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disruptive disorder

Huawang Wu, Hui Sun, Chao Wang, Lin Yu, Yilan Li, Hongjun Peng, Xiaobing Lu, Qingmao Hu, Yuping Ning, Tianzi Jiang, Jinping Xu, Jiaojian Wang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits and affective symptoms. To date, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have focused on emotion regulation and have consistently shown that emotion dysregulation is one of the central features and underlying mechanisms of MDD. Although gray matter morphological abnormalities in regions within emotion regulation networks have been identified in MDD, the interactions and relationships between these gray matter structures remain largely unknown...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Emel Sari Gokten, Nagihan Saday Duman, Nusret Soylu, Mehmet Erdem Uzun
It is known that children with mental and developmental problems are at risk of abuse and neglect. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine whether children diagnosed with ADHD are under more risk in terms of child abuse and neglect compared to controls. In this case-control study, 104 children, who applied to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit of Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital between January and June 2015, were diagnosed with ADHD, and had no other psychiatric comorbidity except for disruptive behavior disorders, and 104 healthy children were compared...
October 19, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Juliet Richetto, Renaud Massart, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Moshe Szyf, Marco A Riva, Urs Meyer
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infectious or inflammatory insults increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Using a well-established mouse model of prenatal viral-like immune activation, we examined whether this pathological association involves genome-wide DNA methylation differences at single nucleotide resolution. METHODS: Prenatal immune activation was induced by maternal treatment with the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid in middle or late gestation...
August 12, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Nadia A Akawi, Salma Ben-Salem, Jozef Hertecant, Anne John, Thachillath Pramathan, Praseetha Kizhakkedath, Bassam R Ali, Lihadh Al-Gazali
BACKGROUND: The group of ELAC2-related encephalomyopathies is a recent addition to the rapidly growing heterogeneous mitochondrial disorders. RESULTS: We describe a highly inbred consanguineous Pakistani family with multiple affected children in 2 branches exhibiting moderately severe global developmental delay. Using homozygosity mapping, we mapped the phenotype in this family to a single locus on chromosome 17. In addition, whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous splicing mutation (c...
October 21, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Brittany L Zastrow, Michelle M Martel, Thomas A Widiger
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is conceptualized as a disorder of negative affect and low effortful control. Yet empirical tests of trait associations with ODD remain limited. The current study examined the relationship between temperament and personality traits and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) ODD symptom domains and related impairment in a preschool-age sample. Participants were 109 children ages 3-6 (59% male), overrecruited for ODD from the community, and their primary caregivers (87% mothers)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Dah Ihm Kim, Ki Hoon Lee, Ji Young Oh, Jun Sung Kim, Ho Jae Han
Mitochondria as dynamic organelles undergo morphological changes through the processes of fission and fusion which are major factors regulating their functions. A disruption in the balance of mitochondrial dynamics induces functional disorders in mitochondria such as failed energy production and the generation of reactive oxygen species, which are closely related to pathophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between abnormalities in mitochondrial dynamics and impaired mitochondrial function, clarifying the effects of morphofunctional aberrations which promote neuronal cell death in AD...
October 20, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Teresa M Attina, Russ Hauser, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Patricia A Hunt, Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, John Peterson Myers, Joseph DiGangi, R Thomas Zoeller, Leonardo Trasande
BACKGROUND: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to disease and dysfunction and incur high associated costs (>1% of the gross domestic product [GDP] in the European Union). Exposure to EDCs varies widely between the USA and Europe because of differences in regulations and, therefore, we aimed to quantify disease burdens and related economic costs to allow comparison. METHODS: We used existing models for assessing epidemiological and toxicological studies to reach consensus on probabilities of causation for 15 exposure-response relations between substances and disorders...
October 17, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Nicola Cellini
In recent years sleep-related memory consolidation has become a central topic in the sleep research field. Several studies have shown that in healthy individuals sleep promotes memory consolidation. Notwithstanding this, the consequences of sleep disorders on offline memory consolidation remain poorly investigated. Research studies indicate that patients with insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy often exhibit sleep-related impairment in the consolidation of declarative and procedural information...
