Read by QxMD icon Read


Ian Brockington
In addition to bipolar cycloid episodes, infective delirium and eclamptic psychosis, each of which has characteristic clinical features and course, brief episodes of delirium and stupor are also seen in the immediate aftermath of parturition. Several mothers have had similar episodes developing later in the first 10 days, and some have cyclical disorders with an unusual time base. Bipolar/cycloid disorders can start on day 1 or even earlier.
October 16, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Charles L Francoeur, Stephan A Mayer
For patients who survive the initial bleeding event of a ruptured brain aneurysm, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is one of the most important causes of mortality and poor neurological outcome. New insights in the last decade have led to an important paradigm shift in the understanding of DCI pathogenesis. Large-vessel cerebral vasospasm has been challenged as the sole causal mechanism; new hypotheses now focus on the early brain injury, microcirculatory dysfunction, impaired autoregulation, and spreading depolarization...
October 14, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
L Ludwig, L McWhirter, S Williams, C Derry, J Stone
Functional coma - here defined as a prolonged motionless dissociative attack with absent or reduced response to external stimuli - is a relatively rare presentation. In this chapter we examine a wide range of terms used to describe states of unresponsiveness in which psychologic factors are relevant to etiology, such as depressive stupor, catatonia, nonepileptic "pseudostatus," and factitious disorders, and discuss the place of functional or psychogenic coma among these. Historically, diagnosis of functional coma has sometimes been reached after prolonged investigation and exclusion of other diagnoses...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang, Xin Ma, Xunming Ji
BACKGROUND: Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists have been shown to have a neuroprotectant effect in reducing infarct size and improving functional outcome in animal models of cerebrovascular disease. However, the sedative effects of GABA receptor agonists have limited their wider application in people with acute stroke, due to the potential risk of stupor. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2013, and previously updated in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of GABA receptor agonists in the treatment of acute stroke...
October 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sherri A Braksick, Jennifer M Martinez-Thompson, Eelco F M Wijdicks
Neurological complications of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) include altered states of consciousness, seizures, ischaemic stroke and encephalopathy. Adult-onset HUS is uncommon, and there is only a limited literature reporting neurological complications in this population. We report an adult with Shiga toxin-associated HUS complicated by focal-onset non-convulsive status epilepticus, who made a full neurological recovery.
September 26, 2016: Practical Neurology
Jessica L Gough, Jan Coebergh, Brunda Chandra, Ramin Nilforooshan
Autoimmune encephalitis is a poorly understood condition that can present with a combination of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, either of which may predominate. There are many autoantibodies associated with a variety of clinical syndromes - anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is the commonest. Currently, the most widely used therapy is prompt plasmapheresis and steroid treatment (and tumour resection if indicated), followed by second line immunosuppression if this fails. Given the growing awareness of autoimmune encephalitis as an entity, it is increasingly important that we consider it as a potential diagnosis in order to provide timely, effective treatment...
August 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
James L Stone, Julian E Bailes, Ahmed N Hassan, Brian Sindelar, Vimal Patel, John Fino
Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring...
August 2, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Sam McGowan-Smyth, Nikhil Vasdev, Shan Gowrie-Mohan
OBJECTIVES: To investigate what clinical features typically present in transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome and to see which classically present first. The purpose of the study was to establish whether or not a particular method of anesthesia is preferred in detecting this syndrome in its early stages. METHODS: A total of 1,502 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) over a 15 year period were reviewed to see which, if any, went on to experience this complication...
May 2016: Current Urology
Rozalia Takacs, Flora Milan, Gabor S Ungvari, Gabor Faludi, Gabor Gazdag
Catatonic syndromes could accompany a variety of psychiatric and medical conditions. The most common conditions underlying catatonia are affective disorders followed by schizophrenia, but several medical conditions including intoxications affecting the central nervous system can also present with catatonic signs and symptoms. Therapeutic doses of disulfiram could induce catatonia with or without accompanying psychosis or mood disorder. A case of disulfiram intoxication manifesting with catatonia is reported here together with a brief overview of the literature...
June 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Yen-Wei Pai, Peiyuan F Hsieh, Hsin Tung, Chun-Ying Wu, Congo T S Ching, Ming-Hong Chang
OBJECTIVES: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) plays an essential role in the management of unresectable hepatocellular cell carcinoma and other hepatic neoplasms. Cerebral lipiodol embolism (CLE) is a rare complication of TACE and its prognostic factors have not been well studied. The aim of this paper was to elucidate the prognostic factors of CLE based on clinical data obtained from our patients and cases published since 2004. METHODS: We present two patients with CLE, analyze the clinical data, and review all CLE cases published since 2004...
