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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633046/macrophages-with-cellular-backpacks-for-targeted-drug-delivery-to-the-brain
#1
Natalia L Klyachko, Roberta Polak, Matthew J Haney, Yuling Zhao, Reginaldo J Gomes Neto, Michael C Hill, Alexander V Kabanov, Robert E Cohen, Michael F Rubner, Elena V Batrakova
Most potent therapeutics are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier following systemic administration, which necessitates the development of unconventional, clinically applicable drug delivery systems. With the given challenges, biologically active vehicles are crucial to accomplishing this task. We now report a new method for drug delivery that utilizes living cells as vehicles for drug carriage across the blood brain barrier. Cellular backpacks, 7-10 μm diameter polymer patches of a few hundred nanometers in thickness, are a potentially interesting approach, because they can act as drug depots that travel with the cell-carrier, without being phagocytized...
June 17, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632983/a-descriptive-study-of-a-community-based-home-visiting-program-with-preschool-children-prenatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#2
Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Sayma Malik, Julia Wellwood, Karen Johnston, Holly Gammon, Kathy N Andrew, Breann Maxwell, Sally Longstaffe
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) increases the risk of insecure caregiver-child attachment and related negative child emotional-behavioural outcomes. Research also shows positive effects of attachment-focused interventions in preventing disrupted caregiver-child attachment relationships; however, such interventions have not been specifically adapted for children with FASD. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the implementation, challenges, and results of a community home-based attachment intervention, Circle of Security® (COS), with preschool children affected by PAE/FASD in Manitoba, Canada...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630323/role-of-the-cbp-catalytic-core-in-intramolecular-sumoylation-and-control-of-histone-h3-acetylation
#3
Sangho Park, Robyn L Stanfield, Maria A Martinez-Yamout, H Jane Dyson, Ian A Wilson, Peter E Wright
The histone acetyl transferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its paralog p300 play a critical role in numerous cellular processes. Dysregulation of their catalytic activity is associated with several human diseases. Previous work has elucidated the regulatory mechanisms of p300 acetyltransferase activity, but it is not known whether CBP activity is controlled similarly. Here, we present the crystal structure of the CBP catalytic core encompassing the bromodomain (BRD), CH2 (comprising PHD and RING), HAT, and ZZ domains at 2...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627806/improving-the-quantum-yields-of-perylene-diimide-aggregates-by-increasing-molecular-hydrophobicity-in-polar-media
#4
Jodi Szarko, Jürgen Plenge, Xiaoyu Xu, Ashli Austin, Steven Mylon
Here we report the quantum yield of four aggregated perylene diimide (PDI) species that vary by the length of the branched side chains attached at the N,N' imide positions. The PDI molecules were dissolved in binary water:methanol solvents as a means to vary the solvent polarity and control the degree of aggregation in solution. By performing spectroscopy, kinetics, and light scattering experiments, the nature of the molecular interactions in the solutions was determined. The maximum quantum yield of the aggregated molecules increased from 0...
June 19, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612690/attachment-as-a-predictor-of-non-response-to-cbt-treatment-in-children-with-anxiety-disorders
#5
Monika Walczak, Barbara Hoff Esbjørn, Sonja Breinholst
Children's and parents' attachment patterns have been linked with the presence of pediatric anxiety disorders. The present study examined the role of attachment in predicting cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment outcomes. A total of 69 children aged 7-13 years were assessed using a semi-structured interview, and treated with CBT. Differences between responders and nonresponders with regard to pretreatment characteristics were explored, and the predictive power of factors significantly different between groups was assessed using binominal logistic regression...
June 14, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609440/protective-mental-health-factors-in-children-of-parents-with-alcohol-and-drug-use-disorders-a-systematic-review
#6
Olga Wlodarczyk, Mirjam Schwarze, Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Franka Metzner, Silke Pawils
Children of parents with drug and alcohol use disorders often grow up under severe stress and are at greater risk of developing psychological and social problems. However, a substantial proportion of affected children adapt to their distressing life conditions and show positive development in terms of their mental health. These children are described as resilient. One difference between resilient and maladapted children is the presence of protective factors. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the current state of the research concerning protective mental health factors in children of parents with alcohol or drug use disorders (COPAD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609118/sports-related-groin-pain-secondary-to-symphysis-pubis-disorders-correlation-between-mri-findings-and-outcome-after-fluoroscopy-guided-injection-of-steroid-and-local-anesthetic
#7
Caoimhe A Byrne, Dermot J Bowden, Abdullah Alkhayat, Eoin C Kavanagh, Stephen J Eustace
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to correlate patterns of injury on preprocedural MRI with outcome after targeted fluoroscopy-guided steroid and local anesthetic injection of the symphysis pubis and its muscular attachments in a group of athletes with chronic groin pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients with chronic sports-related groin pain underwent MRI of the pelvis and a targeted fluoroscopy-guided symphyseal corticosteroid and local anesthetic injection...
