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stereotyped movement

David C Cappadocia, Simona Monaco, Ying Chen, Gunnar Blohm, J Douglas Crawford
The cortical mechanisms for reach have been studied extensively, but directionally selective mechanisms for visuospatial target memory, movement planning, and movement execution have not been clearly differentiated in the human. We used an event-related fMRI design with a visuospatial memory delay, followed by a pro-/anti-reach instruction, a planning delay, and finally a "go" instruction for movement. This sequence yielded temporally separable preparatory responses that expanded from modest parieto-frontal activation for visual target memory to broad occipital-parietal-frontal activation during planning and execution...
October 15, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Elisa Rota, Gianfranco Tanteri, Gilberto Montori, Filippo Giachi, Giovanni Delfino, David M Sever
Several anuran species of the genus Phyllomedusa are known to possess specialized cutaneous glands producing lipids and exhibit a peculiar wiping behavior. This behavior is a stereotyped repertory of fore and hind limb movements distributing hydrophobic molecules onto the body surface and reducing evaporative water loss. No reports are presently available on the occurrence of lipid glands in other phyllomedusine genera, and data on the structure of the secretory units specialized for the production of cutaneous lipids are still unclear...
October 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Giulia Purpura, Francesca Fulceri, Vittoria Puglisi, Patrizia Masoni, Annarita Contaldo
BACKGROUND: Some research suggests that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience diverse motor difficulties that appear closely related to the severity of symptomatology, including repetitive behaviors. Therefore, motor assessment in ASD has crucial relevance in order to plan a specific intervention. The aim of this study is to assess and describe the motor functioning in school-aged children with ASD and to evaluate the relationship between their motor profile and clinical features...
October 12, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
S Aybek, P Vuilleumier
Brain imaging techniques provide unprecedented opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying functional neurologic disorder (FND, or conversion disorder), which have long remained a mystery and clinical challenge for physicians, as they arise with no apparent underlying organic disease. One of the first questions addressed by imaging studies concerned whether motor conversion deficits (e.g., hysteric paralysis) represent a form of (perhaps unconscious) simulation, a mere absence of voluntary movement, or more specific disturbances in motor control (such as abnormal inhibition)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Terry Trinh, Christine T Shiner, Angelica G Thompson-Butel, Penelope A McNulty
PURPOSE: Post-stroke hemiparesis may manifest as asymmetric gait, poor balance, and inefficient movement patterns. We investigated improvements in lower-limb muscle activation and function during Wii-based Movement Therapy (WMT), a rehabilitation program specifically targeting upper-limb motor-function. METHODS: Electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from tibialis anterior (TA) in 20 stroke patients during a 14-day WMT program. EMG amplitude and burst duration were analyzed during stereotypical movement sequences of WMT activities...
October 9, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Gordon J Berman, William Bialek, Joshua W Shaevitz
Even the simplest of animals exhibit behavioral sequences with complex temporal dynamics. Prominent among the proposed organizing principles for these dynamics has been the idea of a hierarchy, wherein the movements an animal makes can be understood as a set of nested subclusters. Although this type of organization holds potential advantages in terms of motion control and neural circuitry, measurements demonstrating this for an animal's entire behavioral repertoire have been limited in scope and temporal complexity...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nicolas Roche
OPINION/FEEDBACK/INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the greatest cause of morbidity in industrialised countries and the third cause of mortality (50,000 deaths per year). The annual incidence is around 300 per 100,000 inhabitants, equivalent to 150,000 new cases each year in France. Around half of survivors are left with some disability as a result of multiple impairments including motor impairments with a loss of strength, stereotyped movements, and changes in muscle tone and limitations in activities...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
David A Gonzalez, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo
The contribution of binocular vision to the performance of reaching and grasping movements has been examined previously using single reach-to-grasp movements. However, most of our daily activities consist of more complex action sequences, which require precise temporal linking between the gaze behaviour and manual action phases. Many previous studies found a stereotypical hand-eye coordination pattern, such that the eyes move prior to the reach initiation. Moving the eyes to the target object provides information about its features and location, which can facilitate the predictive control of reaching and grasping...
September 26, 2016: Vision Research
Annique Smeding, Jean-Charles Quinton, Kelly Lauer, Laura Barca, Giovanni Pezzulo
Adopting a situated social cognition perspective, we relied on different methodologies-1 computational and 3 empirical studies-to investigate social group-related specificities pertaining to implicit gender-domain stereotypes, as measured by a mouse-tracking adapted Implicit Association Test (IAT) and IAT(-like) tasks. We tested whether the emergence of implicit stereotypes was partially determined by associations congruent with the self, by visuospatial features of the task and subsequent competition at both sensorimotor and abstract levels...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Sheldon L Reeves, Kelsey E Fleming, Lin Zhang, Annalisa Scimemi
Grooming is a complex and robust innate behavior, commonly performed by most vertebrate species. In mice, grooming consists of a series of stereotyped patterned strokes, performed along the rostro-caudal axis of the body. The frequency and duration of each grooming episode is sensitive to changes in stress levels, social interactions and pharmacological manipulations, and is therefore used in behavioral studies to gain insights into the function of brain regions that control movement execution and anxiety. Traditional approaches to analyze grooming rely on manually scoring the time of onset and duration of each grooming episode, and are often performed on grooming episodes triggered by stress exposure, which may not be entirely representative of spontaneous grooming in freely-behaving mice...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Rahşan İnan, Gülçin Benbir Şenel, Figen Yavlal, Derya Karadeniz, Ayşegül Gündüz, Meral E Kızıltan
Sleep bruxism (SB) is a stereotyped movement disorder characterized by grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep. We aimed to understand the abnormal networks related to the excitability of masticatory pathways in patients with SB. Eleven patients with SB and age- and gender-matched 20 healthy subjects were prospectively enrolled in our study. The masseter inhibitory reflex (MIR) after electrical stimulation and auditory startle reaction (ASR) were examined. For MIR responses, durations of early and late silent period (SP) were shorter and the degree of suppression of SPs was significantly lower in SB group in comparison to those obtained in healthy subjects...
