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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#1
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434177/eating-disorders-and-food-addiction-in-men-with-heroin-use-disorder-a-controlled-study
#2
Fatih Canan, Servet Karaca, Suna Sogucak, Omer Gecici, Murat Kuloglu
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the prevalence estimates of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and food addiction in men with heroin use disorder and a matched sample of control participants. METHODS: A group of 100 men with heroin use disorder, consecutively admitted to a detoxification and therapy unit, were screened for DSM-5 eating disorders, along with a group of 100 male controls of similar age, education, and body mass index. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-version 11, and the Eating Attitudes Test were used for data collection...
April 22, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434108/emotional-eating-binge-eating-and-animal-models-of-binge-type-eating-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Robert Turton, Rayane Chami, Janet Treasure
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders...
April 22, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433793/what-does-handedness-reveal-about-adhd-an-analysis-based-on-cpt-performance
#4
Eunice N Simões, Ana Lucia Novais Carvalho, Sergio L Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder. Continuous performance Tests (CPTs) aid the diagnosis. Handedness is linked to disabilities. OBJECTIVES: 1-To study the association between handedness and ADHD; 2-To verify the usefulness of the CPT in school settings; 3-To exam the relationship between handedness and CPT performance. METHOD: Each child was classified as right-consistent, left-consistent, or non-consistent...
April 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432778/cross-species-studies-of-cognition-relevant-to-drug-discovery-a-translational-approach
#5
REVIEW
T W Robbins
This Review advances the case that bidirectional, cross-species translation of findings from experimental animals to and from humans is an important strategy for drug discovery. Animal models of mental disorders require appropriate behavioural or cognitive outcome variables that can be generalized cross-species. One example is the treatment of impulsive behaviour in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant drugs. Performance on the stop signal reaction task as an index of impulsivity is improved both in healthy human volunteers and in patients with adult ADHD by stimulant drugs and also by the selective noradrenergic reuptake blocker atomoxetine...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429801/the-dizzy-patient-don-t-forget-disorders-of-the-central-vestibular-system
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common complaints in neurology clinics, and they account for about 13% of the patients entering emergency units. In this Review, we focus on central vestibular disorders, which are mostly attributable to acute unilateral lesions of the bilateral vestibular circuitry in the brain. In a tertiary interdisciplinary outpatient dizziness unit, central vestibular disorders, including vestibular migraine, comprise about 25% of the established diagnoses. The signs and symptoms of these disorders can mimic those of peripheral vestibular disorders with sustained rotational vertigo...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429134/systematic-review-of-quality-of-life-and-functional-outcomes-in-randomized-placebo-controlled-studies-of-medications-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
REVIEW
David R Coghill, Tobias Banaschewski, César Soutullo, Matthew G Cottingham, Alessandro Zuddas
Children, adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience functional impairment and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in addition to symptoms of inattention/hyperactivity-impulsivity. To synthesize qualitatively the published evidence from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy on functional impairment or HRQoL in patients with ADHD, a systematic PubMed searching and screening strategy was designed to identify journal articles meeting pre-specified criteria...
April 20, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#8
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428748/resting-state-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-findings-in-opioid-use-disorder-during-abstinence-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Dependence to opiates, including illicit heroin and prescription pain killers, and treatment of the opioid use disorder (OUD) have been longstanding problems over the world. Despite intense efforts to scientific investigation and public health care, treatment outcomes have not significantly improved for the past 50 years. One reason behind the continuing use of heroin worldwide despite such efforts is its highly addictive nature. Brain imaging studies over the past two decades have made significant contribution to the understanding of the addictive properties as to be due in part to biological processes, specifically those in the brain structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426364/patterns-of-mood-and-personality-factors-and-associations-with-sti-hiv-related-drug-and-sex-risk-among-african-american-male-inmates
#10
Joy D Scheidell, Carl W Lejuez, Carol E Golin, Adaora A Adimora, David A Wohl, Larry D Keen, Michael Hammond, Selena Judon-Monk, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND: Research on the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with comorbid mental disorders and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk among inmates is scant despite the high prevalence of psychopathology and of STI/HIV in this population. METHODS: We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study conducted among incarcerated African American men (n = 207), to measure associations between ASPD and STI/HIV risk. We also conducted latent class analyses (LCAs) to identify subgroups defined by ASPD with comorbid stress, depression, and borderline personality disorder symptoms and measured associations between latent class membership and STI/HIV risk...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425213/genotype-phenotype-correlations-in-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-behavioral-characteristics-and-changes-with-age
#11
Joanna Moss, Jessica Penhallow, Morad Ansari, Stephanie Barton, David Bourn, David R FitzPatrick, Judith Goodship, Peter Hammond, Catherine Roberts, Alice Welham, Chris Oliver
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem genetic disorder associated with unusual facial features, limb abnormalities, a wide range of health conditions, and intellectual disability. Mutations in five genes that encode (SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21) or regulate (NIPBL, HDAC8) the cohesin complex have been identified in up to 70% of individuals. Genetic cause remains unknown for a proportion of individuals. There is substantial heterogeneity in all aspects of CdLS but very little is known about what predicts phenotypic heterogeneity...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422445/transcriptional-profiling-of-shr-ncrl-prefrontal-cortex-reveals-hyperactivity-associated-genes-responsive-to-amphetamine-challenge
#12
Irene Joy I Dela Peña, Ike Dela Peña, June Bryan de la Peña, Hee Jin Kim, Aeree Sohn, Chan Young Shin, Doug Hyun Han, Bung-Nyun Kim, Jong Hoon Ryu, Jae Hoon Cheong
Several studies suggest a strong genetic component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Determining specific genetic risk variants for each symptom dimension of ADHD may aid in the identification of the biological risk factors of the disorder. In this study, we explored the potential genetic underpinnings of the hyperactive phenotype of ADHD. To this end, we examined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of SHR/NCrl, an animal model of ADHD, compared with its genetic control, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) rat and the Wistar rat, strain used to represent the "normal" heterogeneous population...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417291/reward-prediction-errors-in-drug-addiction-and-parkinson-s-disease-from-neurophysiology-to-neuroimaging
#13
REVIEW
Isabel García-García, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surprises are important sources of learning. Cognitive scientists often refer to surprises as "reward prediction errors," a parameter that captures discrepancies between expectations and actual outcomes. Here, we integrate neurophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results addressing the processing of reward prediction errors and how they might be altered in drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: By increasing phasic dopamine responses, drugs might accentuate prediction error signals, causing increases in fMRI activity in mesolimbic areas in response to drugs...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417164/individual-differences-in-voluntary-alcohol-intake-in-rats-relationship-with-impulsivity-decision-making-and-pavlovian-conditioned-approach
#14
Marcia Spoelder, Jacques P Flores Dourojeanni, Kathy C G de Git, Annemarie M Baars, Heidi M B Lesscher, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
RATIONALE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been associated with suboptimal decision making, exaggerated impulsivity, and aberrant responses to reward-paired cues, but the relationship between AUD and these behaviors is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess decision making, impulsivity, and Pavlovian-conditioned approach in rats that voluntarily consume low (LD) or high (HD) amounts of alcohol. METHODS: LD and HD were tested in the rat gambling task (rGT) or the delayed reward task (DRT)...