June 13, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600783/kinetochore-malfunction-in-human-pathologies
#8
Bas de Wolf, Geert J P L Kops
The cell cycle culminates in mitosis with the purpose of dividing the cell's DNA content equally over two daughter cells. Error-free segregation relies on correct connections between chromosomes and spindle microtubules. Kinetochores are complex multi-protein assemblies that mediate these connections and are the platforms for attachment-error-correction and spindle assembly checkpoint signaling. Proper kinetochore function is therefore key in preventing aneuploidization. Mutations in genes encoding kinetochore proteins are associated with several severe developmental disorders associated with microcephaly, and kinetochore defects contribute to chromosomal instability in certain cancers...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597297/intrinsic-protein-disorder-in-oncogenic-kras-signaling
#9
REVIEW
Ruth Nussinov, Hyunbum Jang, Chung-Jung Tsai, Tsung-Jen Liao, Shuai Li, David Fushman, Jian Zhang
How Ras, and in particular its most abundant oncogenic isoform K-Ras4B, is activated and signals in proliferating cells, poses some of the most challenging questions in cancer cell biology. In this paper, we ask how intrinsically disordered regions in K-Ras4B and its effectors help promote proliferative signaling. Conformational disorder allows spanning long distances, supports hinge motions, promotes anchoring in membranes, permits segments to fulfil multiple roles, and broadly is crucial for activation mechanisms and intensified oncogenic signaling...
June 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596906/pattern-of-impairments-and-late-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-a-sub-saharan-african-clinical-population-of-children-in-nigeria
#10
M A Bello-Mojeed, O O Omigbodun, M O Bakare, A O Adewuya
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Studies conducted among Africans living outside the continent indicate that African children are more likely than Caucasian children to have a late diagnosis of ASD. There is a dearth of information on this topic among children with ASD living in Africa. METHODS: To determine the pattern of impairments and age at diagnosis in ASD, sixty Nigerian children with a diagnosis of ASD were recruited from a neurodevelopmental clinic...
2017: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585221/vagal-nerve-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#11
REVIEW
Flavia R Carreno, Alan Frazer
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent. Although standards antidepressants are more effective than placebo, up to 35% of patients do not respond to 4 or more conventional treatments and are considered to have treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Considerable effort has been devoted to trying to find effective treatments for TRD. This review focuses on vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), approved for TRD in 2005 by the Food and Drugs Administration. Stimulation is carried by bipolar electrodes on the left cervical vagus nerve, which are attached to an implanted stimulator generator...
June 5, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583512/comprehensive-management-of-congenital-choanal-atresia
#12
Pierre Brihaye, Isabelle Delpierre, Andrée De Villé, Anne-Britt Johansson, Dominique Biarent, Anne-Laure Mansbach
OBJECTIVES: To present results of a one-stage minimally invasive surgical procedure for congenital choanal atresia (CCA). Seven outcome measures were applied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study conducted between 1999 and 2015. The same endonasal endoscopic approach with multiflaps and no stenting was used on 36 children. The flaps were attached with fibrine glue. There were 50% unilateral and 50% bilateral cases, 70% primary and 30% secondary surgery. The mean age at primary surgery for bilateral atresia was 10 days and for unilateral atresia 4 years...
July 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577603/beyond-reactive-attachment-disorder-how-might-attachment-research-inform-child-psychiatry-practice
#13
REVIEW
Neil W Boris, Kimberly Renk
This article provides an updated review of attachment research with a focus on how comprehensive clinical assessment and intervention informs the care of young children. Child psychiatrists can serve as an important part of care coordination teams working with young children who have histories of early maltreatment and/or disruption in caregiving whether or not the children they are seeing meet criteria for an attachment disorder. Child psychiatrists should be familiar with both comprehensive assessment and the recent attachment-based interventions and appreciate how pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunctive intervention when intensive therapy alone is ineffective...
July 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575559/-syndrome-of-emotional-burnout-among-women-physicians-elderly
#14
V S Myakotnykh, T A Borovkova
The article presents the results of a comparative study of clinical symptoms of syndrome of emotional burnout among 84 working in the specialty physician of older women and 48 officially ceasing operations in this specialty. The findings suggest that burnout can take place among representatives of older age and more it is continued, provided professional activities. The cessation of the work activities leads to stress, often with the subsequent development post-traumatic stress disorder and stress-induced diseases...
