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Volkmar Höfling, Florian Weck
Studies of the comorbidity of hypochondriasis have indicated high rates of cooccurrence with other anxiety disorders. In this study, the contrast among hypochondriasis, panic disorder, and social phobia was investigated using specific processes drawing on cognitive-perceptual models of hypochondriasis. Affective, behavioral, cognitive, and perceptual processes specific to hypochondriasis were assessed with 130 diagnosed participants based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria (66 with hypochondriasis, 32 with panic disorder, and 32 with social phobia)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Florian Weck, Laura Carlotta Nagel, Samantha Richtberg, Julia M B Neng
Previous studies found high prevalence rates of personality disorders (PDs) in patients with hypochondriasis; however, assessment was often based only on questionnaires. In the current study, a sample of 68 patients with hypochondriasis was compared to 31 patients with panic disorder and to 94 healthy controls. Participants were investigated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders questionnaire (SCID-II questionnaire) and the SCID-II interview. Based on the cut-off scores of the SCID-II questionnaire, we found a prevalence rate of 45...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Mariachiara Longarzo, M Quarantelli, M Aiello, M Romano, A Del Prete, C Cimminiello, S Cocozza, G Olivo, C Loguercio, L Trojano, D Grossi
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by visceral hypersensitivity likely related to altered processing of sensory stimuli along the brain-gut axis. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated structural and functional alteration of several brain areas involved in bodily representation, e.g. the insula, in patients with IBS. By means of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) we searched for alteration of functional connectivity within the network involved in self-bodily consciousness...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Emily R Doherty-Torstrick, Kate E Walton, Arthur J Barsky, Brian A Fallon
UNLABELLED: The DSM-5 diagnosis of illness anxiety disorder adds avoidance as a component of a behavioral response to illness fears - one that was not present in prior DSM criteria of hypochondriasis. However, maladaptive avoidance as a necessary or useful criterion has yet to be empirically supported. METHODS: 195 individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for hypochondriasis based on structured interview completed a variety of self-report and clinician-administered assessments...
October 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Laura D Scherer, Tanner J Caverly, James Burke, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, Jeffrey T Kullgren, Douglas Steinley, Denis M McCarthy, Meghan Roney, Angela Fagerlin
OBJECTIVE: Medical over- and underutilization are central problems that stand in the way of delivering optimal health care. As a result, one important question is how people decide to take action, versus not, when it comes to their health. The present article proposes and validates a new measure that captures the extent to which individuals are "medical maximizers" who are predisposed to seek health care even for minor problems, versus "medical minimizers" who prefer to avoid medical intervention unless it is necessary...
November 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Kyung-Ah Judy Chang, Kiwon Kim, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Jin Pyo Hong, Daniel J H Kim, Jung-Yoon Heo, Hong Choi, Hong Jin Jeon
Hypochondriasis is defined as the tendency to worry excessively about having a serious illness. This study aimed to investigate cross-national differences in hypochondriasis symptoms between Korean and American patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study examined 1592 Korean and 3744 American MDD outpatients of age ≥18 years using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q-SF). Korean MDD patients exhibited significantly higher scores for hypochondriasis than Americans after controlling for total HAM-D scores and demographic variables (p<0...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Samantha Richtberg, Marion Jakob, Volkmar Höfling, Florian Weck
OBJECTIVE: Psychotherapy for hypochondriasis has greatly improved over the last decades and cognitive-behavioral treatments are most promising. However, research on predictors of treatment outcome for hypochondriasis is rare. Possible predictors of treatment outcome in cognitive therapy (CT) and exposure therapy (ET) for hypochondriasis were investigated. METHOD: Characteristics and behaviors of 75 patients were considered as possible predictors: sociodemographic variables (sex, age, and cohabitation); psychopathology (pretreatment hypochondriacal symptoms, comorbid mental disorders, and levels of depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms); and patient in-session interpersonal behavior...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Erik Hedman, Erland Axelsson, Erik Andersson, Mats Lekander, Brjánn Ljótsson
BACKGROUND: In DSM-5 two new diagnoses, somatic symptom disorder (SSD) and illness anxiety disorder (IAD), have replaced DSM-IV hypochondriasis. There are no previous treatment studies for these disorders. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered as therapist-guided or unguided internet treatment or as unguided bibliotherapy could be used to increase treatment accessibility. AIMS: To investigate the effect of CBT delivered as guided internet treatment (ICBT), unguided internet treatment (U-ICBT) and as unguided bibliotherapy...
November 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
A U Nwaopara, Erefagha Leonardo P Allagoa
Introduction. DSM-5 identifies two disorders: somatic symptom disorder and illness anxiety disorder, to replace hypochondriasis in DSM-IV. Patients with both disorders are intensely anxious about the possibility of an undiagnosed illness or devote excessive time and energy to health concerns and are not easily reassured. Both disorders cause considerable distress and life disruption, even at moderate levels. However, hypochondriasis (DSM-IV) is an indication for neither orchidopexy nor orchidectomy. This is the rationale for this report which is the first of its kind to the best of available literature...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
A M M De Vries, M M Gholamrezaee, I M Verdonck-de Leeuw, J Passchier, J N Despland, F Stiefel, Y de Roten
OBJECTIVE: To investigate which characteristics of the physician and of the consultation are related to patient satisfaction with communication and working alliance. METHODS: Real-life consultations (n = 134) between patients (n = 134) and their physicians (n = 24) were audio taped. All of the patients were aware of their cancer diagnosis and consulted their physician to discuss the results of tests (CT scans, MRIs or tumour markers) and the progression of their cancer...