April 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416812/a-new-locus-regulating-micall2-expression-was-identified-for-association-with-executive-inhibition-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
L Yang, S Chang, Q Lu, Y Zhang, Z Wu, X Sun, Q Cao, Y Qian, T Jia, B Xu, Q Duan, Y Li, K Zhang, G Schumann, D Liu, J Wang, Y Wang, L Lu
Impaired executive inhibition is a core deficit of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is a common childhood-onset psychiatric disorder with high heritability. In this study, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study of executive inhibition in ADHD in Han Chinese. We used the Stroop color-word interference test to evaluate executive inhibition. After quality control, 780 samples with phenotype and covariate data were included in the discovery stage, whereas 922 samples were included in the replication stage...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413777/sex-differences-in-the-interacting-roles-of-impulsivity-and-positive-alcohol-expectancy-in-problem-drinking-a-structural-brain-imaging-study
#16
Jaime S Ide, Simon Zhornitsky, Sien Hu, Sheng Zhang, John H Krystal, Chiang-Shan R Li
Alcohol expectancy and impulsivity are implicated in alcohol misuse. However, how these two risk factors interact to determine problem drinking and whether men and women differ in these risk processes remain unclear. In 158 social drinkers (86 women) assessed for Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), positive alcohol expectancy, and Barratt impulsivity, we examined sex differences in these risk processes. Further, with structural brain imaging, we examined the neural bases underlying the relationship between these risk factors and problem drinking...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411579/self-injury-and-aggression-in-adults-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-frequency-associated-person-characteristics-and-implications-for-assessment
#17
Lucy Wilde, Kate Eden, Petrus de Vries, Jo Moss, Alice Welham, Chris Oliver
Even though self-injury and aggression are common in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), understanding of these behaviours in adults with TSC and intellectual disability (ID) is limited. Little is known about their frequency in comparison to other ID-related genetic disorders or their association with other TSC-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND). This study determined the caregiver-reported frequency of self-injury and aggression in adults with TSC plus ID in comparison to Down syndrome (DS) and Angelman syndrome (AS), and assessed demographic and behavioural characteristics associated with the occurrence of each behaviour in TSC...
April 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411561/selective-attention-moderates-the-relationship-between-attentional-capture-by-signals-of-nondrug-reward-and-illicit-drug-use
#18
Lucy Albertella, Jan Copeland, Daniel Pearson, Poppy Watson, Reinout W Wiers, Mike E Le Pelley
BACKGROUND: The current study examined whether cognitive control moderates the association between (non-drug) reward-modulated attentional capture and use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD). METHODS: Participants were 66 university students who completed an assessment including questions about AOD use, a visual search task to measure value-modulated attentional capture, and a goal-directed selective attention task as a measure of cognitive control. RESULTS: The association between the effect of value-modulated attentional capture and illicit drug use was moderated by level of cognitive control...
March 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410131/substance-use-disorder-a-bio-directional-subset-of-reward-deficiency-syndrome
#19
Kenneth Blum, Mark Gold, Zsolt Demetrovics, Trevor Archer, Panayotis K Thanos, David Baron, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This commentary is to inform clinicians challenged with an increase in people seeking treatment for Substance Use Disorder (SUD), that the ninety percent revolving door, is, in part, due to post-withdrawal, untreated neurotoxicity. This impairment attenuates neurotransmitter signaling and compromises resting state functional connectivity, leading to unwanted sequelae including depression, sleep disturbances, sensation seeking, lack of satisfaction and impulsivity. Neuroimaging studies indicate that neurobiological recovery can take years...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409714/psychotic-depression-and-suicidal-behavior
#20
Kristin J Fredriksen, Helle K Schoeyen, Jan O Johannessen, Fredrik A Walby, Larry Davidson, Margrethe A Schaufel
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how severely depressed individuals experienced the relationship between psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behavior. METHOD: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of nine inpatients from a psychiatric university hospital between September 2012 and May 2013 fulfilling diagnostic criteria for a psychotic depressive episode as part of a unipolar or bipolar disorder. Analysis was conducted using systematic text condensation...
2017: Psychiatry
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