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575420/exacerbation-of-endometriosis-due-to-regulatory-t-cell-dysfunction
#15
Yukiko Tanaka, Taisuke Mori, Fumitake Ito, Akemi Koshiba, Osamu Takaoka, Hisashi Kataoka, Eiko Maeda, Hiroyuki Okimura, Takahide Mori, Jo Kitawaki
Context: Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with altered immune response to endometrial cells facilitating the implantation and proliferation of ectopic endometrial tissues. Although regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in T cell-mediated immune response and development of immune disorders, their significance in endometriosis remains to be elucidated. Recently, CD4+CD45RA- forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3)hi T cells, activated Treg cells, have been identified as a functionally true suppressive population of Treg cells...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571787/probing-topology-and-dynamics-of-the-second-transmembrane-domain-m2%C3%AE-of-the-acetyl-choline-receptor-using-magnetically-aligned-lipid-bilayers-bicelles-and-epr-spectroscopy
#16
Indra D Sahu, Daniel J Mayo, Nidhi Subbaraman, Johnson J Inbaraj, Robert M McCarrick, Gary A Lorigan
Characterizing membrane protein structure and dynamics in the lipid bilayer membrane is very important but experimentally challenging. EPR spectroscopy offers a unique set of techniques to investigate a membrane protein structure, dynamics, topology, and distance constraints in lipid bilayers. Previously our lab demonstrated the use of magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers (bicelles) for probing topology and dynamics of the membrane peptide M2δ of the acetyl choline receptor (AchR) as a proof of concept...
May 29, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568285/claviform-aspergillus-related-vegetation-in-the-left-ventricle-of-a-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
Tetsushi Yamamoto, Shimpei Kasagi, Chiyo Kurimoto, Takamitsu Imanishi, Nobuhide Hayashi, Akio Morinobu, Jun Saegusa
A 38-year-old woman was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and received immunosuppressive therapy. After 6 months of treatment, workup for low-grade fever yielded elevated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers for Aspergillus antigen in serum and ascites, leading to the diagnosis of disseminated aspergillosis. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a claviform vegetation attached to the left ventricular anterior septum. Two days after the start of antifungal Amphotericin-B therapy, the patient suffered from several neurologic disorders...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559930/comparison-of-clinical-and-immunological-findings-in-gnotobiotic-piglets-infected-with-escherichia-coli-o104-h4-outbreak-strain-and-ehec-o157-h7
#18
Bettina Wöchtl, Florian Gunzer, Wilhelm Gerner, Hagen Gasse, Michaela Koch, Zoltán Bagó, Martin Ganter, Herbert Weissenböck, Nora Dinhopl, Sina M Coldewey, Alexandra von Altrock, Karl-Heinz Waldmann, Armin Saalmüller, Kurt Zimmermann, Jörg Steinmann, Jan Kehrmann, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Jochen Blom, Ralf Ehricht, Ines Engelmann, Isabel Hennig-Pauka
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) (STEC) is the most frequent cause of diarrhoea-positive haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D + HUS) in humans. In 2011, a huge outbreak with an STEC O104:H4 strain in Germany highlighted the limited possibilities for causative treatment of this syndrome. The responsible STEC strain was found to combine Stx production with adherence mechanisms normally found in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Pathotypes of E. coli evolve and can exhibit different adhesion mechanisms...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559206/working-hard-for-oneself-or-others-effects-of-oxytocin-on-reward-motivation-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#19
Angela Fang, Michael T Treadway, Stefan G Hofmann
There is some evidence to suggest that oxytocin promotes social behavior, especially for disorders characterized by social dysfunction, such as social anxiety disorder (SAD). The goal of this study was to examine the effect of oxytocin on reward motivation in SAD. We tested whether oxytocin promotes prosocial, or antisocial, self-directed decisions, and whether its effects depended on social anxiety severity and attachment. Fifty-two males with SAD received 24 international units of oxytocin or placebo, and completed a reward motivation task that measured willingness to work for self vs...
May 27, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557959/how-to-deliver-a-more-persuasive-message-regarding-addiction-as-a-medical-disorder
#20
Keith Humphreys
: Many members of our field are frustrated that the public does not see addiction as a legitimate medical disorder which should be compassionately addressed as a health problem rather than a criminal justice problem. Although some attribute the disconnect to the public's lack of scientific knowledge or attachment to outdated moral views regarding substance use, this commentary suggests that the problem may well be our own messaging. We would be more persuasive if we acknowledged that addiction is different from most medical disorders because of its high negative externalities, and that this understandably makes the public more scared of and angry about addiction than they are about conditions like asthma, type II diabetes, and hypertension...
May 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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