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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334231/social-capital-and-ptsd-among-plwha-in-china-the-mediating-role-of-resilience-and-internalized-stigma
#1
Mengting Gao, Chenchang Xiao, Xuan Zhang, Shiyue Li, Hong Yan
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is frequent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Few studies have investigated social-psychological predictors of PTSD in China. This study aimed to examine relationships between social capital, stigma, resilience and PTSD among PLWHA in China, and to provide effective suggestions for PTSD intervention. A cross-sectional study of 520 PLWHA was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. Multivariable analyses were used to examine related factors of PTSD, and causal mediation analyses were conducted to assess whether stigma and resilience were mediators...
January 15, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333895/childhood-adversity-and-hazardous-drinking-the-mediating-role-of-attachment-insecurity
#2
Thao Lan Le, Robert D Levitan, Robert E Mann, Robert G Maunder
BACKGROUND: Harmful alcohol use is associated with disease and mortality. Identifying new determinants of harmful drinking may aid the 16.3 million adults who have alcohol use disorders. Childhood adversity is associated with alcohol use, but is not amenable to change. Attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance) may be associated with alcohol use and may be a target for modification or used to personalize interventions. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to (a) identify the association between attachment insecurity and harmful drinking, (b) determine if attachment insecurity may mediate between childhood adversity and harmful drinking, and (c) test sex as a moderator between attachment insecurity and harmful drinking in the mediation relationship...
January 15, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330519/large-scale-aggregation-analysis-of-eukaryotic-proteins-reveals-an-involvement-of-intrinsically-disordered-regions-in-protein-folding
#3
Eri Uemura, Tatsuya Niwa, Shintaro Minami, Kazuhiro Takemoto, Satoshi Fukuchi, Kodai Machida, Hiroaki Imataka, Takuya Ueda, Motonori Ota, Hideki Taguchi
A subset of the proteome is prone to aggregate formation, which is prevented by chaperones in the cell. To investigate whether the basic principle underlying the aggregation process is common in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, we conducted a large-scale aggregation analysis of ~500 cytosolic budding yeast proteins using a chaperone-free reconstituted translation system, and compared the obtained data with that of ~3,000 Escherichia coli proteins reported previously. Although the physicochemical properties affecting the aggregation propensity were generally similar in yeast and E...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313281/eating-disorders-substance-use-disorders-and-multiple-symptoms-three-clinical-vignettes
#4
Graziella Fava Vizziello, Laura Bellin
During the longitudinal study of three patients, referred to services at 3, 13, 15 years for eating disorders, reduced food intake and anorexia nervosa, other symptoms appeared depending on difficult development, relational and personality problems. The patients showed the interweaving of symptoms at different times: they were dealing with modified developmental needs and contexts, included new possibilities of attachment that might produce different internal organizations. These changes required different treatments...
January 8, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311249/engaging-families-in-the-management-of-adolescent-self-harm
#5
REVIEW
Shilpa Aggarwal, George Patton
Adolescent self-harm is an emerging public health challenge. It is associated with later psychiatric and substance use disorders, unemployment and suicide. Family interventions have been effective in a range of adolescent mental health problems and for that reason were reviewed for their effectiveness in the management of adolescent self-harm. The search identified 10 randomised and 2 non-randomised controlled trial conducted in the high-income countries. For the most part the evidence is of low quality. The interventions were classified as brief single session, intermediate-level and intensive family interventions depending on the intensity and duration of treatment...
January 8, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303994/uv-assisted-photochemical-synthesis-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-zno-nanowires-composite-for-photoresponse-enhancement-in-uv-photodetectors
#6
Changsong Chen, Peng Zhou, Na Wang, Yang Ma, Haisheng San
The weak photon absorption and high recombination rate of electron-hole pairs in disordered zinc oxide nanowires (ZNWs) limit its application in UV photodetection. This limitation can be overcome by introducing graphene sheets to the ZNWs. Herein we report a high-performance photodetector based on one-dimensional (1D) wide band-gap semiconductor disordered ZNWs composited with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for ultraviolet (UV) photoresponse enhancement. The RGO/ZNWs composites have been successfully synthetized through UV-assisted photochemical reduction of GO in ZNWs suspension...