October 2016: Neurological Research
Jun Ho Kang, Kyung Hye Park, Jung Soo Park
Autologous fat injection is a common procedure used for skin augmentation. Although it is believed to be a safe and simple procedure, severe complications have been reported sometimes. The authors experienced the patient with acute large cerebral infarction including the territories of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries and optic nerve infarction developing after autologous fat transplantation. A 32-year-old woman was referred to the emergency room of our hospital due to sudden stupor. Thirty minutes earlier, she was undergoing cosmetic autologous fat injection into the glabella area by a plastic surgeon at private clinic...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Erika Ogawa, Mika Ishige, Yuno Takahashi, Hiroko Kodama, Tatsuo Fuchigami, Shori Takahashi
A 7-month-old girl was brought to hospital due to vomiting. Upon admission, she was in a convulsive state and stupor with extremely low blood glucose. Head computed tomography showed brain edema, and comprehensive treatment for acute encephalopathy was initiated immediately. Severe hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, elevation of ammonia and serum transaminases and creatine kinase suggested metabolic decompensation. Infusion of a high-glucose solution containing vitamins, biotin, and l-carnitine resolved the metabolic crisis quickly, but brain damage was irreversible...
August 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Shunsaku Goto, Tomotaka Ohshima, Taiki Yamamoto, Shinji Shimato, Toshihisa Nishizawa, Kyozo Kato
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a syndrome characterized by low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and postural headaches. It is a rare condition which may sometimes present with severe symptoms such as stupor or coma. The standard treatment protocol includes conservative measures such as bed rest, hydration, and steroids. However, severe cases may require invasive measures such as epidural blood patch (EBP), continuous epidural saline infusion, epidural fibrin glue, or surgical repair of the dural defect...
May 2016: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
Kibriya Fidan, Yasar Kandur, Murat Ucar, Kivilcim Gucuyener, Oguz Soylemezoglu
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological syndrome, composed of symptoms such as headache, seizures, visual disturbances, lethargy, confusion, stupor, focal neurologic findings and radiological findings of bilateral gray and white matter abnormalities suggestive of edema in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemispheres. PRES is associated with significant morbidity and mortality if it is not expeditiously recognized. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) represents the most sensitive imaging technique for recognizing PRES...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Hyun-Soo Moon, Soo Kyung Lee, Su Ryun Kim, Seon Ju Kim
Pseudohypoxic brain swelling (PHBS) is known to be an uncommon event that may occur during and following an uneventful brain surgery, when negative suction drainage is used. The cerebrospinal fluid loss related to suction drainage can evoke intracranial hypotension that progress to PHBS. The main presentations of PHBS are sudden unexpected circulatory collapses, such as severe bradycardia, hypotension, cardiac arrest, consciousness deterioration and diffuse brain swelling as seen with brain computerized tomography (CT)...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Victor Tetz, George Tetz
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia and is characterized by a progressive loss of brain tissue leading to amyloid-β accumulation and severe decline in cognitive function. The cause of Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood, and available treatments are limited in their efficacy, particularly for patients with more severe symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 77-year-old Caucasian man with severe dementia and behavioral disturbance secondary to Alzheimer's disease treated with memantine who began adjunct treatment with deoxyribonuclease I...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Sang-Youl Yoon, Seong-Hyun Park, Jeong-Hyun Hwang, Sung-Kyoo Hwang
We report a case of multiple symptomatic cerebral infarctions from a traumatic vertebral artery dissection (VAD) after cervical fractures. A 73-year-old man was admitted with stuporous mentality and left hemiparesis after a motor-vehicle accident. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan at admission showed a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the left parietal lobe. A cervical CT scan showed left lateral mass fractures on C2, C5, and C6, involving the transverse foramen. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed loss of signal void on the left vertebral artery...
April 2016: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
Magdalena Restel, Ałła Graban, Grzegorz Witkowski, Danuta Ryglewicz, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz
INTRODUCTION: Bilateral thalamic strokes are rare manifestations of posterior circulation infarcts. Usually the etiology is cardioembolic or small vessel disease combined with individual anatomical predisposition. The symptoms include a variety of neurological deficits depending on thalamic structure involvement, such as paresthesias or numbness, hemiparesis with increased reflexes and Babinski sign, third cranial nerve palsy, speech and cognition disturbance, memory impairment and stupor...
2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Kenneth M Unger
CONTEXT: When ventilatory support is withdrawn in an intensive care unit (ICU), the place of death for most patients is the hospital. However, the majority of terminally ill patients prefer to die at home. Few articles have addressed taking adult mechanically ventilated patients home from the ICU for withdrawal of ventilatory support (WVS). OBJECTIVES: To determine the outcomes of a protocol-driven program of WVS in the home under hospice care. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 14 consecutive patients who had WVS at home...
August 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Luis J Muñoz, Melissa M Carballosa-Gautam, Kira Yanowsky, Natividad García-Atarés, Dolores E López
The hamster has been previously described as a paroxysmal dystonia model, but our strain is currently recognized as a model of audiogenic seizures (AGS). The original first epileptic hamster appeared spontaneously at the University of Valladolid, where it was known as the GPG:Vall line, and was transferred to the University of Salamanca where a new strain was developed, named GASH:Sal. By testing auditory brainstem responses, the GASH:Sal exhibits elevated auditory thresholds that indicate a hearing impairment...
April 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"