richard D Pearson, José W Queiroz, Selma M B Jerônimo
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) continues to be a deadly parasitic disease in Brazil but the epidemiology has changed. The objective of this study was to assess the evolution of urban VL in the city of Natal, Brazil, over the past 25 y. Methods: A retrospective study of human VL was performed, considering reported cases over the past 25 y in Natal. Analyses considered the spatial distribution of VL cases, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) co-infection, Leishmania infantum infection in dogs, density of the insect vector (Lutzomyia longipalpis) and socio-economic factors...
January 31, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ryota Tsunekuni, Yuji Yaguchi, Yuki Kashima, Kaoru Yamashita, Nobuhiro Takemae, Junki Mine, Taichiro Tanikawa, Yuko Uchida, Takehiko Saito
From 29 November 2016 to 24 January 2017, sixty-three cases of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections were detected in wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Here, we analyzed the genetic, temporal, and geographic correlations of these 63 HPAIVs to elucidate their dissemination throughout the prefecture. Full-genome sequence analysis of the Ibaraki isolates showed that 7 segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, NA, NS) were derived from G1.1.9 strains while the M segment was from G1.1 strains; both groups of strains circulated in south China...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Virology
Atte Komonen, Jörg Müller
Limited dispersal knowledge for most organisms hampers effective connectivity conservation in fragmented landscapes. In forest ecosystems, dead-wood dependent organisms (i.e. saproxylics) suffer from forest management and degradation globally. We review the empirical evidence on dispersal ecology of saproxylic insects and fungi. We focus on direct studies (e.g. mark-recapture, radio telemetry), field experiments and population genetic analyses. Our review revealed two somewhat opposite results: based on direct methods and experiments dispersal is limited within a few kilometers, whereas genetic studies generally find little genetic structure over tens of kilometers, indicating long-distance dispersal...
February 1, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Jean Baptiste Nsengiyumva, Geping Luo, Lamek Nahayo, Xiaotao Huang, Peng Cai
Landslides susceptibility assessment has to be conducted to identify prone areas and guide risk management. Landslides in Rwanda are very deadly disasters. The current research aimed to conduct landslide susceptibility assessment by applying Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model with eight layers of causal factors including: slope, distance to roads, lithology, precipitation, soil texture, soil depth, altitude and land cover. In total, 980 past landslide locations were mapped. The relationship between landslide factors and inventory map was calculated using the Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tareq I Maraqa, Ji-Sun J Shin, Ismael Diallo, Gul R Sachwani-Daswani, Leo C Mercer
Obturator artery injury (OAI) from pelvic gunshot wounds (GSW) is a rarely reported condition. Hemorrhages from pelvic trauma (PT) are mostly venous. Arterial hemorrhages represent about 10-20% of PTs. When arterial hemorrhages from PT occur, they are a severe and deadly complication often causing significant hemodynamic instability and eventual shock. A 23-year-old male presented to our emergency service via a private vehicle with multiple gunshot wounds to both thighs and to the lower back, resulted in rectal and obturator artery (OA) injuries...
November 17, 2017: Curēus
Kenichiro Koshiyama, Keisuke Nishimoto, Satoshi Ii, Toshihiro Sera, Shigeo Wada
BACKGROUND: The pulmonary acinus is a dead-end microstructure that consists of ducts and alveoli. High-resolution micro-CT imaging has recently provided detailed anatomical information of a complete in vivo acinus, but relating its mechanical response with its detailed acinar structure remains challenging. This study aimed to investigate the mechanical response of acinar tissue in a whole acinus for static inflation using computational approaches. METHODS: We performed finite element analysis of a whole acinus for static inflation...
January 20, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Rafael H Carvalho, Danielle C B Honorato, Paulo D Guarnieri, Adriana L Soares, Mayka R Pedrão, Alexandre Oba, Fernanda G Paião, Elza I Ida, Massami Shimokomaki
This study evaluated the formed microclimate commercial truck transport practices effects on the turkeys' welfare by measuring Dead on Arrival (DOA) index and pale, soft, and exudative (PSE-like) meat occurrence. The experimental design was entirely randomized in a 6 × 2 factorial arrangements (two truck container compartments × six water shower groups) with birds positioned at superior front (SF), inferior front (IF), superior middle (SM), inferior middle (IM), superior rear (SR), and inferior rear (IR) and two bath treatments: with water shower (WiS) and without water shower (WoS) with eight replications for each treatment...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Lijun Liu, Tarjani M Thaker, Daniel M Freed, Nicole Frazier, Ketan Malhotra, Mark A Lemmon, Natalia Jura
In the active HER receptor dimers, kinases play distinct roles; one is the catalytically active kinase and the other is its allosteric activator. This specialization enables signaling by the catalytically inactive HER3, which functions exclusively as an allosteric activator upon heterodimerization with other HER receptors. It is unclear whether the allosteric activation mechanism evolved before HER receptors functionally specialized. We determined the crystal structure of the kinase domain of the only EGF receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans, LET-23...
January 17, 2018: Structure
Melita Samoilys, Ronan Roche, Heather Koldewey, John Turner
Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as the herbivores, are widely suggested to maintain reefs in a coral-dominated state. Examining links between fishes and reef benthos is complicated by the interactions between natural processes, disturbance events and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure...
2018: PloS One
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