September 25, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Gregory D M Potter, Debra J Skene, Josephine Arendt, Janet E Cade, Peter J Grant, Laura J Hardie
Circadian (∼ 24 hour) timing systems pervade all kingdoms of life, and temporally optimize behaviour and physiology in humans. Relatively recent changes to our environments, such as the introduction of artificial lighting, can disorganize the circadian system, from the level of the molecular clocks that regulate the timing of cellular activities to the level of synchronization between our daily cycles of behaviour and the solar day. Sleep/wake cycles are intertwined with the circadian system, and global trends indicate that these too are increasingly subject to disruption...
October 20, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
Juan Feng, Wanli Xing, Lan Xie
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs in eukaryotes, have been recognized as significant regulators of gene expression through post-transcriptional mechanisms. To date, >2000 miRNAs have been identified in the human genome, and they orchestrate a variety of biological and pathological processes. Disruption of miRNA levels correlates with many diseases, including diabetes mellitus, a complex multifactorial metabolic disorder affecting >400 million people worldwide. miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus by affecting pancreatic β-cell functions, insulin resistance, or both...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christine N El Ouardani
Based on 9 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. mental health clinic focused on the treatment of preschool-aged children who exhibited extremely disruptive behavior, this article examines the contradictions clinicians faced when trying to identify and attribute "intentionality" to very young children. Disruptive, aggressive behavior is one of the central symptoms involved in a wide-range of childhood psychopathology and the number one reason young children are referred to mental health clinics in the United States...
October 19, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Laurel L Ballantyne, Yuan Yan Sin, Osama Y Al-Dirbashi, Xinzhi Li, David J Hurlbut, Colin D Funk
Arginase-1 (Arg1) converts arginine to urea and ornithine in the distal step of the urea cycle in liver. We previously generated a tamoxifen-inducible Arg1 deficient mouse model (Arg1-Cre) that disrupts Arg1 expression throughout the whole body and leads to lethality ≈ 2 weeks after gene disruption. Here, we evaluate if liver-selective Arg1 loss is sufficient to recapitulate the phenotype observed in global Arg1 knockout mice, as well as to gauge the effectiveness of gene delivery or hepatocyte transplantation to rescue the phenotype...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
K R Vogel, G R Ainslie, E E W Jansen, G S Salomons, K M Gibson
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1-deficient (aldh5a1(-/-)) mice, the murine orthologue of human succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), manifest increased GABA (4-aminobutyric acid) that disrupts autophagy, increases mitochondria number, and induces oxidative stress, all mitigated with the mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin [1]. Because GABA regulates mTOR, we tested the hypothesis that aldh5a1(-/-) mice would show altered levels of mRNA for genes associated with mTOR signaling and oxidative stress that could be mitigated by inhibiting mTOR...
October 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jerrold J Heindel, Bruce Blumberg, Mathew Cave, Ronit Machtinger, Alberto Mantovani, Michelle A Mendez, Angel Nadal, Paola Palanza, Giancarlo Panzica, Robert Sargis, Laura N Vandenberg, Frederick Vom Saal
The recent epidemics of metabolic diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes(T2D), liver lipid disorders and metabolic syndrome have largely been attributed to genetic background and changes in diet, exercise and aging. However, there is now considerable evidence that other environmental factors may contribute to the rapid increase in the incidence of these metabolic diseases. This review will examine changes to the incidence of obesity, T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the contribution of genetics to these disorders and describe the role of the endocrine system in these metabolic disorders...
October 16, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Mark R Cronan, Rebecca W Beerman, Allison F Rosenberg, Joseph W Saelens, Matthew G Johnson, Stefan H Oehlers, Dana M Sisk, Kristen L Jurcic Smith, Neil A Medvitz, Sara E Miller, Le A Trinh, Scott E Fraser, John F Madden, Joanne Turner, Jason E Stout, Sunhee Lee, David M Tobin
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in humans triggers formation of granulomas, which are tightly organized immune cell aggregates that are the central structure of tuberculosis. Infected and uninfected macrophages interdigitate, assuming an altered, flattened appearance. Although pathologists have described these changes for over a century, the molecular and cellular programs underlying this transition are unclear. Here, using the zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum model, we found that mycobacterial granuloma formation is accompanied by macrophage induction of canonical epithelial molecules and structures...