September 14, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Stefania Sozzi, Antonio Nardone, Marco Schieppati
Motor adaptation due to task practice implies a gradual shift from deliberate control of behavior to automatic processing, which is less resource- and effort-demanding. This is true both for deliberate aiming movements and for more stereotyped movements such as locomotion and equilibrium maintenance. Balance control under persisting critical conditions would require large conscious and motor effort in the absence of gradual modification of the behavior. We defined time-course of kinematic and muscle features of the process of adaptation to repeated, predictable perturbations of balance eliciting both reflex and anticipatory responses...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Andrea Martella, Rosa M Sepe, Cristoforo Silvestri, Jingjing Zang, Giulia Fasano, Oliana Carnevali, Paolo De Girolamo, Stephan C F Neuhauss, Paolo Sordino, Vincenzo Di Marzo
The developmental role of the endocannabinoid system still remains to be fully understood. Here, we report the presence of a complete endocannabinoid system during zebrafish development and show that the genes that code for enzymes that catalyze the anabolism and catabolism (mgll and dagla) of the endocannabinoid, 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol), as well as 2-AG main receptor in the brain, cannabinoid receptor type 1, are coexpressed in defined regions of axonal growth. By using morpholino-induced transient knockdown of the zebrafish Daglα homolog and its pharmacologic rescue, we suggest that synthesis of 2-AG is implicated in the control of axon formation in the midbrain-hindbrain region and that animals that lack Daglα display abnormal physiological behaviors in tests that measure stereotyped movement and motion perception...
September 13, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Afsoon Saadin, Michelle Starz-Gaiano
Drosophila border cells undergo a straightforward and stereotypical collective migration during egg development. However, a complex genetic program underlies this process. A variety of approaches, including biochemical, genetic, and imaging strategies have identified many regulatory components, revealing layers of control. This complexity suggests that the active processes of evaluating the environment, remodeling the cytoskeleton, and coordinating movements among cells, demand rapid systems for modulating cell behaviors...
October 2016: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Michael L Lee, Ângela M Katsuyama, Leanne S Duge, Chaitra Sriram, Mykhaylo Krushelnytskyy, Jeansok J Kim, Horacio O de la Iglesia
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep is important for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories. It is hypothesized that the temporal sequence of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is critical for the weakening of nonadaptive memories and the subsequent transfer of memories temporarily stored in the hippocampus to more permanent memories in the neocortex. A great body of evidence supporting this hypothesis relies on behavioral, pharmacological, neural, and/or genetic manipulations that induce sleep deprivation or stage-specific sleep deprivation...
August 19, 2016: Sleep
Adria E N Hoover, Laurence R Harris
Seeing our body from a 'self' perspective while performing a movement improves our ability to detect asynchrony between the visual and proprioceptive information concerning that movement: a signature of enhanced body ownership referred to as the 'self-advantage'. We consequently experience no self-advantage when seeing our body from an 'other' perspective. Here we ask whether introducing visuo-tactile stimulation (VTS), similar to that used in the rubber hand illusion to invoke ownership over a dummy hand, would produce a self-advantage when viewing the body from a typically 'other' perspective...
August 23, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Philippe Vindras, Annabelle Blangero, Hisaaki Ota, Karen T Reilly, Yves Rossetti, Laure Pisella
Interaction with visual objects in the environment requires an accurate correspondence between visual space and its internal representation within the brain. Many clinical conditions involve some impairment in visuo-motor control and the errors created by the lesion of a specific brain region are neither random nor uninformative. Modern approaches to studying the neuropsychology of action require powerful data-driven analyses and error modeling in order to understand the function of the lesioned areas. In the present paper we carried out mixed-effect analyses of the pointing errors of seven optic ataxia patients and seven control subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Takefumi Negishi, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi Murata, Hitoyoshi Yasuo, Naoto Ueno
In the last mitotic division of the epidermal lineage in the ascidian embryo, the cells divide stereotypically along the anterior-posterior axis. During interphase, we found that a unique membrane structure invaginates from the posterior to the centre of the cell, in a microtubule-dependent manner. The invagination projects toward centrioles on the apical side of the nucleus and associates with one of them. Further, a cilium forms on the posterior side of the cell and its basal body remains associated with the invagination...
2016: ELife
D Maltête
Stereotypies have been defined as non-goal-directed movement patterns repeated continuously for a period of time in the same form and on multiple occasions, and which are typically distractible. Stereotypical motor behaviors are a common clinical feature of a variety of neurological conditions that affect cortical and subcortical functions, including autism, tardive dyskinesia, excessive dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia. The main differential diagnosis of stereotypies includes tic disorders, motor mannerisms, compulsion and habit...
August 2016: Revue Neurologique
Alan K Percy
Fifty years ago, Andreas Rett described a disorder in 22 females featuring prominent regression of fine motor and communication skills, cognitive impairment, stereotypic movements, periodic breathing, and gait abnormalities. This disorder became known as Rett syndrome (RTT) following the report of Hagberg et al. in 1983. Although RTT was scarcely recognized at that time in the United States, here the efforts of Rett and Hagberg led to rapid progress in recognition and diagnosis, a clearer understanding of its clinical and pathological underpinnings, and, ultimately, identification of mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene as the primary cause of this unique and challenging neurodevelopmental disorder...
September 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
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