July 31, 2016: Psycho-oncology
Rahil Sanatinia, Duolao Wang, Peter Tyrer, Helen Tyrer, Mike Crawford, Sylvia Cooper, Gemma Loebenberg, Barbara Barrett
BACKGROUND: Health anxiety, hypochondriasis and personality disturbance commonly coexist. The impact of personality status was assessed in a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial (RCT). AIMS: To test the impact of personality status using ICD-11 criteria on the clinical and cost outcomes of treatment with cognitive-behavioural therapy for health anxiety (CBT-HA) and standard care over 2 years. METHOD: Personality dysfunction was assessed at baseline in 444 patients before randomisation and independent assessment of costs and outcomes made on four occasions over 2 years...
September 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Kathrin Schütte, Silja Vocks, Manuel Waldorf
Research into correlates of illness anxiety disorder (formerly hypochondriasis) rarely applies comprehensive assessments of health behavior. Moreover, studies on phenomenological varieties of clinical health anxiety are scarce. We examined health behavior, fear, and acceptance of death and dying, and coping with a hypothetical bodily disease in patients with hypochondriasis, panic disorder, depression, and healthy controls (all groups n = 30) using self-rated questionnaires. ANOVA with Dunnett-T3 post hoc tests revealed no group differences in health behavior...
October 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Anatoly B Smulevich, Andrey N Lvov, Dmitry V Romanov
The article is devoted to a psychodermatological disorder with self-destructive behavior - hypochondriasis circumscripta. Presented data are based on a clinical analysis of 22 consecutive cases (15 female; mean age - 56.1 ± 12.6 years) observed in the dermatologic department of First Moscow State Medical University and managed in a multidisciplinary approach by dermatologists and a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. Psychopathology, clinical presentations, historical aspects and treatment options are discussed...
August 23, 2016: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Cristina A Fernandez, Benjamin Vicente, Brandon D L Marshall, Karestan C Koenen, Kristopher L Arheart, Robert Kohn, Sandra Saldivia, Stephen L Buka
BACKGROUND: With an increasing number of individuals surviving natural disasters, it is crucial to understand who is most at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the role that pre-existing psychopathology plays in developing PTSD after a disaster. METHODS: This study uses data from a prospective 5-wave longitudinal cohort (years 2003-11) of Chilean adults from 10 health centres (N = 1708)...
June 9, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
N V Yal'tseva, N I Korshunov, M I Savel'eva, D A Politova, N V Khaerova, E A Leont'eva
AIM: To study attitude towards the disease in rheumatic patients during antidepressant therapy and during further follow-up. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Examinations were made in 122 patients with degenerative joint and vertebral column disease (DJVCD) and in 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and concomitant affective disorders during antidepressant therapy for 3 months. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found between all components of the type of attitude towards disease (TATD) in patients with DJVCD or RA before the use of antidepressants...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Krzysztof Rutkowski, Edyta Dembińska, Jolanta Walczewska
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis that traumatic experiences in early childhood impact personality formation and psychopathology is well known in psychology and psychiatry, but this is difficult to verify statistically in methodological terms. The aim of this study, conducted with politically persecuted Poles, was to establish the influence of the time when trauma is experienced on the development of psychopathological symptoms. METHODS: The subjects were divided into two groups: those who had experienced trauma before age five (group 1) and those who experienced trauma at an older age (group 2)...
May 17, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Kelly J Rohan, Jennifer N Rough, Maggie Evans, Sheau-Yan Ho, Jonah Meyerhoff, Lorinda M Roberts, Pamela M Vacek
BACKGROUND: We present a fully articulated protocol for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), including item scoring rules, rater training procedures, and a data management algorithm to increase accuracy of scores prior to outcome analyses. The latter involves identifying potentially inaccurate scores as interviews with discrepancies between two independent raters on the basis of either scores >=5-point difference) or meeting threshold for depression recurrence status, a long-term treatment outcome with public health significance...
August 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Julia Schwind, Julia M B Neng, Florian Weck
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioural therapy can change dysfunctional symptom attributions in patients with hypochondriasis. Past research has used forced-choice answer formats, such as questionnaires, to assess these misattributions; however, with this approach, idiosyncratic attributions cannot be assessed. Free associations are an important complement to existing approaches that assess symptom attributions. AIMS: With this study, we contribute to the current literature by using an open-response instrument to investigate changes in freely associated attributions after exposure therapy (ET) and cognitive therapy (CT) compared with a wait list (WL)...
September 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Erik Hedman, Erik Andersson, Brjánn Ljótsson, Erland Axelsson, Mats Lekander
OBJECTIVES: Internet-delivered exposure-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety. The health economic effects of the treatment have, however, been insufficiently studied and no prior study has investigated the effect of ICBT compared with an active psychological treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cost effectiveness of ICBT compared with internet-delivered behavioural stress management (IBSM) for adults with severe health anxiety defined as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) hypochondriasis...
April 25, 2016: BMJ Open
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