January 5, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302631/oxytocin-monolayer-based-impedimetric-biosensor-for-zinc-and-copper-ions
#7
Kiran Kumar Tadi, Israel Alshanski, Evgeniy Mervinetsky, Gerard Marx, Panayiota Petrou, Karussis M Dimitrios, Chaim Gilon, Mattan Hurevich, Shlomo Yitzchaik
Zinc and copper are essential metal ions for numerous biological processes. Their levels are tightly maintained in all body organs. Impairment of the Zn2+ to Cu2+ ratio in serum was found to correlate with many disease states, including immunological and inflammatory disorders. Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide, and its activity is modulated by zinc and copper ion binding. Harnessing the intrinsic properties of OT is one of the attractive ways to develop valuable metal ion sensors. Here, we report for the first time an OT-based metal ion sensor prepared by immobilizing the neuropeptide onto a glassy carbon electrode...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302279/prior-oral-conditions-in-patients-undergoing-heart-valve-surgery
#8
Francisco-Javier Silvestre, Irene Gil-Raga, Mayte Martinez-Herrera, Dorina Lauritano, Javier Silvestre-Rangil
Background: Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be free of any oral infectious disorders that might pose a risk in the postoperative period. Few studies have been made on the dental conditions of such patients prior to surgery. The present study describes the most frequent prior oral diseases in this population group. Material and Methods: A prospective, observational case-control study was designed involving 60 patients (30 with heart valve disease and 30 controls, with a mean age of 71 years in both groups)...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295587/dopamine-and-levodopa-prodrugs-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Fatma Haddad, Maryam Sawalha, Yahya Khawaja, Anas Najjar, Rafik Karaman
Background: Parkinson's disease is an aggressive and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that depletes dopamine (DA) in the central nervous system. Dopamine replacement therapy, mainly through actual dopamine and its original prodrug l-dopa (LD), faces many challenges such as poor blood brain barrier penetration and decreased response to therapy with time. Methods: The prodrugs described herein are ester, amide, dimeric amide, carrier-mediated, peptide transport-mediated, cyclic, chemical delivery systems and enzyme-models prodrugs designed and made by chemical means, and their bioavailability was studied in animals...
December 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294817/characteristics-for-the-identification-of-children-who-commit-family-murder-in-south-africa
#10
Melanie Carmen Moen
Children who commit family murder have been increasingly reported on in the South African media. Violence of this type has far-reaching consequences for families and communities. In this qualitative study, nine documented cases of children who committed family murder were analyzed to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors that contribute to children murdering family members. The personal and systemic reasons for these types of murders guided the research. The Interpersonal Parental Acceptance-Rejection Theory (IPARTheory) was used as theoretical framework...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283370/trauma-and-pain-in-family-orientated-societies
#11
Jan Ilhan Kizilhan
People from family-oriented societies in particular, in addition to having a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suffer from chronic pain and physical complaints. Such people have a different understanding of physical illness and pain and, compared to patients from western societies, have different ideas on healing, even when confronted with the therapist. Hitherto, these factors have not been sufficiently taken into account in modern, multi-module therapy approaches. Trauma can be perceived via pain and physical complaints, whereby the pain is not restricted to one part of the body but is seen as covering the body as a whole...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280621/study-of-fret-to-lipid-domain-markers-ascertains-partitioning-of-semisynthetic-lipidated-n-ras-in-lipid-raft-nanodomains
#12
Anna K Shishina, Elizaveta A Kovrigina, Azamat R Galiakhmetov, Rajendra Rathore, Evgenii L Kovrigin
Cellular membranes are heterogeneous planar lipid bilayers displaying lateral phase separation with the nanometer-scale liquid-ordered phase (aka "lipid rafts") surrounded by the liquid-disordered phase. Many membrane-associated proteins were found to permanently integrate in the lipid rafts, which is critical for their biological function. Isoforms H and N of Ras GTPase possess a unique ability to switch their lipid domain preference depending on the type of the bound guanine nucleotide (GDP or GTP). This behavior, however, has never been demonstrated in vitro in model bilayers with recombinant proteins, and therefore has been attributed to the action of Ras binding to other proteins at the membrane surface...
December 27, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280395/attachment-and-emotion-regulation-in-substance-addictions-and-behavioral-addictions
#13
Ana Estévez, Paula Jáuregui, Inmaculada Sánchez-Marcos, Hibai López-González, Mark D Griffiths
Background Risky behaviors have been related to emotional regulation and attachment, which may constitute risk factors for developing an addictive behavior. However, there may also be differences between substance and non-substance-related addictions. Aims This study aimed to examine the relationship of emotional regulation and attachment, with substance (alcohol and drug abuse), and non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use) in adolescents and emerging adults...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274929/intrapericardial-neurofibromatosis-with-coronary-involvement-a-case-report
#14
E A Moghadam, M A Navabi Shirazi, M R Mirzaaghayan, M Nikoufar, A Ghamari
Neurocutaneous syndromes are heterogenous diseases that are diagnosed in the presence of skin and central nervous system disorders. Neurofibromatosis (NF) is one of these disorders, with autosomal dominant inheritance, that causes tumors that grow on nerves as well as other abnormalities such as skin changes and bone deformities. The most common form of NF is type I. A 6-year-old Iranian boy with neurofibromatosis was referred to the pediatric cardiology clinic due to a soft holosystolic murmur discovered on routine examination...