October 18, 2016: Immunity
Gilles Maussion, Cristiana Cruceanu, Jill A Rosenfeld, Scott C Bell, Fabrice Jollant, Jin Szatkiewicz, Ryan L Collins, Carrie Hanscom, Ilaria Kolobova, Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur, Ian Blumenthal, Colby Chiang, Vanessa Ota, Christina Hultman, Colm O'Dushlaine, Steve McCarroll, Martin Alda, Sebastien Jacquemont, Zehra Ordulu, Christian R Marshall, Melissa T Carter, Lisa G Shaffer, Pamela Sklar, Santhosh Girirajan, Cynthia C Morton, James F Gusella, Gustavo Turecki, Dimitri J Stavropoulos, Patrick F Sullivan, Stephen W Scherer, Michael E Talkowski, Carl Ernst
We performed whole-genome sequencing on an individual from a family with variable psychiatric phenotypes that had a sensory processing disorder, apraxia, and autism. The proband harbored a maternally inherited balanced translocation (46,XY,t(11;14)(p12;p12)mat) that disrupted LRRC4C, a member of the highly specialized netrin G family of axon guidance molecules. The proband also inherited a paternally derived chromosomal inversion that disrupted DPP6, a potassium channel interacting protein. Copy Number (CN) analysis in 14,077 cases with neurodevelopmental disorders and 8,960 control subjects revealed that 60% of cases with exonic deletions in LRRC4C had a second clinically recognizable syndrome associated with variable clinical phenotypes, including 16p11...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Ariel Haimovici, Pablo Balenzuela, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Synchronization of brain activity fluctuations is believed to represent communication between spatially distant neural processes. These inter-areal functional interactions develop in the background of a complex network of axonal connections linking cortical and sub-cortical neurons, termed the human "structural connectome". Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence support the view that the human brain can be modeled as a system operating at a critical point between ordered (sub-critical) and disordered (super-critical) phases...
October 19, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Mie Rostved Rasmussen, Kirstine Lykke Nielsen, Mia Roest Laursen, Camilla Bak Nielsen, Pia Svendsen, Henrik Dimke, Erik Ilsø Christensen, Mogens Johannsen, Søren Kragh Moestrup
Loss-of-function mutations in the transmembrane ABCC6 transport protein cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum - an ectopic, metabolic mineralization disorder affecting the skin, eye and vessels. ABCC6 is assumed to mediate efflux of one or several small molecule compounds from the liver cytosol to the circulation. Untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was employed to inspect liver cytosolic extracts from mice with targeted disruption of the Abcc6 gene. Absence of the ABCC6 protein induced an altered profile of metabolites in the liver causing accumulation of compounds as more features were upregulated than downregulated in ABCC6-deficient mice...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Onder Ozturk, Burge Kabukcu Basay, Ahmet Buber, Omer Basay, Huseyin Alacam, Ali Bacanlı, Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Hasan Herken, Eyup Sabri Ercan
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that negatively affects different areas of life. We aimed to evaluate the associations between the Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ADHD and to assess the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on the neurocognitive profile and clinical symptomatology in ADHD. METHODS: Two hundred one ADHD cases and 99 typically developing subjects (TD) between the ages of 8 and 15 years were involved in the study...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
J David Sweatt, Carol A Tamminga
This review concerns epigenetic mechanisms and their roles in conferring interindividual differences, especially as related to experientially acquired and genetically driven changes in central nervous system (CNS) function. In addition, the review contains commentary regarding the possible ways in which epigenomic changes may contribute to neuropsychiatric conditions and disorders and ways in which epigenotyping might be cross-correlated with clinical phenotyping in the context of precision medicine. The review begins with a basic description of epigenetic marking in the CNS and how these changes are powerful regulators of gene readout...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
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