December 20, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260602/an-evaluation-of-two-novel-capillaroscopy-techniques-in-suspected-scleroderma-spectrum-disorders-a-single-centre-cross-sectional-study
#15
Matthew J S Parker, Michael T Oliffe, Neil W McGill
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of digital photographs taken with a smartphone camera using both a lens attachment and, separately, a dermatoscope. The secondary aims were to assess the influence of prior capillaroscopy experience and familiarity with the novel techniques on diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: All patients referred for capillaroscopy between May 2016 and January 2017 were eligible for inclusion. Nailfolds were classified by widefield microscopy before proceeding double-blinded to nailfold photography using both novel techniques...
December 20, 2017: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251747/-inpatient-dialectical-behaviour-therapy-for-borderline-personality-disorder-effect-on-symptoms-coping-attachment-and-quality-of-life
#16
J M Oostendorp, F Chakhssi
BACKGROUND: Dialectical behaviour therapy (dbt) is an effective treatment for patients suffering from borderline personality disorder (bpd). When outpatient treatment is ineffective, patients are often referred to inpatient (group) treatment. As of yet, little is known about the effectiveness of inpatient (group) dbt. An altered style of attachment is one of the presumed components of inpatient (group) treatment. At present, this supposition has not yet been examined in inpatient dbt programs...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251381/inhibitors-and-facilitators-of-compassion-focused-imagery-in-personality-disorder
#17
Iona Naismith, Amanda Mwale, Janet Feigenbaum
BACKGROUND: Compassion-focused therapy (CFT) has potential to benefit clients with a personality disorder (PD), given the inflated levels of shame and self-criticism in this population. However, clinical observation indicates that clients with PD may find techniques from this approach challenging. AIMS: The aim of this study is to trial one aspect of CFT, compassion-focused imagery (CFI), with this population, and identify factors that predict clients' ability to generate CFI and experience self-compassion during the task, including type of CFI exercise and, second, to establish whether CFI outcomes increase with practice...
December 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249937/glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-immunoglobulin-superfamily-cell-adhesion-molecules-and-their-role-in-neuronal-development-and-synapse-regulation
#18
REVIEW
Rui P A Tan, Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Vladimir Sytnyk
Immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are cell surface glycoproteins that not only mediate interactions between neurons but also between neurons and other cells in the nervous system. While typical IgSF CAMs are transmembrane molecules, this superfamily also includes CAMs, which do not possess transmembrane and intracellular domains and are instead attached to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. In this review, we focus on the role GPI-anchored IgSF CAMs have as signal transducers and ligands in neurons, and discuss their functions in regulation of neuronal development, synapse formation, synaptic plasticity, learning, and behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244625/the-role-of-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-in-attachment
#19
C Sue Carter
Selective relationships and attachments are central to human health and well-being, both in current societies and during the course of evolution. The presence or absence of social bonds has consequences across the lifespan. The neurobiology of attachment is grounded in neuroendocrine substrates that are shared with reproduction and survival. Experimental studies of species, such as sheep or prairie voles, capable of showing selective social behaviors toward offspring or partners, have provided empirical evidence for the role of oxytocin and vasopressin in the formation of selective attachments...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244621/on-mourning-and-recovery-integrating-stages-of-grief-and-change-toward-a-neuroscience-based-model-of-attachment-adaptation-in-addiction-treatment
#20
R Andrew Chambers, Sue C Wallingford
Interpersonal attachment and drug addiction share many attributes across their behavioral and neurobiological domains. Understanding the overlapping brain circuitry of attachment formation and addiction illuminates a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of trauma-related mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders, and the extent to which ending an addiction is complicated by being a sort of mourning process. Attention to the process of addiction recovery-as a form of grieving-in which Kubler-Ross's stages of grief and Prochaska's stages of change are ultimately describing complementary viewpoints on a general process of neural network and attachment remodeling, could lead to more effective and integrative psychotherapy and medication strategies...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
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